Bluth in 2006
Donald Virgil Bluth
September 13, 1937
El Paso, Texas, U.S.
|Alma mater||Brigham Young University|
|Occupation||Animator, film director, producer, writer, production designer, animation instructor|
|Employer|| Walt Disney Animation Studios (1955–1957, 1971–1979)|
|Family||Toby Bluth (brother)|
Donald Virgil Bluth ( // ; born September 13, 1937) is an American animator, film director, production designer, video game designer and animation instructor, known for his animated films, including The Secret of NIMH (1982), An American Tail (1986), The Land Before Time (1988), All Dogs Go to Heaven (1989) and Anastasia (1997), for his involvement in the LaserDisc game Dragon's Lair (1983), and for competing with former employer Walt Disney Productions during the years leading up to the films that became the Disney Renaissance. He is the older brother of illustrator Toby Bluth.
Bluth was born in El Paso, Texas, the son of Emaline (née Pratt) and Virgil Ronceal Bluth.His great-grandfather was Helaman Pratt, an early leader in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He is of Swedish, English, Irish, Scottish, and German descent.
As a child in El Paso, he rode his horse to the town movie theater to watch Disney films; Bluth said later, "then I'd go home and copy every Disney comic book I could find". [ citation needed ] Bluth attended Brigham Young University in Utah for one year and afterwards got a job at Walt Disney Productions. He started in 1955 as an assistant to John Lounsbery for Sleeping Beauty . In 1957, Bluth left Disney only two years after being hired. Afterward, Bluth spent two and a half years in Argentina on a mission for the LDS Church. He returned to the United States where he opened the Bluth Brothers Theater with his younger brother Fred, though he occasionally worked for Disney.At the age of six, his family moved to Payson, Utah, where he lived on a family farm. Bluth has stated that he and his siblings do not have much communication with each other as adults. In 1954, his family moved to Santa Monica, California, where he attended part of his final year of high school before returning to Utah and graduating from Springville High School.
Bluth returned to college and got a degree in English Literature from Brigham Young University. Bluth returned to the animation business and joined Filmation in 1967, working on layouts for The Archies and other projects. He returned full-time to Disney in 1971, where he worked on Robin Hood , Winnie the Pooh and Tigger Too , and The Rescuers , and directed animation on Pete's Dragon . His last involvement with Disney was the 1978 short The Small One . Then he made and produced his first own short film, Banjo the Woodpile Cat , which takes place in his hometown Payson, Utah, during the 1940s as Banjo travels to Salt Lake City to find the urban world.
On his 42nd birthday in 1979, Bluth, along with Gary Goldman, John Pomeroy, and nine fellow Disney animators, set out to start his own animation studio, Don Bluth Productions.He drew a few (uncredited) scenes for The Fox and the Hound but left early in production. Bluth was disheartened with the way the Disney company was run. He wanted to revive the classical animation style of the studio's early classics. To this end, his studio, Don Bluth Productions, demonstrated its ability in its first production, a short film titled Banjo the Woodpile Cat , and this led to work on an animated segment of the live-action film Xanadu (1980).
The studio's first feature-length film was The Secret of NIMH (1982), an adaptation of Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH , the 1972 Newbery Medal winner. Bluth employed 160 animators during the production and agreed to the first profit sharing contract in the animation industry.Though only a moderate success in the box office, the movie received critical acclaim. Later, with the home video release and cable showings, it became a cult classic. Nevertheless, due to its modest box office take, and an industry-wide animation strike, Don Bluth Productions filed for bankruptcy.
His next film would have been an animated version of the Norwegian folk tale East of the Sun and West of the Moon , but was never made when the financial resources were drawn back.
In 1983, he, Rick Dyer, Goldman, and Pomeroy started the Bluth Group and created the groundbreaking arcade game Dragon's Lair , which let the player control an animated-cartoon character on screen (whose adventures were played off a LaserDisc). This was followed in 1984 by Space Ace , a science-fiction game based on the same technology, but which gave the player a choice of different routes to take through the story. Bluth not only created the animation for Space Ace, but he also supplied the voice of the villain, Borf.Work on a Dragon's Lair sequel was underway when the video arcade business crashed. Bluth's studio was left without a source of income and the Bluth Group filed for bankruptcy on March 1, 1985. A sequel called Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp was made in 1991, but it was rarely seen in arcades.
