Dobrzyń nad Wisłą
Franciscan monastery church in Dobrzyń nad Wisłą
|Gmina||Dobrzyń nad Wisłą|
|• Total||5.41 km2 (2.09 sq mi)|
|• Density||420/km2 (1,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Dobrzyń nad Wisłą [ˈdɔbʐɨɲ ˌnad ˈvʲiswɔ̃] (German : Dobrin an der Weichsel) is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. It lies on the Vistula River in the vicinity of Włocławek. As of 2004 [update] the town had a population of 2,400.
The settlement of Dobrzyń dates back to the Middle Ages. A stronghold existed at the site since 9th century, and later also a castle was erected.It became part of the emerging Polish state in the 10th century. The oldest known mention of Dobrzyń (as Dobrin) comes from 1065.
In the 11th century there was a castellan stronghold here. From 1228, Konrad Mazowiecki allowed the military knights called the Dobrzyń brothers. The crusading Order of Dobrzyń was granted Dobrzyń as a base in 1228, although the knights were later incorporated into the Teutonic Order.
The 13th and 14th century was tumultuous time for the city. Despite the town being accorded city rights by the beginning of the 13th century, and being the capital of a principality until the beginning of the 14th century, it bore the brunt of the conflicts between the state of Poland and the Teutonic Knights to the north. A castle was constructed by the Order of Dobrzyń. In 1235, the castle returned to the Mazovian dukes. In 1329, it was taken by the Teutonic Knights, who returned it to Kazimier the Great after signing the Kalisz peace in 1343. However, the Castle was destroyed in 1409. It was also sacked by Daniel of Galicia, who was King of Galicia in 1240.
A city was founded here before 1230 probably based on the Lubeck law. In 1230 document records that Wojciech was village leader from an unspecified town, identified in the literature with Dobrzyń.
In 1239, the village administrator of Dobrzyń called Konrad is recorded.
A village governor of Dobrzyn called Gocwin, is recorded with the erroneous date of 1296 (the correct year is 1306).
Some time before 1319, the governance of the village changed from an appointed administrator to a town council. In 1322, the head of the village Council, called Lemko, was mentioned.
The letter of the bishop of Warmia claims that in 1323, Lithuanians attacked the duchy of Dobrzyn and "Captured the city of Dobrzyn, destroying it by fire to its foundations; in it they killed two thousand people, while in the land itself of Dobrzyn — six thousand people of both sexes, also seven priests and forty other clerics whom... oh sorrow! they led away to perpetual slavery. Also they slew two monks of the order of St. Benedict, and burned ten parish churches, not counting chapels..."
The date of the attack is presumed to be on September 14, 1323.Chronicler Peter of Dusburg gives a figure up to 2000 people died in the sack. It took a long time for the town to recover from the attack, although the city retained its municipal rights. it was no longer a Duchy.
During the raid of the Teutonic Order, the stronghold in Dobrzyń was attacked again in March 1329, when the towns mayor was killed by a catapult stone. In March 1329, after the siege, the Teutonic Knights occupied the castle in Dobrzyń.
After the peace of Kalisz between Kazimier the Great and the Teutonic Knights, Dobrzyń returned to Poland.
From the end of the 13th and at the beginning of the 14th century (1288-1327 and 1343-1352) The town was the seat of the dukes of Dobrzyn.
From 1380 the town was a fief of Władysław Opolczyk, who in 1392 gave in pledge to the Teutonic Knights. Thanks to the purchase of the pledge in 1404, the town returned to the kingdom of Poland. The Castle was besieged and burnt by the Teutonic Knights on August 18, 1409.The Dukes of Dobrzyń ruled the town again from 1379 to 1391.
Władysław Jagiełło gave the rights to Dobrzyń to pledge to the Teutonic Knights, causing a legal conflict between Poland and the Teutonic Order which only ended on June 10, 1405, when Dobrzyń was bought by Poland.
But Dobrzyń was on August 20, 1409, captured by the Teutonic Knights again this time using artillery. The town was burned.
Dobrzyń was returned to Poland at the First Peace of Toruń in 1411. The town became the seat of a judicial court at this time. Dobrzyń was a royal town of the Polish Crown administratively located in the Inowrocław Voivodeship in the Greater Poland Province of the Polish Crown. Around 1388, a Franciscan monastery was founded in the city. In 1390, Władysław Opolczyk gave them some ground, and in 1395 Wojciech from Chełmica Mała of the Nałęcz family with his family gave monks 60 monies for the construction of a monastery church.
