Don Juan

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Portrait of Francisco D'Andrade as Don Juan in Mozart's Don Giovanni by Max Slevogt, 1912 Max Slevogt Francisco d'Andrade as Don Giovanni.jpg
Portrait of Francisco D'Andrade as Don Juan in Mozart's Don Giovanni by Max Slevogt, 1912

Don Juan (Spanish pronounced  [doŋˈxwan] ), also known as Don Giovanni (Italian), is a legendary, fictional libertine who devotes his life to seducing women. Famous versions of the story include a 17th-century play, El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra (The Trickster of Seville and the Stone Guest) by Tirso de Molina, a 1787 opera, Don Giovanni , with music by Mozart and a libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, and a satirical, epic poem, Don Juan , by Lord Byron.

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By linguistic extension from the name of the character, "Don Juan" has become a generic expression for a womanizer, and stemming from this, Don Juanism is a non-clinical psychiatric descriptor.

Pronunciation

In Spanish, is pronounced [doŋˈxwan] . The usual English pronunciation is /ˌdɒnˈwɑːn/ , with two syllables and a silent "J", but today, as more English-speakers have notions of Spanish, the pronunciation /ˌdɒnˈhwɑːn/ is becoming more common. However, in Lord Byron's verse version the name rhymes with ruin and true one, suggesting the name was pronounced with three syllables, possibly /ˌdɒnˈʒən/ or /ˌdɒnˈən/ , in England at the time.[ original research? ] This would have been characteristic of English literary precedent, where English pronunciations were often imposed on Spanish names, such as Don Quixote /ˌdɒnˈkwɪksət/ .

Story

There have been many versions of the Don Juan story, but the basic outline remains the same: Don Juan is a wealthy libertine who devotes his life to seducing women. He takes great pride in his ability to seduce women of all ages and stations in life, and he often disguises himself and assumes other identities in order to seduce women. The aphorism that Don Juan lives by is: "Tan largo me lo fiáis" (translated as "What a long term you are giving me!" [1] ). This is his way of indicating that he is young and that death is still distant – he thinks he has plenty of time to repent later for his sins. [2]

His life is also punctuated with violence and gambling, and in most versions he kills a man: Don Gonzalo (the "Commendatore"), the father of Doña Ana, a girl he has seduced. This murder leads to the famous "last supper" scene, where Don Juan invites a statue of Don Gonzalo to dinner. There are different versions of the outcome: in some versions Don Juan dies, having been denied salvation by God; in other versions he willingly goes to Hell, having refused to repent; in some versions Don Juan asks for and receives a divine pardon.

Earliest written version

The first written version of the Don Juan story was a play, El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra (The Trickster of Seville and the Stone Guest), published in Spain around 1630 by Tirso de Molina (pen name of Gabriel Téllez). [3]

In Tirso de Molina's version Don Juan is portrayed as an evil man who seduces women thanks to his ability to manipulate language and disguise his appearance. This is a demonic attribute, since the devil is known for shape-shifting or taking other peoples' forms. [2] In fact Tirso's play has a clear moralizing intention. Tirso felt that young people were throwing their lives away, because they believed that as long as they made an Act of Contrition before they died, they would automatically receive God's forgiveness for all the wrongs they had done, and enter into heaven. Tirso's play argues in contrast that there is a penalty for sin, and there are even unforgivable sins. The devil himself, who is identified with Don Juan as a shape-shifter and a "man without a name", cannot escape eternal punishment for his unforgivable sins. As in a medieval Danse Macabre, death makes us all equal in that we all must face eternal judgment. [2] Tirso de Molina's theological perspective is quite apparent through the dreadful ending of his play. [2]

Another aspect of Tirso's play is the cultural importance of honor in Spain of the golden age. This was particularly focused on women's sexual behavior, in that if a woman did not remain chaste until marriage, her whole family's honor would be devalued. [4] [2]

Later versions

The original play was written in the Spanish Golden Age according to its beliefs and ideals. But as time passed, the story was translated into other languages, and it was adapted to accommodate cultural changes. [3]

Other well-known versions of Don Juan are Molière's play Dom Juan ou le Festin de pierre (1665), Antonio de Zamora's play No hay plazo que no se cumpla, ni deuda que no se pague, y Convidado de piedra (1722), Goldoni's play Don Giovanni Tenorio (1735), José de Espronceda's poem El estudiante de Salamanca (1840), and José Zorrilla's play Don Juan Tenorio (1844). Don Juan Tenorio is still performed throughout the Spanish-speaking world on 2 November ("All Souls Day", the Day of the Dead).