In 1985, Bluth, Pomeroy, and Goldman established, with businessman Morris Sullivan, the Sullivan Bluth Studios. It initially operated from an animation facility in Van Nuys, California, but later moved to Dublin, Ireland, to take advantage of government investment and incentives. Sullivan Bluth Studios also helped boost animation as an industry within Ireland.Bluth and his colleagues taught an animation course at Ballyfermot Senior College.
Teaming up with producer Steven Spielberg, Bluth's next project was An American Tail (1986), which at the time of its release became the highest grossing non-Disney animated film of all time, grossing $45 million in the United States and over $84 million worldwide.The second Spielberg-Bluth collaboration The Land Before Time (1988) did even better in theaters and both found a successful life on home video. The main character in An American Tail (Fievel Mouskewitz) became the mascot for Amblimation while The Land Before Time was followed by thirteen direct-to-video sequels (none of which had any involvement from Bluth or Spielberg).
Bluth ended his working relationship with Spielberg before his next film, All Dogs Go to Heaven (1989). (Bluth was not involved with the Spielberg-produced An American Tail: Fievel Goes West , released in 1991) Although All Dogs Go To Heaven only had moderate theatrical success, it was highly successful in its release to home video.Like The Land Before Time, The Secret of NIMH, and An American Tail, All Dogs Go to Heaven was followed by related projects, none of which involved Bluth and his studio. He also directed films, such as Rock-a-Doodle (1992), Thumbelina (1994), A Troll in Central Park (1994), and The Pebble and the Penguin (1995), which were all critical and box office failures.
Bluth scored a hit with Anastasia (1997), produced at Fox Animation Studios in Phoenix, Arizona, which grossed nearly US $140 million worldwide.In a positive review of the movie, critic Roger Ebert observed that its creators "consciously include[d] the three key ingredients in the big Disney hits: action, romance, and music." Anastasia established 20th Century Fox as a Disney competitor.
Despite the success of Anastasia, Bluth resumed his string of box office failures with Titan A.E. (2000), which made less than $37 million worldwide despite an estimated $75 million budget.In 2000, 20th Century Fox Studios shut down the Fox Animation Studio facility in Phoenix, making Titan A.E. the last traditionally animated film released by 20th Century Fox in theaters until the release of 2007's The Simpsons Movie .
On October 26, 2015, Bluth and Goldman started a Kickstarter campaign in hopes of resurrecting hand-drawn animation by creating an animated feature-length film of Dragon's Lair .Bluth plans for the film to provide more backstory for Dirk and Daphne and show that she is not a "blonde airhead". The Kickstarter funding was canceled when not enough funds had been made close to the deadline, but an Indiegogo page for the project was created in its place.
On December 14, 2015, the Indiegogo campaign reached its goal of $250,000, 14 days after the campaign launched as of February 2018 [update] the total exceeded $728,000. On March 26, 2020, it was announced that Dragon's Lair will be released on Netflix later in the year.
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Throughout Don Bluth's career, there were many projects that ended up unproduced or unfinished due to studio closures, Bluth's severed partnership with Steven Spielberg, or the video game crash of 1983. Many art designs, filmed animation tests and videos of these unfinished projects still circulate online.
The earliest of Bluth's unfinished film projects is a Disney Pied Piper of Hamelin short film from the early 1970s.
After The Secret of NIMH , Bluth began developing an animated feature film adaptation of Beauty and the Beast . While a few scenes were produced in 1984, the film's production was canceled when Don Bluth and the film's distributor Columbia heard the news of Disney beginning work on their own animated adaptation. Don Bluth Productions also started production work on an animated feature film entitled East of the Sun and West of the Moon .Ultimately, the film was never made due to a loss of financial backing, even though the film was heavily into post-production at the time of its cancellation. Following Don Bluth's partnership with Steven Spielberg, 1986's An American Tail was released as Bluth's second film instead. During production of East of the Sun and West of the Moon, Bluth also animated a demo reel of Jawbreaker, a proposed television series by Phil Mendez of a boy who finds a magical tooth. The series however, was not greenlit.
