Domini di Terraferma

Last updated
Mainland domains
Domini de Teraferma(vec)
Domain of the Republic of Venice
Repubblica Venezia espansione in Terraferma.png
The extent of the Terraferma in 1509.
Historical eraEarly modern period
 Acquisition of mainland territories
early 15th century
 
1445
 Battle of Maclodio
11 October 1427
 Treaty of Lodi
9 April 1454
 Treaty of Bagnolo
7 August 1484
 War of the League of Cambrai
1508–16
 Treaty of Campo Formio
17 October 1797
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Azure-Cross-Or-Heraldry.svg Verona
StCarr.jpg Carraresi
Friuli Arms.svg Patriarchate of Aquileia (state)
Archduchy of Austria Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg
Cisalpine Republic Flag of the Repubblica Cisalpina.svg

The Domini di Terraferma (Venetian : domini de terraferma or stato da tera, lit.'mainland domains' or 'mainland state') was the hinterland territories of the Republic of Venice beyond the Adriatic coast in Northeast Italy. They were one of the three subdivisions of the Republic's possessions, the other two being the original Dogado (Duchy) and the Stato da Màr (maritime territories).

Contents

Geography

At its greatest extent, it included the present-day Italian regions of Veneto, Western and Central Friuli-Venezia Giulia and the eastern parts of Lombardy (i.e. the present-day Bergamo and Brescia provinces) up to the Adda River, where it bordered on the Imperial Duchy of Milan.

In the south the lower Po River (Polesine) formed the border with the Papal States. The Terraferma comprised the western and central parts of the historic Friuli region, except for the easternmost part along the Isonzo River, which was held by the Imperial Counts of Görz. In the north, the Carnic and Julian Alps marked the border with the Inner Austrian duchies of Carinthia and Carniola.

History

Venice had conquered the Mestre mainland from the Scaliger rulers at Verona in 1337, followed by Treviso and Bassano del Grappa in 1339. The development of the Terraferma province actually began with the accession of Doge Michele Steno in 1400, who systematically campaigned in the Venetian hinterland in order to secure trade and sustenance for the citizens of Venice. His successors Tommaso Mocenigo and Francesco Foscari enlarged the possessions to the disadvantage not only of the Scaligeri, but also of the Carraresi at Padua (Lord Francesco Novello da Carrara was executed in 1406) and the Visconti at Milan.

In 1420, Venice annexed the Friulian territories of the Imperial Patriarchate of Aquileia from the Adriatic coast up to Pontebba in the Julian Alps. Emperor Sigismund had to acknowledge the acquisition in 1433; four years later he officially ceded the territory to Venice as an Imperial fief. In 1523 Emperor Charles V finally renounced all titles as feudal lord.

On the fall of the Republic and the Treaty of Campo Formio, the Domini spent a short while under French rule until Napoleon ceded it to Austria in 1797, and in 1805 the former Domini were united with the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy (1805–14), and in 1815 with what was left of Lombardy to make the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia under the control of the Austrian Empire. It was united with the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence.

Sources

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