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Doğukapı station is a freight station near the Turkey/Armenia border, on the former Kars–Gyumri railway line. The station name, "Doğukapı" means "the Eastern Gate" in Turkish, referring to the station's being the Turkey's entry point from the USSR.
The station building is abandoned and the tracks are rarely used. Since the closing of the border in 1993, no trains have operated east of the station.
This article considers transport in Armenia. For Soviet transportation, see Transport in the Soviet Union.
Hatay Province is Turkey's southernmost province. Almost all of it is located outside Anatolia, on the eastern coast of the Levantine Sea. The administrative capital is Antakya (Antioch), and the port city of İskenderun (Alexandretta). It is bordered by Syria to the south and east and the Turkish provinces of Adana and Osmaniye to the north. The province is part of Çukurova (Cilicia), a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye, and Hatay. There are border crossing points with Syria in the district of Yayladağı and at Cilvegözü in the district of Reyhanlı.
The Aras or Araxes or Araks is a river that starts in Turkey and then flows along the borders between Turkey and Armenia, between Turkey and the Nakhchivan area of Azerbaijan, between Iran and both Azerbaijan and Armenia, and finally through Azerbaijan to the river Kura. It drains the south side of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains and then joins the Kura, which drains the north side of Lesser Caucasus Mountains. Its total length is 1,072 kilometres (666 mi), and its watershed covers an area of 102,000 square kilometres (39,000 sq mi). The Aras is one of the largest rivers in the Caucasus.
Akhalkalaki is a town in Georgia's southern region of Samtskhe–Javakheti and the administrative centre of the Akhalkalaki Municipality. Akhalkalaki lies on the edge of the Javakheti Plateau. The city is located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the border with Turkey. The town's recorded history goes back to the 11th century. As of the 2014 Georgian census the town had a population of 8,295, with an overwhelming Armenian majority.
Kars is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province. Its population is 73,836 as of 2011.
Kilis Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the border with Syria. It used to be the southern part of the province of Gaziantep and was formed in 1994. The town of Kilis is home to around 67% of the inhabitants of the province; the other towns and villages are very small.
The Battle of Sardarabad was a battle of the Caucasus campaign of World War I that took place near Sardarabad, Armenia from 21 to 29 May 1918, between the regular Armenian military units and militia on one side and the Ottoman army that had invaded Eastern Armenia on the other. As Sardarabad is approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) west of the capital of Yerevan, the battle not only halted the Ottoman advance into the rest of Armenia, but also prevented the complete destruction of the Armenian nation. In the words of Christopher J. Walker, had the Armenians lost this battle, "[I]t is perfectly possible that the word Armenia would have henceforth denoted only an antique geographical term."
The Treaty of Kars was a treaty that established the borders between Turkey and the three Transcaucasian republics of the Soviet Union, which are now the independent republics of Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan. The treaty was signed in the city of Kars on 13 October 1921.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Railways is the national state-owned railway system of Iran. The Raja Passenger Train Company is an associate of the IR, and manages its passenger trains. The Railway Transportation Company is an associate of the IR, which manages its freight transport. The Ministry of Roads & Urban Development is the state agency that oversees the IRIR. Some 33 million tonnes of goods and 29 million passengers are transported annually by the rail transportation network, accounting for 9 percent and 11 percent of all transportation in Iran, respectively (2011).
The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is an ethnic and territorial conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh, inhabited mostly by ethnic Armenians, and seven surrounding districts, inhabited mostly by Azerbaijanis until their expulsion during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War, which are de facto controlled by the self-declared Republic of Artsakh, but are internationally recognized as de jure part of Azerbaijan. The conflict has its origins in the early 20th century, though the present conflict began in 1988, when the Karabakh Armenians demanded that Karabakh be transferred from Soviet Azerbaijan to Soviet Armenia. The conflict escalated into a full-scale war in the early 1990s.
The Treaty of Alexandropol was a peace treaty between the First Republic of Armenia and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey ending the Turkish-Armenian War that had begun on 12 September 1920 with an invasion of Armenia by Turkish forces led by Kazim Karabekir.
Armenia–Turkey relations are officially non-existent and have historically been hostile. Whilst Turkey recognised Armenia shortly after the latter proclaimed independence in September 1991, the two countries have failed to establish diplomatic relations. In 1993, Turkey reacted to the war in Nagorno-Karabakh by closing its border with Armenia out of support for Azerbaijan.
The Kars–Gyumri–Tbilisi railway line is a railway line that runs from the city of Kars in Turkey to the Armenian city of Gyumri, and from there on to Tbilisi, Georgia.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Kars (BTK), or Baku–Tbilisi–Akhalkalaki–Kars railway (BTAK), is a regional rail link project connecting Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey, which became operational on 30 October 2017 following several years of delays. The project was originally due to be completed by 2010, but was delayed to 2013, 2015, 2016, and, following a fifth trilateral meeting in February 2016, foreign ministers of the three countries announced that the railway would finally be completed in 2017.
Armenian Railways was a rail operator in Armenia.
Kars station is a railway station, serving the eastern Turkish city of Kars. It is one of the easternmost stations on the Trans-Anatolian railway. The Eastern Express services Kars once a day to İstanbul. Between 1993 and 2011, there was no train service east of Kars due to the Turkish-Armenian border closure. But as of February 2011, a regional train operates twice daily from Kars to Akyaka, the last Turkish town before the border, stopping at the Akyaka railway station.
The Trans-Anatolian Railway is the unofficial name for a series of railway lines crossing Anatolia in Turkey. The line starts at Haydarpaşa Terminal in İstanbul and ends at Doğukapı before the Turkish/Armenian border. The Trans-Anatolian Railway consists of these three lines:
The 2014 Latakia offensive was a rebel offensive in the Latakia Governorate of Syria launched on 21 March 2014 by rebel Islamist groups including Al-Nusra Front, which called the offensive "Anfal", while a coalition of Supreme Military Council rebel groups called the offensive "The Martyrs Mothers". The objectives of the offensive have been stated to be the taking over of all strategic observatories, government villages and the Mediterranean coast. Observers have stated a strategic aim was to force the Syrian army to redeploy forces to Latakia, which would relieve pressure on other rebels elsewhere in Syria. They reportedly succeeded in this with government forces being sent from Idlib, Hama and Aleppo to bolster defenses.
The Armenia–Azerbaijan border is the international border between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Estimates of the border's length vary from 996 km (619 mi) to 1,007.1 km (625.8 mi). European routes E002 and E117 cross the border.
South Caucasus Railway is a rail operator in Armenia, owned by Russian Railways.