After acquiring the rights to The Beatles ' songs in the mid-1980s, Michael Jackson approached Bluth with a movie idea called Strawberry Fields Forever. The film would have had animated Fantasia -style vignettes featuring Beatles songs, similar to Yellow Submarine . Not only did Don Bluth agree to it, he also planned on making it entirely in CGI. Had the movie been made, it would have predated the ground-breaking 1995 Pixar film Toy Story by about eight years. The project fell through when surviving Beatles members denied permission to use their images in the animated film. Only a scene of test footage featuring a group of "Beatle's gangsters" survives.
Two more films were planned during Bluth's partnership with Steven Spielberg and George Lucas. The first film was an animated adaptation of The Velveteen Rabbit , a story about an abandoned toy rabbit in pursuit of its child owner. The second film was Guardian of the Moon, based on a story by Steven Bauer about a young boy in a fantasy world who defends the moon and sun from evil forces. Some of the film's concepts were later realised as the 2014 French animated film Mune: Guardian of the Moon .[ citation needed ]. After his partnership with Spielberg ended, Bluth began planning another film titled The Little Blue Whale with Carolco Pictures. The planned film was about a little girl and her animal friends who try to protect a little whale from evil whalers. The project was abandoned by Carolco after the commercial and critical failure of their first animated film Pound Puppies and the Legend of Big Paw .[ citation needed ]
Other unrealised projects also included plans for a 1994 animated short film centered around a magical talking pencil starring Dom DeLuise,animated film adaptations of the books Deep Wizardry , Quintaglio Ascension , The Belgariad , and The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy . The latter productions were cancelled following the box office failure of Titan A.E. and subsequent closure of Fox Animation Studios. In 2005, a live-action adaptation of the live-action film of the same name was released by Touchstone Pictures.
Following the success of Dragon's Lair in 1983, Don Bluth and Cinematronics began plans for seven more arcade games: "The Sea Beast", "Jason and the Golden Fleece", "Devil's Island", "Haywire", "Drac", "Cro Magnon", and "Sorceress". Due to the budgeting issues and the 1983 video game crash, these projects were abandoned. The sequel to Dragon's Liar, Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp would be shelved until its eventual release in 1991.
Blitz Games planned a video game adaptation of Titan A.E. to be released for the PlayStation and PC in fall 2000 in North America, following the film's summer release.Development on both platforms had begun in March 1999 under the film's original title Planet Ice, and an early playable version was showcased at the 2000 Electronic Entertainment Expo in Los Angeles. In July 2000, a spokesman from the game's publisher Fox Interactive, announced that development on the title had been halted largely due to the film's poor box office performance which was "only one of many different factors" that led to its cancellation.
A sequel to the 2003 game I-Ninja was planned, which had input from Bluth.[ citation needed ] Work on the sequel started soon after the first game's release, but its studio Argonaut Games had some economic problems and eventually closed down in October 2004. The few aspects remaining from I-Ninja 2's development are some concept drawings.
A project called Pac Man Adventures was originally planned in partnership with Namco around 2003, but was scrapped due to financial problems on Namco's part leading to their merger with Bandai in 2007 and whatever development assets were left over was made into Pac Man World 3 with no involvement from Bluth.
In 2002, Bluth and video game company Ubisoft developed the video game Dragon's Lair 3D: Return to the Lair , an attempt to recreate the feel of the original Dragon's Lair LaserDisc game in a more interactive, three-dimensional environment. Reviews were mixed, with critics both praising and panning the controls and storyline. However, the visuals were noteworthy, using groundbreaking cel-shading techniques that lent the game a hand-animated feel. As of 2012 [update] , Don Bluth and Gary Goldman were seeking funding for a film version of Dragon's Lair. After apparently sitting in development for over a decade, the project raised over $570,000 via a successful crowdfunding campaign in January 2016.
Bluth and Goldman continued to work in video games and were hired to create the in-game cinematics for Namco's I-Ninja , released in 2003.
In 2004, Bluth did the animation for the music video "Mary", by the Scissor Sisters.The band contacted Bluth after having recalled fond memories of the sequence from Xanadu .
