Doetinchem

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Doetinchem
Deutekem  (Achterhoeks)
Doetinchem, Sint Catharinakerk RM13084 in straatzicht foto7 2012-07-22 14.54.jpg
Church in Doetinchem
Flag of Doetinchem.svg
Coat of arms of Doetinchem.svg
Map - NL - Municipality code 0222 (2009).svg
Location in Gelderland
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Doetinchem
Location within the Netherlands
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Doetinchem
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 51°58′N6°18′E / 51.967°N 6.300°E / 51.967; 6.300 Coordinates: 51°58′N6°18′E / 51.967°N 6.300°E / 51.967; 6.300
Country Netherlands
Province Gelderland
Government
[1]
  Body Municipal council
   Mayor Mark Boumans (VVD)
Area
[2]
  Total79.66 km2 (30.76 sq mi)
  Land79.05 km2 (30.52 sq mi)
  Water0.61 km2 (0.24 sq mi)
Elevation
[3]
14 m (46 ft)
Population
 (January 2019) [4]
  Total57,555
  Density728/km2 (1,890/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Doetinchemmer
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
7000–7011, 7030–7031
Area code 0314, 0315
Website www.doetinchem.nl
Dutch Topographic map of Doetinchem, March 2014 Doetinchem-plaats-OpenTopo.jpg
Dutch Topographic map of Doetinchem, March 2014

Doetinchem (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈdutɪŋxəm] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Low Saxon: Deutekem) is a city and municipality in the east of the Netherlands. It is situated along the Oude IJssel (Old IJssel) river in a part of the province of Gelderland called the Achterhoek. The municipality had a population of 57,555 in 2019 and consists of an area of 79.66 km2 (30.76 sq mi) of which 0.61 km2 (0.24 sq mi) is water. This makes Doetinchem the largest town (by population) in the Achterhoek.

Contents

On 1 January 2005, a municipal restructuring merged the neighbouring municipality of Wehl as well as the Zelhelmse Broek area with Doetinchem.

Population centres

The local government organization in the Netherlands is complex and fine-grained (see municipality and Govt Stats, [5] with municipalities being divided into various entities. The municipality of Doetinchem consists of:

The city ('stad'):

The neighborhoods ('wijken'):

The townships ('buurtschappen'):

Wehl was a separate municipality (with about 6,750 inhabitants, including Nieuw-Wehl) until 31 December 2004, when it merged with the municipality of Doetinchem.

History

Slangenburg Castle Kasteel slangenburg.jpg
Slangenburg Castle

It is known from archaeological finds of skulls, pottery shards, and flint arrowheads that the area was inhabited more than 11,000 years ago. These prehistoric hunters were followed by Celtic and Germanic tribes like the Franks and Saxons. Roman coins have been found and there is also archaeological evidence of the Vikings having plundered the area.

The first reference to the name of Doetinchem comes in a document from the year 838 which mentions a 'villa Duetinghem', a settlement with a small church. In 887, there is another mention of 'Deutinkem', a fortress with a church which had been given to the then Bishop of Utrecht. The spelling has varied over the centuries, with 'Duttichem', 'Duichingen' and 'Deutekom' being just some examples.

For a long time, Doetinchem remained a small place but around 1100 it started to grow and, after suffering several attempts by plunderers, a town wall was built. In 1236, Doetinchem was granted city rights ('stadsrechten') by Count Otto II of Gelre and Zutphen, and in return, the town provided taxes and soldiers for the Count's army. Also, the new city council published rules for the city, codified in the 'Keurboek van Doetinchem' (Rulebook of Doetinchem), which laid down severe punishments for infringements.

In 1226, Doetinchem faced increasing danger from plunderers, and so the city wall was raised by a metre. There were four barriers in the wall which, being weak points, were replaced over time by four large city-gates known as the Hamburgerpoort (built 1302), the Waterpoort, the Gruitpoort, and the Hezenpoort. Later a moat was dug around the wall and a rampart was built in front; the city's central windmill, the 'walmolen' (Dutch 'wal'=rampart, 'molen'=mill), stands on the remains of this rampart. Despite these defences, Doetinchem was besieged many times and during the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) was besieged and conquered twice. However, eventually the walls became seen as redundant (or perhaps ineffective) and in 1672, they were torn down. However, it was not until the second half of the 19th century that the city gates and most of the rampart were removed.

From its early years, Doetinchem had been an important marketplace for farmers to sell their wares; the market was held in the central square called the Simonsplein right up until the Second World War.

