Dongzhi (solar term)

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Dongzhi festival is a traditional holiday of China that has a long history and specific customs. Dongzhi means the arrival of winter. The history of Dongzhi was arrived since the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) and it became important until Tang and Song Dynasty, when they decided to officially made a day to worship their god and ancestors. In the present days, in some regions of China, people still gather around to eat a special meal or to visit their ancestral tombs.

Contents

Dongzhi
Chinese name
Chinese 冬至
Literal meaningwinter's extreme
(i.e. winter solstice)
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet đông chí
Chữ Hán 冬至
Korean name
Hangul 동지
Hanja 冬至
Japanese name
Kanji 冬至
Hiragana とうじ

Korea

Solar term
  Longitude    Term    Calendar
  Spring
  315°  Lichun  4 – 5 February
  330°  Yushui   18–19 February
  345°  Jingzhe  5 – 6 March
   Chunfen   20–21 March
  15°  Qingming  4 – 5 April
  30°  Guyu   20–21 April
  Summer
  45°  Lixia  5 – 6 May
  60°  Xiaoman   21–22 May
  75°  Mangzhong  5 – 6 June
  90°  Xiazhi   21–22 June
  105°  Xiaoshu  7 – 8 July
  120°  Dashu   22–23 July
  Autumn
  135°  Liqiu  7 – 8 August
  150°  Chushu   23–24 August
  165°  Bailu  7 – 8 September
  180°  Qiufen   23–24 September
  195°  Hanlu  8 – 9 October
  210°  Shuangjiang    23–24 October
  Winter
  225°  Lidong  7 – 8 November
  240°  Xiaoxue   22–23 November
  255°  Daxue  7 – 8 December
  270°  Dongzhi   21–22 December
  285°  Xiaohan  5 – 6 January
  300°  Dahan   20–21 January

In Korea, the winter solstice is also called the "Small Seol," and there is a custom of celebrating the day. People make porridge with red beans and round rice cakes(saealsim) with sticky rice. In the past, red bean porridge soup was sprayed on walls or doors because it was said to ward off bad ghosts. In addition, there was a custom in the early days of the Goryeo and Joseon Period in which people in financial difficulty settled all their debts and enjoyed the day. [1]

China

Sunlight directed through the 17 arches of Seventeen Arch Bridge, Summer Palace, Beijing around winter solstice Seventeen Arch Bridge at winter solstice sunset (20201222160213).jpg
Sunlight directed through the 17 arches of Seventeen Arch Bridge, Summer Palace, Beijing around winter solstice

The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms. [2] Dōngzhì, Tōji, Dongji, Tunji (in Okinawan), or Đông chí (in Vietnamese) is the 22nd solar term, and marks the winter solstice. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 270° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 285°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 270°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around 21 December (22 December East Asia time) and ends around 5 January.

Along with equinoxes, solstices (traditional Chinese : 至點 ; simplified Chinese : 至日;"extreme day") mark the middle of Traditional Chinese calendar seasons. Thus, in "冬至", the Chinese character "" means "extreme", which implies "solstices", and therefore the term for the winter solstice directly signifies the summit of winter, as "midwinter" is used in English.

In China, Dongzhi was originally celebrated as an end-of-harvest festival. Today, it is observed with a family reunion over the long night, when pink and white tangyuan are eaten in southern China in sweet broth to symbolise family unity and prosperity. Whereas in Northern China, the traditional Dongzhi food would be the jiaozi.

Japan

In Japan, Toshiba is also one of the 24 solar terms. On this day, it is customary to drink grapefruit hot water and eat pumpkin in certain places. The とうじ‐カボチャ【冬至カボチャ】.The habit of eating pumpkin during the winter solstice is because it makes sense to provide products for the festival during the winter when vegetables are lacking. とうじ‐ばい【冬至梅】is a variety of plum. White flowers begin to bloom around the winter solstice. とうじ It is still a surname in Japan and has a long history.

Pentads

Date and time

Date and Time (UTC)
year beginend
辛巳2001-12-21 19:212002-01-05 12:43
壬午2002-12-22 01:142003-01-05 18:27
癸未2003-12-22 07:032004-01-06 00:18
甲申2004-12-21 12:412005-01-05 06:03
乙酉2005-12-21 18:342006-01-05 11:46
丙戌2006-12-22 00:222007-01-05 17:40
丁亥2007-12-22 06:072008-01-05 23:24
戊子2008-12-21 12:032009-01-05 05:14
己丑2009-12-21 17:462010-01-05 11:08
庚寅2010-12-21 23:382011-01-05 16:54
辛卯2011-12-22 05:302012-01-05 22:43
壬辰2012-12-21 11:112013-01-05 04:33
癸巳2013-12-21 17:112014-01-05 10:24
甲午2014-12-21 23:032015-01-05 16:20
Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System

See also

Related Research Articles

Chinese calendar Lunisolar calendar from China

The traditional Chinese calendar, is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena. In China it is defined by the Chinese national standard GB/T 33661–2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on May 12, 2017.