In 2009, Bluth was asked to produce storyboards for, and to direct, the 30-minute Saudi Arabian festival film Gift of the Hoopoe. He ultimately had little say in the animation and content of the film and asked that he not be credited as the director or producer. Nonetheless, he was credited as the director, possibly to improve the film's sales by attaching his name.
On February 3, 2011, it was announced that Bluth and his game development company Square One Studios were working with Warner Bros. Digital Distribution to develop a modern reinterpretation of the 1983 arcade classic Tapper , titled Tapper World Tour .
Bluth has authored a series of books for students of animation: 2004's The Art of Storyboard, and 2005's The Art of Animation Drawing.
In the 1990s, Bluth began hosting youth theater productions in the living room of his Scottsdale, Arizona, home. As the popularity of these productions grew and adults expressed their wishes to become involved, Bluth formed an adult and youth theatre troupe called Don Bluth Front Row Theatre. The troupe's productions were presented in Bluth's home until 2012, when their administrative team leased a space off Shea Boulevard in Scottsdale and converted it into a small theater.
|Sleeping Beauty||1959||No||No||No||Yes||assistant animator|
|The Sword in the Stone||1963||No||No||No||Yes||assistant animator|
|Journey Back to Oz||1972||No||No||No||Yes||layout artist|
|Robin Hood||1973||No||No||No||Yes||character animator|
|Escape to Witch Mountain||1975||No||No||No||Yes||animator: titles|
|The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh||1977||No||No||No||Yes||animator|
|The Rescuers||1977||No||No||No||Yes||directing animator|
|Pete's Dragon||1977||No||No||No||Yes||animation director|
|Xanadu||1980||No||No||No||Yes||animator: animation sequence unit|
|The Fox and the Hound||1981||No||No||No||Yes||animator|
|The Secret of NIMH||1982||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||story adaptation / layout artist / visual development|
|An American Tail||1986||Yes||Yes||No||Yes||production designer / storyboard artist / title designer|
|The Land Before Time||1988||Yes||Yes||No||Yes||production designer / storyboard artist|
|All Dogs Go to Heaven||1989||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||story / production designer / storyboard artist|
|Rock-a-Doodle||1991||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||story / storyboard artist|
|A Troll in Central Park||1994||Yes||Yes||Yes||No||story|
|The Pebble and the Penguin||1995||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Bartok the Magnificent (direct-to-video)||1999||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Lost and Foundation||1970||No||No||No||Yes||layout artist|
|Train Terrain||1971||No||No||No||Yes||layout artist|
|Winnie the Pooh and Tigger Too||1974||No||No||Yes||Yes||story / animator|
|The Small One||1978||Yes||Yes||No||Yes||animator|
|Banjo the Woodpile Cat (for television)||1979||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||screenplay / animator|
|You Are Mine||2002||No||No||No||Yes||storyboard artist|
|Scissor Sisters - "Mary" (music video)||2004||Yes||No||No||Yes||animation director|
|Gift of the Hoopoe||2009||Yes||No||No||Yes||nominally director / storyboard artist|
|Fantastic Voyage||1968-1969||layout artist||17 episodes|
|The Archie Show||1969||production designer||special episode Archie and His New Pals|
|Sabrina, the Teenage Witch||1969-1972||layout artist||58 episodes|
|Will the Real Jerry Lewis Please Sit Down||1970||layout artist||episode "Computer Suitor"|
|Groovie Goolies||1970||layout artist||16 episodes|
|Title||Year||Functioned as||Voice role||Notes|
|Space Ace||1983||Yes||Yes||Yes||Borf||game designer|
|Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp||1991||Yes||Yes||No|
|Dragon's Lair 3D: Return to the Lair||2002||Yes||Yes||Yes||intro and ending: animation director / background artist|
|I-Ninja||2003||Yes||No||Yes||cinematics: director / storyboard artist|
|Tapper World Tour||2011||No||No||Yes||animator|
Modern animation of the United States from the late 1980s to mid-2000s is referred to as the "renaissance age of American animation". During this period, many large American entertainment companies reformed and reinvigorated their animation departments following a general decline during the 1960s to 1980s. The United States has had a profound effect on animation worldwide. Since the mid-2000s traditional animation would lose interest against digital and Flash animation, naming this current period as the "millennium age of American animation".
