Dojo

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Dōjō
Dojo (Chinese characters).svg
"Dōjō" in kanji
Japanese name
Kanji 道場

A dōjō ( 道場 , Japanese pronunciation:  [doꜜː(d)ʑoː] [note 1] ) is a hall or place for immersive learning or meditation. This is traditionally in the field of martial arts, but has been seen increasingly in other fields, such as meditation and software development. The term literally means "place of the Way" in Japanese.

Contents

History

The Ikenobo dojo (right) next to Rokkaku-do, Kyoto Rokkaku-dou Ikenobou doujou.jpg
The Ikenobō dōjō (right) next to Rokkaku-dō, Kyoto

The word dōjō originates from Buddhism. Initially, dōjō were adjunct to temples and were formal training places for any of the Japanese arts ending in "-dō", from the Chinese Tao (or Dao), meaning "way" or "path". Sometimes meditation halls where Zen Buddhists practice zazen meditation were called dōjō. [1] The alternative term zen-do is more specific, and more widely used. European Sōtō Zen groups affiliated with the International Zen Association prefer to use dōjō instead of zendo to describe their meditation halls as did their founding master, Taisen Deshimaru.

In Japan, any facility for physical training, including professional wrestling, may be called a dōjō. [2] In the Western world, the term dōjō (when related to physical activity) is used exclusively for Japanese martial arts such as aikidō , judō , karate-dō , etc. [3]

In martial arts

A kendo dojo, Tokyo Noma Dojo, 2006.JPG
A kendō dōjō, Tokyo

A proper Japanese martial arts dōjō is considered special and is well cared for by its users. Shoes are not worn in a dōjō. In many styles it is traditional to conduct a ritual cleaning (sōji) of the dōjō at the beginning and/or end of each training session. Besides the obvious hygienic benefits of regular cleaning it also serves to reinforce the fact that dōjō are supposed to be supported and managed by the student body (or by special students, e.g., uchi-deshi), not the school's instructional staff. This attitude has become lost in many modern dōjō that are founded and run by a small group of people or instructors.[ citation needed ] In fact, it is not uncommon that in traditional schools (koryu), dōjō are rarely used for training at all, instead being reserved for more symbolic or formal occasions. The actual training is conducted typically outdoors or in a less formal area.[ citation needed ]

Many traditional dōjō follow a prescribed pattern with shomen ("front") and various entrances that are used based on student and instructor rank laid out precisely. Typically students will enter in the lower-left corner of the dōjō (in reference to the shomen) with instructors in the upper right corner. Shomen typically contains a Shintō shrine with a sculpture, flower arrangement, or other artifacts. The term kamiza means "place of honor" and a related term, kamidana refers to the shrine itself. Other artifacts may be displayed throughout the dōjō, such as kanban that authorize the school in a style or strategy, and items such as taiko drums or armor ( Ō-yoroi ). It is not uncommon to find the name of the dōjō and the dōjō kun (roughly "dōjō rules") displayed prominently at shomen as well. Visitors may have a special place reserved, depending on their rank and station. Weapons and other training gear will normally be found on the back wall.

Honbu dōjō

A honbu dōjō is the central training facility and administrative headquarters of a particular martial arts style.

Some well-known dōjō located in Japan are:

Other names for training halls

Other names for training halls that are equivalent to "dojo" include the following:

In other fields

The term dōjō is also increasingly used for other forms of immersive-learning space.

Zen Buddhism

The term dōjō is sometimes used to describe the meditation halls where Zen Buddhists practice zazen meditation. [1] The alternative term zen-do is more specific, and more widely used. European Sōtō Zen groups affiliated with the International Zen Association prefer to use dōjō instead of zendo to describe their meditation halls as did their founding master, Taisen Deshimaru.

Notes

Related Research Articles

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Kyū

Kyū is a Japanese term used in modern martial arts as well as in tea ceremony, flower arranging, Go, shogi, academic tests and other similar activities to designate various grades, levels or degrees of proficiency or experience. In Mandarin Chinese, the same character 級 is pronounced , and the term is used for academic tests. In Korea, the term geup is used. In Vietnamese martial arts, it is known as cấp (khớp).