A solstice is an event that occurs when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere. Two solstices occur annually, around June 21 and December 21. In many countries, the seasons of the year are determined by reference to the solstices and the equinoxes.

Dongzhi Festival

The Dōngzhì Festival or Winter Solstice Festival is one of the most important Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese, Taiwanese, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese during the Dongzhi solar term, some day between December 21 to December 23.

Solar term

A solar term is any of twenty-four periods in traditional Chinese lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon. The points are spaced 15° apart along the ecliptic and are used by lunisolar calendars to stay synchronized with the seasons, which is crucial for agrarian societies. The solar terms are also used to calculate intercalary months; which month is repeated depends on the position of the sun at the time.

The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms. Dàhán, Daikan, Daehan, or Đại hàn is the 24th solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 300° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 315°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 300°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around 20 January and ends around 4 February.

Traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms. Lìchūn, Risshun, Ipchun, or Lập xuân is the 1st solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 315° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 330°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 315°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around February 4 and ends around February 18. It's also the beginning of a sexagenary cycle.

The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms. Chūnfēn, Shunbun, Chunbun, or Xuân phân is the 4th solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 0° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 15°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around 20 March and ends around 4 April. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 0°.

Lìxià, Rikka, Ipha, or Lập hạ is the 7th solar term according to the traditional Chinese Calendar, which divides a year into 24 solar terms (節氣). It signifies the beginning of summer in Traditional Chinese cultures.

The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms. Xiàzhì, Geshi, Haji, or Hạ chí is the 10th solar term, and marks the summer solstice. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 90° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 105°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 90°.

The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms. Mángzhòng, Bōshu, Mangjong, or Mang chủng is the ninth solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 75° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 90°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 75°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around June 5 and ends around June 21.

Qīngmíng, Seimei, Cheongmyeong or Thanh minh, is the name of the 5th solar term of the traditional Chinese lunisolar calendar, which divides a year into 24 solar terms. In space partitioning, Qingming begins when the sun reaches the celestial longitude of 15° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 30°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 15°, usually on April 5.

The traditional Chinese lunisolar calendar divide a year into 24 solar terms. Gǔyǔ, Kokuu, Gogu, or Cốc vũ is the 6th solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 30° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 45°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 30°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around April 20 and ends around May 5.

The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms. Xiǎomǎn, Shōman, Soman, or Tiểu mãn is the 8th solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 60° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 75°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 60°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around 21 May and ends around 5 June.

The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms. Lìdōng, Rittō, Ipdong, or Lập đông is the 19th solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 225° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 240°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 225°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around November 7 and ends around November 22.

The traditional Chinese calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms (節氣). Xiǎoxuě, Shōsetsu, Soseol, or Tiểu tuyết is the 20th solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 240° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 255°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 240°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around 22 November and ends around 7 December.

The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms. Dàxuě, Taisetsu, Daeseol, or Đại tuyết is the 21st solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 255° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 270°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 255°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around 7 December and ends around 21 December.

The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms. Báilù, Hakuro, Baengno, or Bạch lộ is the 15th solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 165° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 180°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 165°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around September 7 and ends around September 23. Mid-Autumn Festival is celebrated around this time.

Winter solstice Astronomical event of the Solar System

The winter solstice, hiemal solstice or hibernal solstice occurs when one of the Earth's poles has its maximum tilt away from the Sun. It happens twice yearly, once in each hemisphere. For that hemisphere, the winter solstice is the day with the shortest period of daylight and longest night of the year, when the Sun is at its lowest daily maximum elevation in the sky. At the pole, there is continuous darkness or twilight around the winter solstice. Its opposite is the summer solstice. Also the Tropic of Cancer or Tropic of Capricorn depending on the hemispheres winter solstice the sun goes 90 degrees below the horizon at solar midnight to the nadir.

Patjuk

Patjuk, azukigayu, hóngdòu zhōu or red bean porridge is a type of congee consisting of red beans and rice eaten across East Asia. In Korea, patjuk(팥죽) is commonly eaten during the winter season, and is associated to dongji, as people used to believe that the red color of patjuk drives off baneful spirits.

References

  1. "동지". terms.naver.com (in Korean). Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  2. Zhang, Peiyu; Hunag, Hongfeng( (1994). "The Twenty-four Solar Terms of the Chinese Calendar and the Calculation for Them". Purple Mountain observatory.
Preceded by
Daxue (大雪)
Solar term (節氣)Succeeded by
Xiaohan (小寒)