Anastasia is a 1997 American animated musical drama film produced and directed by Don Bluth and Gary Goldman in association with Fox Animation Studios, distributed by 20th Century Fox, and starring the voices of Meg Ryan, John Cusack, Kelsey Grammer, Hank Azaria, Christopher Lloyd, Bernadette Peters, Kirsten Dunst, and Angela Lansbury. The film is a loose adaptation of the legend of Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, which claims that she escaped the execution of her family. Its basic plot centers around an eighteen-year-old amnesiac orphan named Anya who, in hopes of finding some trace of her family, sides with con men who wish to take advantage of her likeness to the Grand Duchess; thus the film shares its plot with Fox's prior film from 1956, which, in turn, was based on the 1955 play of the same name by Marcelle Maurette.
All Dogs Go to Heaven is a 1989 animated musical fantasy comedy-drama adventure film directed by Don Bluth and co-directed by Gary Goldman and Dan Kuenster. It tells the story of Charlie B. Barkin, a German Shepherd that is murdered by his former friend, Carface Carruthers, but withdraws from his place in Heaven to return to Earth, where his best friend, Itchy Itchiford, still lives, and they team up with a young orphan girl named Anne-Marie, who teaches them an important lesson about kindness, friendship and love.
The Secret of NIMH is a 1982 American animated dark fantasy adventure film directed by Don Bluth in his directorial debut. It is an adaptation of Robert C. O'Brien's 1971 children's novel Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH. The film was produced by Aurora Productions and released by MGM/UA Entertainment Company for United Artists and features the voices of Elizabeth Hartman, Dom DeLuise, Arthur Malet, Derek Jacobi, Hermione Baddeley, John Carradine, Peter Strauss, and Paul Shenar. The "Mrs. Frisby" name in the novel had to be changed to "Mrs. Brisby" during production due to trademark concerns with Frisbee discs. It was followed in 1998 by a direct-to-video sequel called The Secret of NIMH 2: Timmy to the Rescue, which was made without Bluth's involvement or input. In 2015, a CGI/live-action remake was reported to be in the works.
Space Ace is a LaserDisc video game produced by Bluth Group, Cinematronics and Advanced Microcomputer Systems. It was unveiled in October 1983, just four months after the Dragon's Lair game, then released in Spring 1984, and like its predecessor featured film-quality animation played back from a LaserDisc.
An American Tail is a 1986 animated musical adventure comedy-drama film directed by Don Bluth and produced by Sullivan Bluth Inc. and Amblin Entertainment. The film features the voices of Phillip Glasser, John Finnegan, Amy Green, Nehemiah Persoff, Dom DeLuise, and Christopher Plummer. It tells the story of Fievel Mousekewitz and his family as they emigrate from Shostka to the United States for freedom. However, he gets lost and must find a way to reunite with them.
The Fox and the Hound is a 1981 American animated musical buddy drama film produced by Walt Disney Productions and loosely based on the 1967 novel of the same name by Daniel P. Mannix. The 24th Disney animated feature film, the film tells the story of two unlikely friends, a red fox named Tod and a hound dog named Copper, who struggle to preserve their friendship despite their emerging instincts and the surrounding social pressures demanding them to be adversaries. The film was directed by Ted Berman, Richard Rich, and Art Stevens, and features the voices of Mickey Rooney, Kurt Russell, Pearl Bailey, Jack Albertson, Sandy Duncan, Jeanette Nolan, Pat Buttram, Dick Bakalyan, and Paul Winchell.
Gary Wayne Goldman is an American film producer, director, animator, writer and voice actor, he is well known for working on films with Don Bluth such as All Dogs Go to Heaven for his directorial debut, Anastasia, An American Tail, and The Land Before Time. He was an animator at Disney before working at Sullivan Bluth Studios with Bluth.
Fox Animation Studios was an American traditional 2D hand-drawn cel-animated/CGI production company located in Phoenix, Arizona, and was the former in-house feature animation division of 20th Century Fox. After six years of operation, the studio was shut down on June 26, 2000, ten days after the release of its final film, Titan A.E., and was replaced by Fox's Blue Sky Studios division.