The semi legendary Nawojka is said to have been born here in the early 1400s, the daughter of the mayor.
The first historically recorded sejmik (local parliament) of the nobility of Dobrzyń Land was held in Dobrzyń in 1434.
The town flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries thanks to grain trade with the major Polish city of Gdańsk.Polish Kings granted the town various privileges in 1580 and 1587. Dobrzyń suffered during the Swedish Deluge, when it was looted and burned.
A Jewish community was established in the town in about 1765, and Jews at one time made up one-third of the total population, but most left for Britain and the United States in the years around 1900, with none remaining today.
In 1793, Dobrzyń was annexed by Prussia in the Second Partition of Poland.In 1807, it was incorporated into the short-lived Polish Duchy of Warsaw, and in 1815 it became part of Congress Poland, later forcibly integrated into the Russian Empire. In 1864, the town faced repressions from the Russian authorities after the unsuccessful Polish January Uprising. The Franciscan monastery was closed and the Franciscans were deported. During World War I, from 1915 to 1918, the town was occupied by Germany. In 1918 Poland regained independence, and the town became automatically part of the reborn state.
During the Polish–Soviet War, in July 1920, a Jewish pro-Polish committee of the Council for State Protection (Rada Ochrony Państwa) was established, whose members were local wealthy Jews and rabbis, and also a Polish recruitment office was established.The town was captured by the Soviets on 14 August 1920, and occupied for several days.
During World War II, from 1939 to 1945, the town was under German occupation, and the Germans changed its name to Dobrin an der Weichsel. Poles and Jews were subjected to arrests, expulsions and murder. As part of the Intelligenzaktion , the Germans arrested and murdered Polish teachers, also in the Mauthausen concentration camp.Jews were expelled.
Currently, it is a local commercial and service center with few industrial plants (footwear factory, fishing cooperative, slaughterhouse, mill). On January 1, 2018, Dobrzyń nad Wisłą had a population of 2,161.
Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of King Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572, and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world.
Władysław I Łokietek, in English known as the "Elbow-high" or Ladislaus the Short was the King of Poland from 1320 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years. He was a member of the Piast family of rulers, son of Duke Casimir I of Kujawy, and great-grandson of King Casimir II the Just.
Ostróda is a town in northern Poland, in Masuria, seat of the Ostróda County in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with 33,191 inhabitants as of December 31, 2009.
Golub-Dobrzyń is a town in central Poland, located on both sides of the Drwęca River. Situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, it was previously in the Torun Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is the capital of Golub-Dobrzyń County and has a population of 13,060.
Dobrzyń may refer to:
Łęczyca is a town of 14,362 inhabitants in central Poland. Situated in the Łódź Voivodeship, it is the county seat of the Łęczyca County.
Janusz I of Warsaw, also known as Janusz I the Old, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast in the Masovian branch, from 1373/74 Duke of Warsaw and after the division of the paternal inheritance between him and his brother in 1381, ruler over Nur, Łomża, Liw, Ciechanów, Wyszogród and Zakroczym. In addition, he was a vassal of the Polish Kingdom since 1391 for the fief of Podlachia.
The Order of Dobrzyń or Order of Dobrin, also known as the Brothers of Dobrzyń, was a military order created in the borderland of Masovia and Prussia during the 13th century Prussian Crusade to 'defend against Baltic Prussian raids'.
The (First) Peace of Thorn was a peace treaty formally ending the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War between allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other. It was signed on 1 February 1411 in Thorn (Toruń), one of the southernmost cities of the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. In historiography, the treaty is often portrayed as a diplomatic failure of Poland–Lithuania as they failed to capitalize on the decisive defeat of the Knights in the Battle of Grunwald in June 1410. The Knights returned Dobrzyń Land which they captured from Poland during the war and made only temporary territorial concessions in Samogitia, which returned to Lithuania only for the lifetimes of Polish King Władysław Jagiełło and Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas. The Peace of Thorn was not stable. It took two other brief wars, the Hunger War in 1414 and Gollub War in 1422, to sign the Treaty of Melno that solved the territorial disputes. However, large war reparations were a significant financial burden on the Knights, causing internal unrest and economic decline. The Teutonic Knights never recovered their former might.