Mozart's opera Don Giovanni has been called "the opera of all operas". [5] First performed in Prague in 1787, it inspired works by E. T. A. Hoffmann, Alexander Pushkin, Søren Kierkegaard, George Bernard Shaw, and Albert Camus. The critic Charles Rosen analyzes the appeal of Mozart's opera in terms of "the seductive physical power" of a music linked with libertinism, political fervor, and incipient Romanticism. [6]

The first English version of Don Juan was The Libertine (1676) by Thomas Shadwell. A revival of this play in 1692 included songs and dramatic scenes with music by Henry Purcell. Another well-known English version is Lord Byron's epic poem Don Juan (1821).

Don Juans Ende, a play derived from an unfinished 1844 retelling of the tale by poet Nikolaus Lenau, inspired Richard Strauss's orchestral tone poem Don Juan . [7] This piece premiered on 11 November 1889, in Weimar, Germany, where Strauss served as Court Kapellmeister and conducted the orchestra of the Weimar Opera. In Lenau's version of the story, Don Juan's promiscuity springs from his determination to find the ideal woman. Despairing of ever finding her, he ultimately surrenders to melancholy and wills his own death. [8]

In the film Adventures of Don Juan starring Errol Flynn (1948), Don Juan is a swashbuckling lover of women who also fights against the forces of evil.

Don Juan in Tallinn (1971) is an Estonian film version based on a play by Samuil Aljošin. In this version, Don Juan is a woman dressed in men's clothes. She is accompanied by her servant Florestino on her adventure in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. [9]

In Don Juan, or If Don Juan Were a Woman (1973), a French-Italian co-production, Brigitte Bardot plays a female version of the character. [10]

Don Juan DeMarco (1995), starring Johnny Depp and Marlon Brando, is a film in which a mental patient is convinced he is Don Juan, and retells his life story to a psychiatrist.

Don Jon (2013), a film set in New Jersey of the 21st century, features an attractive young man whose addiction to online pornography is compared to his girlfriend's consumerism.

Cultural influence

Don Juan fascinated the 18th-century English novelist Jane Austen: "I have seen nobody on the stage who has been a more interesting Character than that compound of Cruelty and Lust". [11]

The Danish philosopher Kierkegaard discussed Mozart's version of the Don Juan story at length in his 1843 treatise Either/Or . [12]

In 1901, Finnish composer Jean Sibelius wrote the second movement of his second symphony based on the climax of Don Juan. The piece begins with a representation of Death walking up the road to Don Juan's house, where Don Juan pleads with Death to let him live. Also, the 1905 novel The Song of the Blood-Red Flower by the Finnish author Johannes Linnankoski has been influenced by Don Juan along the protagonist of the story.

The protagonist of Shaw's 1903 Man and Superman is a modern-day Don Juan named not Juan Tenorio but John Tanner. The actor playing Tanner morphs into his model in the mammoth third act, usually called Don Juan in Hell and often produced as a separate play due to its length. In it, Don Juan (played by Charles Boyer in a noted 1950s recording) exchanges philosophical barbs with the devil (Charles Laughton).

In Spain, the first three decades of the twentieth century saw more cultural fervor surrounding the Don Juan figure than perhaps any other period. In one of the most provocative pieces to be published, the endocrinologist Gregorio Marañón argued that, far from the paragon of masculinity he was often assumed to be, Don Juan actually suffered from an arrested psychosexual development. [13]

During the 1918 influenza epidemic in Spain, the figure of Don Juan served as a metaphor for the flu microbe. [14]

The mid-20th century French author Albert Camus referred to Don Juan in his 1942 essay The Myth of Sisyphus . Camus describes Don Juan as an example of an 'absurd hero', as he maintains a reckless abandon in his approach to love. His seductive lifestyle "brings with it all the faces in the world, and its tremor comes from the fact that it knows itself to be mortal". He "multiplies what he cannot unify... It is his way of giving and vivifying". [15]

In the 1956 Buddy Holly single "Modern Don Juan", the singer gains a reputation for being like the libertine in his pursuit of a romantic relationship.

Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman wrote and directed a comic sequel in 1960 titled The Devil's Eye in which Don Juan, accompanied by his servant, is sent from Hell to contemporary Sweden to seduce a young woman before her marriage.

Anthony Powell in his 1960 novel Casanova's Chinese Restaurant contrasts Don Juan, who "merely liked power" and "obviously did not know what sensuality was", with Casanova, who "undoubtedly had his sensuous moments". [16] Stefan Zweig observes the same difference between both characters in his biography of "Casanova". [17]

In the 1910 French novel The Phantom of the Opera by Gaston Leroux, the titular character (also known as Erik) had spent much of his life writing an opera, Don Juan Triumphant , refusing to play it for Christine Daaé and telling her that it was unlike any music she ever heard and that when it was complete, he would die with it, never sharing it with mankind. Following the unmasking scene, Erik refers to himself as Don Juan as he confronts Christine, verbally and physically abusing her as he uses her hands to gouge his face, exclaiming 'When a woman has seen me- as you have- she becomes mine... I'm a real Don Juan... Look at me! I'm Don Juan Triumphant!'