20th Century Animation, Inc., is an animation subsidiary of The Walt Disney Studios. Originally formed in 1994 as a subsidiary of 20th Century Fox, the studio is located in Century City, Los Angeles, and is tasked with producing feature-length films.
Banjo the Woodpile Cat is a 1979 animated short film directed by Don Bluth. It follows the story of Banjo, an overly curious and rebellious kitten who, after getting into trouble for falling from a house to see if he could land on his feet, runs away from his woodpile home in his owners' farm in Payson, Utah by catching a truck to Salt Lake City. Produced in a shoestring budget, and created in Bluth's garage, the film took four years to make and it was the first production of Don Bluth Productions, later Sullivan Bluth Studios. It premiered theatrically in 1979, and at the USA Film Festival one year later. It was released on DVD by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment in 2014.
Sullivan Bluth Studios was an Irish-American animation studio established in 1979 by animator Don Bluth. Bluth and several colleagues, all of whom were former Disney animators, left Disney on September 13, 1979 to form Don Bluth Productions, later known as the Bluth Group. This studio produced the short film Banjo the Woodpile Cat, the feature film The Secret of NIMH, a brief animation sequence in the musical Xanadu, and the video games Dragon's Lair and Space Ace. The Bluth Group went bankrupt in 1984, and Bluth co-founded Sullivan Bluth Studios with American businessman Morris Sullivan in 1985.
John Foster Pomeroy is an American animator who has worked for several major studios, including Walt Disney Animation Studios and Sullivan Bluth Studios. He has also worked as producer, and screenwriter on several animated feature films.
The Disney Renaissance is the period from 1989 to 1999 during which Walt Disney Feature Animation returned to producing critically and commercially successful animated films that were mostly based on well-known stories, much as the studio did during the era of Walt Disney during the 1930s to 1960s. The resurgence allowed Disney's animated films to become powerhouse successes at the domestic and foreign box office, earning much greater profit than most of the Disney films of previous eras.
Morris Francis Sullivan was an American businessman who co-founded the Sullivan Bluth Studios with three former Disney animators. Sullivan Bluth Studios employed approximately 400 people at the peak of its success. Under Sullivan's direction, the former animation studio created such films as The Land Before Time and An American Tail.
The Pebble and the Penguin is a 1995 American animated musical comedy-drama adventure film produced and directed by Don Bluth and Gary Goldman, starring the voices of Martin Short and Jim Belushi, and based on the true life mating rituals of the Adélie penguins in Antarctica. It centers around a timid, stuttering penguin named Hubie who tries to impress a beautiful penguin named Marina by giving her a pebble that fell from the sky and keep her from the clutches of an evil penguin named Drake who wants Marina for himself.
Jeffrey James Varab is a leading animator and visual effects artist and one of the pioneers of 3D computer animation. His work on the 1995 film Casper marked the first fully computer-rendered lead character in a feature film, beating Woody and Buzz Lightyear of the fully computer-animated Toy Story by six months.
Dan Kuenster is an American character animator and director, who worked for Walt Disney Animation Studios, BrainPower Studio and Sullivan Bluth Studios, before pursuing educational multimedia projects. He is also formerly Executive Vice President of Design and Animation at Istation in Dallas, Texas.
Dragon's Lair is an interactive film LaserDisc video game developed by Advanced Microcomputer Systems and published by Cinematronics in 1983, as the first game in the Dragon's Lair series. In the game, the protagonist Dirk the Daring is a knight attempting to rescue Princess Daphne from the evil dragon Singe who has locked the princess in the foul wizard Mordroc's castle. It featured animation by ex-Disney animator Don Bluth.
Dragon's Lair is a video game franchise created by Rick Dyer and Don Bluth. The series is famous for its western animation-style graphics and convoluted decades-long history of being ported to many platforms and being remade into television and comic book series.
Among the directors of feature films, Don Bluth is noteworthy. Born in El Paso, Texas, on 13 September 1937, Bluth went to Disney in 1956 (...).
The film developed a cult following which only increased with easy access via video and cable showings.
That failure [of Secret of NIMH] caused Aurora to back out of producing Bluth's next film, East of the Sun, West of the Moon.
This game ranks a 24 on a scale out of 100 (100 = most often seen, 1=least common) in popularity based on census ownership records.
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