Kazuo Chiba

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Minoru Mochizuki Japanese aikidoka

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<i>Keikogi</i>

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Taisen Deshimaru

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Nobuyoshi Tamura

Nobuyoshi Tamura was a prominent aikidoka and a direct student of Morihei Ueshiba. The son of a kendo teacher, Tamura entered the Aikikai Hombu Dojo in 1953 as an uchi-deshi of aikido founder Morihei Ueshiba. He was one of Ueshiba's favorite pupils and since 1964 has greatly contributed to the development of aikido in Europe and France in particular. He was the National Technical Director (DTN) of the FFAB. He held the rank of 8th dan and the title of Shihan. Throughout his teaching career he trained many others instructors in various countries around the world but foremost Western Europe. In 1999, he received the medal of "Chevalier de l'ordre National du Mérite" from the French government. Tamura published several books on aikido in French. His dojo, Shumeikan Dojo, is located in the village of Bras, France. His former students include Jorge Rojo Gutierrez, Toshiro Suga, Pierre Chassang and Alain Peyrache.

Kenshiro Abbe Martial artist

Kenshiro Abbe was a prominent Japanese master of judo, aikido, and kendo. He introduced aikido to the United Kingdom in 1955, and founded the Kyushindo system. Abbe was a graduate of the Budo Senmon Gakko, having studied judo and kendo there. Following an illustrious early career in the martial arts, he served in the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II. He then trained in aikido under its founder, Morihei Ueshiba, for a decade. Abbe held dan ranks in several martial arts, most notably 8th dan in judo, 6th dan in aikido, and 6th dan in kendo. After introducing aikido to the UK, he established several Japanese martial arts councils there during the late 1950s. He returned to Japan in 1964 and remained there for most of the remainder of his life. There are contradictory accounts of Abbe's final years, but it appears that he was in poor spirits and poor health towards the end.

Fumio Toyoda

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Yoseikan Aikido Aikido taught at the Yoseikan Dojo in Shizuoka, Japan

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Omori Sogen

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<i>Budo: The Art of Killing</i>

Budo: The Art of Killing is an award winning 1978 Japanese martial arts documentary created and produced by Hisao Masuda and financed by The Arthur Davis Company. Considered a cult classic, the film is a compilation of various Japanese martial art demonstrations by several famous Japanese instructors such as Gozo Shioda, Taizaburo Nakamura and Teruo Hayashi. Martial arts featured in the film include: karate, aikido, kendo, sumo, and judo among others. The only modern Japanese martial art not featured in the film is kyūdō.

Nafudakake is a Japanese method of displaying all the names of the members in a group by collecting the names on individual plaques called nafuda and hanging them together in a specialized case called kake. Nafudakake can be found in traditional art forms such as chadō, in modern art forms such as judo, at Shinto shrines and in some modern organizations such as volunteer fire departments. In English, the term is most commonly associated with Japanese martial arts, and nafudakake are commonly considered an element of a traditional martial arts dojo.

Soleiman Mehdizadeh Iranian martial artist

Soleiman Mehdizadeh is an Iranian master of Budō.

The Cultural School of Goleta is a multi-purpose venue built by Ken and Miye Ota. The facility consists of a large ballroom with a sprung hardwood floor, two crystal chandeliers, a raised stage and is surrounded by built-in benches for seating. There is also an attached industrial kitchen, audio system, changing room, and storage for the additional chairs and tables. Also present, are removable tatami mats, which when applied to the entire ballroom floor, convert the space into a martial arts dojo, with a shomen at the main wall.

References

  1. 1 2 Daisetz Teitarō Suzuki (2007). "Chapter 9: The Meditation Hall and the Monk's Life". An Introduction to Zen Buddhism. Grove Press. pp. 118–132. ISBN   9780802130556. OCLC   1074773870.
  2. "Meaning of Dojo". Kendo Basics. Kendo for Life. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  3. "Martial Arts". Japan Experience. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
  4. Sato, D. T.; Corbucci, H.; Bravo, M. V. (2008). Coding dojo: an environment for learning and sharing agile practices. AGILE Conference. Los Alamitos, CA, US: IEEE Computer Society. pp. 459–464. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.568.2621 .
  5. Gärtner, Markus (April 16, 2010). "Testing Dojos". www.shino.de. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  6. Bennett, Dan (January 4, 2018). "Agile in approach: Using Dojo principles to find a better path". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 2018-04-05.