Don Juan is also a plot point in Susan Kay's novel Phantom , which expands on Gaston Leroux's novel The Phantom of the Opera . The titular character was referred to as "Don Juan" in his childhood, a nickname given to him be Javert, a man who exploited Erik as a child. Later in life, he began writing Don Juan Triumphant, spending decades on the piece, which Christine Daaé heard after hiding in her room after removing Erik's mask.

In the 1986 Broadway musical adaptation of Gaston Leroux's 1910 The Phantom of the Opera , the character of the Phantom writes an opera based on the legend of Don Juan called Don Juan Triumphant .

Don Juan is mentioned in the 1980 Broadway musical adaptation of Victor Hugo's 1862 novel Les Misérables , in which the character Grantaire states that Marius Pontmercy is acting like Don Juan.

The former Thai Queen Sirikit once told reporters that her son Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn, now King Rama X, was "a bit of a Don Juan".

See also

Related Research Articles

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Don Giovanni is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Italian libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte. It is based on the legends of Don Juan, a fictional libertine and seducer, by Spanish writer Tirso de Molina. It was premiered by the Prague Italian opera at the National Theater, now called the Estates Theatre, on 29 October 1787. Da Ponte's libretto was billed as a dramma giocoso, a common designation of its time that denotes a mixing of serious and comic action. Mozart entered the work into his catalogue as an opera buffa. Although sometimes classified as comic, it blends comedy, melodrama and supernatural elements.

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Tirso de Molina

Gabriel Téllez, better known as Tirso de Molina, was a Spanish Baroque dramatist, poet and Roman Catholic monk. He is primarily known for writing The Trickster of Seville and the Stone Guest, the play from which the popular character of Don Juan originates. His work is also of particular significance due to the abundance of female protagonists, as well as the exploration of sexual issues.

Don Juan Tenorio: Drama religioso-fantástico en dos partes is a play written in 1844 by José Zorrilla. It is the more romantic of the two principal Spanish-language literary interpretations of the legend of Don Juan. The other is the 1630 El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra, which is attributed to Tirso de Molina. Don Juan Tenorio owes a great deal to this earlier version, as recognized by Zorrilla himself in 1880 in his Recuerdos del tiempo viejo, although the author curiously confuses de Molina with another writer of the same era, Agustín Moreto.

<i>The Stone Guest</i> (play)

The Stone Guest is a poetic drama by Alexander Pushkin based on the Spanish legend of Don Juan, spelled Don Guan by Pushkin.

Don Juan Triumphant is the name of a fictional opera written by the title character in the 1910 novel The Phantom of the Opera. In the 1986 musical The Phantom of the Opera by Andrew Lloyd Webber, the concept is expanded as an opera within a musical and the performance of it plays a major role in the storyline. The fictional piece draws major inspiration from Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's famous 1787 work Don Giovanni yet the Phantom's opera is depicted as far more bleak and dark.

Don Juan is a legendary fictional libertine.

<i>Dom Juan</i>

Dom Juan ou le Festin de pierre is a five-act 1665 comedy by Molière based upon the Spanish legend of Don Juan Tenorio. The aristocrat Dom Juan is a rakehell who seduces, marries, and abandons Elvira, discarded as just another romantic conquest. Later, he invites to dinner the statue of a man whom he recently had murdered; the statue accepts and reciprocates Dom Juan's invitation. In the course of their second evening, the stone statue of the murdered man charms, deceives, and leads Dom Juan to Hell.

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Don Giovanni is a 1979 French-Italian film directed by Joseph Losey. It is an adaptation of Mozart's classic 1787 opera Don Giovanni, based on the Don Juan legend of a seducer, destroyed by his excesses. The opera itself has been called one of Mozart's "trio of masterpieces". The film stars Ruggero Raimondi in the title role, and the conductor is Lorin Maazel. Nearly three decades after the film's release, Nicholas Wapshott called it a "near perfect amalgamation of opera and the screen".

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<i>The Trickster of Seville and the Stone Guest</i>

The Trickster of Seville and the Stone Guest is a play written by Tirso de Molina. Its title varies according to the English translation, and it has also been published under the titles The Seducer of Seville and the Stone Guest and The Playboy of Seville and the Stone Guest. The play was first published in Spain around 1630, though it may have been performed as early as 1616. Set in the 14th century, the play is the earliest fully developed dramatisation of the Don Juan legend.

Don Juanism or Don Juan syndrome is a non-clinical term for the desire, in a man, to have sex with many different female partners.