Doetinchem has had its fair share of disasters. Apart from the sieges mentioned above, in 1527 a large fire destroyed most of the city including the city archives (which means that many earlier dates in the history of Doetinchem are somewhat unreliable), and in 1580 most of the city was killed by a plague. There was also occasional flooding. However, despite the fact that Doetinchem is only 10 km (6.2 mi) from the German border, because the Netherlands was not involved in the First World War, Doetinchem saw nothing more than the posting of a few border guards during that time. Even during the Second World War, Doetinchem came off fairly lightly at first; there was only a small German occupying force and the city even escaped the worst effects of the Hunger Winter. However, some prisoners were executed after being implicated in the shooting death in Putten of an important German officer by the Dutch Resistance and disastrously, in March and April 1945, the centre of Doetinchem was largely destroyed by Allied bombing which was either intended for nearby German towns or, as some say, was to destroy the German defences in Doetinchem. Which of the two is true has never really been clarified and there is still some discussion about the true intentions of the bombardment. The city itself was liberated by The Calgary Highlanders in 1945 after a brief battle there.

In 2018 a writer called Karel Berkhuysen researched the Allied bombing. He found that the Germans were researching nuclear fission in a converted school. This information was then passed to the Allies.

In the decades after the war, Doetinchem grew and in a few years had outgrown its "competitors" in the Achterhoek, namely Doesburg, Winterswijk and Zutphen. The Dutch company, Philips, had a factory for some years in the city. From 2003 till 2005, the city grew enormously as new districts such as Dichteren were built, and as Doetinchem incorporates outlying villages such as Wehl into its municipality. In 2011, the city is still growing. By building a new district as het Loo and Isseldoks, and the opening of a brand new theatre and cinema, Doetinchem is the biggest growing city in Gelderland.

Significant structures in Doetinchem

The main church in the central square, St Catherine's Church ('Catharinakerk') was virtually destroyed in the World War II bombing and restoration took from 1948 to 1963. Although originally a Roman Catholic church, it became Dutch Reformed in 1591. There are two castles, 'De Kelder' ('The Cellar') and Slangenburg.

The city has three windmills. In the city centre, there is the already mentioned De Walmolen , [6] the bottom of which now houses the city's tourist office. In Dichteren, there is a mill called Aurora [7] (Latin for 'dawn') and to the east of the city a mill called Benninkmolen . [8] All these mills are open to visitors, usually open to all one weekday morning and at other times by appointment.

A few other important buildings in the city are the Amphion-Theater, the Gruitpoort, a big cultural centre, the Rietveld Lyceum, the biggest high school in Doetinchem and the Tax administration office.

Sport

Doetinchem has a professional football team, De Graafschap ('The County'). The home of De Graafschap was completely revamped to transform it into an all-seater arena. The stands are fully covered, with the roof painted in the blue and white of the club.

The city has an indoor swimming pool, Rozengaarde. In April or May, a local evening four-day marathon is organized.

Since 2005 a four-day marathon is organised which starts and ends in Doetinchem and runs through the Achterhoek. The marathon was held from 23 August to the 26th. Almost 15.000 people took part.

In 2009 the city's volleyball team took part in the CEV cup playing against Haltbank Ankara from Turkey.

Festivals

Doetinchem has an annual street-theatre festival Buitengewoon (Extraordinary), and the City Festival, a big festival with music acts, theatre, a carnival and fireworks.

Notable residents

Carel Hendrik Ver Huell Verhuell.jpg
Carel Hendrik Ver Huell


Sport

Sanne Keizer, 2007 SanneKeizer.JPG
Sanne Keizer, 2007

Local media

Newspapers available in Doetinchem include subscription paper "De Gelderlander" and free papers "Doetinchems Vizier" and "Zondag", all published by Koninklijke Wegener NV. Doetinchem has its own television station called 'Stadstv' which is received by cable in the municipalities of Doetinchem itself and the neighbouring Hummelo en Keppel, and a television station called 'GraafschapTV' which is received in the entire Achterhoek region.

Transport

Doetinchem has been connected to the Dutch national highway system since November 1974, when the Zevenaar-Doetinchem section of Highway 15 (A15) was opened. This section was extended to Varsseveld in 1984. Today the A15 is called the A18.

Doetinchem is served by rail services from Arnhem by the regional train to Winterswijk with two stations, one in the city centre – Doetinchem and Doetinchem De Huet lying to the west between the suburbs of De Huet and Dichteren. Doetinchem receives four trains per hour to Arnhem (Monday to Friday) and there are always 2 trains per hour between Arnhem and Winterswijk. In 2012, Arriva, took over the rail services between Arnhem and Winterswijk from NS and Syntus

Bus services are also operated by Arriva.

Related Research Articles

Gelderland Province of the Netherlands

Gelderland, also known as Guelders in English, is a province of the Netherlands, occupying the centre-east of the country. With a total area of 5,136 km2 (1,983 sq mi) of which 173 km2 (67 sq mi) is water, it is the largest province of the Netherlands by land area, and second by total area. Gelderland shares borders with six other provinces and the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Zutphen City and municipality in Gelderland, Netherlands

Zutphen is a city and municipality located in the province of Gelderland, Netherlands. It lies some 30 km northeast of Arnhem, on the eastern bank of the river IJssel at the point where it is joined by the Berkel. First mentioned in the 11th century, the place-name appears to mean "south fen". In 2005, the municipality of Zutphen was merged with the municipality of Warnsveld, retaining its name. In 2019, the municipality had a population of 47,609.