The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War, or Great War, occurred between 1409 and 1411 between the Teutonic Knights and the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Inspired by the local Samogitian uprising, the war began by Teutonic invasion of Poland in August 1409. As neither side was ready for a full-scale war, Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia brokered a nine-month truce. After the truce expired in June 1410, the military-religious monks were decisively defeated in the Battle of Grunwald, one of the largest battles in medieval Europe. Most of the Teutonic leadership was killed or taken prisoner. Although they were defeated, the Teutonic Knights withstood the siege on their capital in Marienburg (Malbork) and suffered only minimal territorial losses in the Peace of Thorn (1411). Territorial disputes lasted until the Peace of Melno of 1422. However, the Knights never recovered their former power, and the financial burden of war reparations caused internal conflicts and economic decline in their lands. The war shifted the balance of power in Central Europe and marked the rise of the Polish–Lithuanian union as the dominant power in the region.
Dobrzyń Land is a historic region, with the capital in the town of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą, in central-northern Poland, within the Greater Poland, between Mazovia and Prussia. It lies northeast of the Vistula River, south of the Drwęca, and west of the Skrwa. The territory approximately corresponds with the present-day powiats of Lipno, Rypin, and half of Golub-Dobrzyń within the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, although it encompasses parts of other counties as well. Totally, it has about 3,000 km2 and 200,000 inhabitants.
Vladislaus II of Opole was a Duke of Opole from 1356, Count palatine of Hungary during 1367–1372, ruler over Lubliniec since 1368, Duke of Wieluń during 1370–1392, ruler over Bolesławiec from 1370, Governor of Galicia–Volhynia during 1372–1378, ruler over Pszczyna during 1375–1396, Count palatine of Poland in 1378, Duke of Dobrzyń and Kujawy during 1378–1392, ruler over Głogówek from 1383 and ruler over Krnov during 1385–1392.
The Polish–Teutonic War (1326–1332) was the war between the Kingdom of Poland and the State of the Teutonic Order over Pomerelia, fought from 1326 to 1332.
The city of Danzig (Gdańsk) was captured by the State of the Teutonic Order on 13 November 1308, resulting in a massacre of its inhabitants and marking the beginning of tensions between Poland and the Teutonic Order. Originally the knights moved into the fortress as an ally of Poland against the Margraviate of Brandenburg. However, after disputes over the control of the city between the Order and the King of Poland arose, the knights murdered a number of citizens within the city and took it as their own. Thus the event is also known as Gdańsk massacre or Gdańsk slaughter. Though in the past, a matter of debate among historians, a consensus has been established that many people were murdered and a considerable part of the town was destroyed in the context of the take-over.
Peace of Raciążek was a treaty signed on 22 May 1404 between Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Teutonic Knights, regarding the control of the Dobrzyń Land and Samogitia. Poland in essence confirmed the Treaty of Kalisz of 1342 and Lithuania – the Treaty of Salynas of 1398. The treaty was not stable and the situation soon changed with the Polish-Lithuanian–Teutonic War of 1409–1411.
The Vistula, the longest and largest river in Poland, is the 9th-longest river in Europe, at 1,047 kilometres in length. The drainage-basin, reaching into three other nations covers 193,960 km2 (74,890 sq mi), of which 168,868 km2 (65,200 sq mi) is in Poland – 54% of Poland.
The Battle of Grunwald, Battle of Žalgiris or First Battle of Tannenberg was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War. The alliance of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led respectively by King Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) and Grand Duke Vytautas, decisively defeated the German–Prussian Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen. Most of the Teutonic Knights' leadership were killed or taken prisoner. Although defeated, the Teutonic Knights withstood the siege of their fortress in Marienburg (Malbork) and suffered minimal territorial losses at the Peace of Thorn (1411) (Toruń), with other territorial disputes continuing until the Peace of Melno in 1422. The knights, however, would never recover their former power, and the financial burden of war reparations caused internal conflicts and an economic downturn in the lands under their control. The battle shifted the balance of power in Central and Eastern Europe and marked the rise of the Polish–Lithuanian union as the dominant political and military force in the region.
The Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) was an armed conflict between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights. It ended with the Peace of Brześć Kujawski and is considered a victory for Poland.
Chełmno land is a historical region, located in central-northern Poland.
Bobrowniki Castle was built by the Teutonic Knights in the late fourteenth, early fifteenth centuries. Following the Peace of Thorn (1411), it was taken over by the Polish, later to become a residence of the local mayor. Since the eighteenth century the castle lies in ruins.
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