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Don Giovanni, o sia Il convitato di pietra, also known as Don Giovanni Tenorio is a one-act opera by the Italian composer Giuseppe Gazzaniga. The opera was first performed at the Teatro San Moisè, Venice, on 5 February 1787, the same day as Francesco Gardi's opera Don Giovanni in the same city at the Teatro San Samuele The libretto, by Giovanni Bertati, is based on the legend of Don Juan as told by Tirso de Molina in his play The Trickster of Seville and the Stone Guest (c. 1630), leading to comparisons with Mozart's Don Giovanni which had its premiere later in 1787. Mozart's librettist, Lorenzo Da Ponte, certainly knew the earlier opera. Gazzaniga's work is much shorter than Mozart's, and originally formed part of a double-bill with another piece, Il capriccio drammatico.

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La pravità castigata is a 1730 pastiche with music by multiple composers and an Italian language libretto by Antonio Denzio. It is the first 18th-century opera based on the Don Juan legend. It was also the first opera ever produced that retains the original setting and at least some of the original character names derived from early 17th-century dramatic prototypes of the Don Juan legend, the most important of which is Tirso de Molina's play El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra. La pravità castigata was originally performed during Lent of 1730 in the opera theater of Franz Anton von Sporck in Prague, then revived with new music by Eustachio Bambini in Brno in 1734. Unfortunately, the Brno performance was regarded as the original production for decades, and a published transcription of the libretto identifies it incorrectly as an anonymous text first performed in Brno.

<i>Flammen</i> (Schulhoff) Opera by Erwin Schulhoff

Flammen (Flames) is an opera in two acts and ten scenes composed by Erwin Schulhoff, his only opera. The original libretto in Czech was written by Karel Josef Beneš. The opera had its world premiere at the old National Theatre in Brno on 27 January 1932 in Czech under the title Plameny. It was not heard again until the mid-1990s, when it was performed in its German translation by Max Brod as Flammen. Its story is a surrealist retelling of the Don Juan legend with elements from the legend of the Wandering Jew, and heavily influenced by Freudian psychology. Unlike the title character in Mozart's Don Giovanni based on the same legend, Don Juan is not punished by being dragged down to Hell, but instead is condemned to live forever.

The Libertine is a play by Thomas Shadwell published in 1676. It is an adaptation of the original plot of El burlador de Sevilla, written by Tirso de Molina, which follows the story of a horrid womanizer who plays with his life and others as he commits sins and "shapeshifts" into a devil-like man. Like most of the adaptations, The Libertine is a story of a mischievous man condemned to pay for the actions of his sins.

Il convitato di pietra may refer to various versions of the stone guest and Don Juan story.

References

  1. Wade, Gerald E. (December 1964). ""El Burlador de Sevilla": Some Annotations". Hispania. American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese. 47 (4): 751–761. doi:10.2307/336326. JSTOR   336326.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Rodríguez, Rodney (2004). "La comedia del Siglo de Oro". Momentos cumbres de las literaturas hispánicas (in Spanish). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. pp. 262–318. ISBN   9780131401327.
  3. 1 2 Waxman, Samuel M. (1908). "The Don Juan Legend in Literature". Journal of American Folklore . 21 (81): 184–204. doi:10.2307/534636. JSTOR   534636.
  4. Galiş, Florin (2014). "La relación de Don Juan con las mujeres". Journal of Research in Gender Studies (in Spanish). 4 (2): 731.
  5. Mozart's Don Giovanni: Opera Classics Library Series, ed. by Burton D. Fisher, (2002) p.9 ISBN   1930841760
  6. Charles Rosen, The Classical Style (1977) p. 323-4
  7. Richard Strauss - Don Juan, Op. 20, YouTube
  8. Heninger, Barbara. "Program notes for Redwood Symphony ." Retrieved March 9, 2014. Archived 19 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  9. "Don Juan Tallinnas".
  10. "Don Juan (Or if Don Juan Were a Woman)".
  11. D. Le Faye ed., Jane Austen's Letters (1996) p. 221
  12. Søren Kierkegaard, Either/Or, "The Immediate Stages of the Erotic, or Musical Erotic."
  13. Marañón, Gregorio. "Notas sobre la biología de Don Juan" ("Notes about the Biology of Don Juan"), Revista de Occidente III (1924): 15-53, reprinted in a 1945 book and in his Obras completas, in Spanish)
  14. Davis, Ryan A. (2013). The Spanish Flu: Narrative and Cultural Identity in Spain, 1918. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 105–107. ISBN   978-1-137-33921-8.
  15. Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus , "The Absurd Man: Don Juanism"
  16. Anthony Powell, Casanova's Chinese Restaurant (1980) p. 38
  17. Drei Dichter ihres Lebens. Casanova – Stendhal – Tolstoi, Stefan Zweig, 1928.