Doña Juana

Last updated
Doña Juana
Volcán Doña Juana
CV Dona Juana.jpg
Panoramic view of the Doña Juana volcanic field
Highest point
Elevation 4,150+ metres (13,615 feet)
Listing Ultra
Coordinates 1°30′00″N76°56′10″W / 1.50000°N 76.93611°W / 1.50000; -76.93611 Coordinates: 1°30′00″N76°56′10″W / 1.50000°N 76.93611°W / 1.50000; -76.93611
Geography
Colombia relief location map.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Doña Juana
Location of Doña Juana in Colombia
Location Nariño
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
Parent range Central Ranges
  Andes
Geology
Mountain type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc/belt Andean Volcanic Belt
Last eruption 1897 to November 1, 1906

Doña Juana (Spanish : Volcán Doña Juana [1] ) is a stratovolcano, [2] located within the Doña Juana-Cascabel Volcanic Complex National Natural Park (Spanish : Parque Nacional Natural Complejo Volcánico Doña Juana-Cascabel) in Nariño, Colombia.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Stratovolcano Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta

A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).

Doña Juana-Cascabel Volcanic Complex Colombia national park

Doña Juana-Cascabel Volcanic Complex National Natural Park is a Colombian National Natural Park. The park is located in the Southern Departments of Nariño and Cauca; The park is named after three volcanoes which are Doña Juana, Petacas and Animas. These are in the municipalities of El Tablón, San Bernardo, La Cruz, San Pablo in Nariño Department, and Bolívar, Santa Rosa in the Cauca Department.

Contents

With a previous eruption of VEI 4, Doña Juana is rated as a "large" volcano of "cataclysmic" destructive power. [3] During its last eruption, in 1906, [2] more than 100 people were killed and many houses were destroyed.

Its largest known historical eruption was on November 13, 1899. In its prehistory, it is known to have erupted in the 23rd century BC in a caldera-forming eruption of unknown magnitude. [3]

Etymology

The name of the volcano originated from a legend of the Chincha Indians, within whose native lands it is located: Mama Juana, a beautiful Quiteña, fell in love with Pedro, a commoner, but with the parents opposed to the marriage, they fled, becoming the victims of a curse that turned them into volcanoes. [4]

Biodiversity

The volcano can be ascended from a slope that is part of the so-called Valley of Orchids. It is surrounded by an area of extraordinary biodiversity, which includes 471 species of birds (the Andean condor included), bears, deer and pumas. [4]

Biodiversity Variety and variability of life forms

Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is typically a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the equator, which is the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, and is richest in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth's surface, and contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is usually highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future.

Andean condor A large South American bird in the New World vulture family

The Andean condor is a South American bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae and is the only member of the genus Vultur. Found in the Andes mountains and adjacent Pacific coasts of western South America, the Andean condor is the largest flying bird in the world by combined measurement of weight and wingspan. It has a maximum wingspan of 3.3 m exceeded only by the wingspans of four seabirds and water birds—the roughly 3.5 m maximum of the wandering albatross, southern royal albatross, great white pelican and Dalmatian pelican.

Bear Family of mammals

Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae. They are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans. Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found on the continents of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. Common characteristics of modern bears include large bodies with stocky legs, long snouts, small rounded ears, shaggy hair, plantigrade paws with five nonretractile claws, and short tails.

The summit of Dona Juana consists of a number of peaks, which afford a number of views, including of Laguna del Silencio, one of 42 lakes in the national park. [4] The Petacas is located to the northeast of Doña Juana. Both volcanoes are located between the El Tablón Fault in the west and the San Jerónimo Fault in the east. [5]

Petacas lava dome in Colombia

Petacas is a lava dome in the departments of Cauca and Nariño, Colombia.

See also

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Santa Isabel (volcano) volcano master

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Romeral Fault System

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Palestina Fault

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References

  1. "Volcán Doña Juana: Colombia". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
  2. 1 2 "Doña Juana". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution.
  3. 1 2 "Large Volcano Explocivity Index". Countries of the World. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
  4. 1 2 3 "De visita por el complejo volcánico de Doña Juana y Cascabel". El Tiempo . Retrieved 2011-01-13.
  5. Plancha 411, 2002

Bibliography