Deventer City and municipality in Overijssel, Netherlands

Deventer is a city and municipality in the Salland historical region of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands. In 2020, Deventer had a population of 100,913. The city is largely situated on the east bank of the river IJssel, but it also has a small part of its territory on the west bank. In 2005 the municipality of Bathmen was merged with Deventer as part of a national effort to reduce bureaucracy in the country.

Aalten Municipality in Gelderland, Netherlands

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Didam Town in Gelderland, Netherlands

Didam is a town in the Netherlands in the eastern part of Netherlands in the region of "De Achterhoek", province of Gelderland. It is located in the municipality of Montferland about 18 km east of Arnhem, which is the capital of the province, and about 11 km west from Doetinchem.

Dinxperlo Town and former municipality in Gelderland, Netherlands

Dinxperlo is a town and former municipality in the eastern Netherlands, situated directly at the Germany-Netherlands border.

Duiven Municipality in Gelderland, Netherlands

Duiven is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. Duiven's name can be translated into English to mean "pigeons" or "doves". Although the coat of arms and logo of the municipality feature pigeons, the name is etymologically related to "dunes". The flag of the municipality of Duiven was granted and adopted on 25 June 1954.

Wehl Town in Gelderland, Netherlands

Wehl is a town in the eastern Netherlands, about 5 km west of Doetinchem.

Winterswijk Municipality and town in Gelderland, Netherlands

Winterswijk is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. It has a population of 28,903 and is situated in the Achterhoek, which lies in the easternmost part of the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands.

Terborg City in Gelderland, Netherlands

Terborg is a small city in the Dutch province of Gelderland, in the Achterhoek region in the east of the Netherlands. It is located in the municipality of Oude IJsselstreek. The city lies about 7 km southeast of Doetinchem. The population is about 4600 inhabitants.

Bronckhorst Municipality in Gelderland, Netherlands

Bronckhorst is a municipality in Gelderland, the Netherlands. The municipality is the result of a merger of the former municipalities Hengelo, Hummelo en Keppel, Steenderen, Vorden and Zelhem, on 1 January 2005. The new municipality is named after the medieval castle of the Bronckhorst family, who once ruled this area.

Achterhoek Cultural region of Gelderland

The Achterhoek is a cultural region in the Eastern Netherlands. Its name is geographically appropriate because the area lies in the easternmost part of the province of Gelderland and therefore in the east of the Netherlands, protruding into Germany. The Achterhoek lies at the east of the IJssel and Oude IJssel rivers. On the other sides, it borders Germany to the southeast and the province of Overijssel to the northeast.

Ulft Village in Gelderland, Netherlands

Ulft is a town in Oude IJsselstreek in the Achterhoek area in the province of Gelderland, Netherlands.

DZC '68 is an amateur football club from Doetinchem, Netherlands. It was formed on 1 May 1968 and they play their home games at "Sportpark Zuid". They play in yellow jerseys with blue shorts and blue socks.

Spinnenkop Openluchtmuseum, Arnhem Dutch windmill

The spinnenkop of the Netherlands Open Air Museum in Arnhem is a small drainage mill originally located near Gorredijk, Friesland, Netherlands. It is a hollow post windmill that has been restored to working order.

A Tjasker is a type of small drainage windmill used in the Netherlands and Germany. There are 28 tjaskers remaining the Netherlands.

Aurora, Dichteren Dutch windmill

Aurora is a tower mill in Dichteren, Gelderland, Netherlands which was built in 1870 and has been restored to working order. The mill is listed as a Rijksmonument.

Benninkmolen, Doetinchem Dutch windmill

Benninkmolen is a smock mill in Doetinchem, Gelderland, Netherlands which was built in 1921 and has been restored to working order. The mill is listed as a Rijksmonument.

Oosseld or Oosselt, also known as De Bloemenbuurt is a district within, and former hamlet (buurtschap) of the municipality of Doetinchem, located in the Dutch province of Gelderland. Until 1919 Oosseld belonged to the municipality Ambt Doetinchem. Koekendaal and Ter Gun are also part of Ooseld.

Winterswijk–Zevenaar railway

The Winterswijk – Zevenaar railway is a Dutch 49-kilometre long regional railway line, that connects Arnhem and Zevenaar with Doetinchem and Winterswijk.

References

  1. "Burgemeester N.E. (Niels) Joosten bc" (in Dutch). Gemeente Doetinchem. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten 2020" [Key figures for neighbourhoods 2020]. StatLine (in Dutch). CBS. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  3. "Postcodetool for 7001EW". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  4. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  5. "www.sdu.nl". Archived from the original on 8 February 2005. Retrieved 30 January 2005.
  6. "Nederlandse Molendatabase | De Walmolen, Doetinchem". Molendatabase.nl. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  7. "Nederlandse Molendatabase | Aurora, Dichteren". Molendatabase.nl. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  8. "Nederlandse Molendatabase | Benninkmolen / Velsmolen, Doetinchem". Molendatabase.nl. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  9. IMDb Database retrieved 6 March 2020