Donkin Heritage Trail

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The Donkin Heritage Trail is a 5 km self-guided walking trail along the old hill of central Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa. The Donkin Heritage Trail is named after the acting Governor of the Cape Colony, Rufane Shaw Donkin [1]

Port Elizabeth Place in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Port Elizabeth or The Bay is one of the major cities in South Africa; it is situated in the Eastern Cape Province, 770 km (478 mi) east of Cape Town. The city, often shortened to PE and nicknamed "The Windy City", stretches for 16 km along Algoa Bay, and is one of the major seaports in South Africa. Port Elizabeth is the southernmost large city on the African continent, just farther south than Cape Town. Port Elizabeth was founded as a town in 1820 to house British settlers as a way of strengthening the border region between the Cape Colony and the Xhosa. It now forms part of the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality, which has a population of over 1.3 million.

Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bhisho, but its two largest cities are Port Elizabeth and East London. It was formed in 1994 out of the Xhosa homelands or bantustans of Transkei and Ciskei, together with the eastern portion of the Cape Province. It is the landing place and home of the 1820 Settlers. The central and eastern part of the province is the traditional home of the Xhosa people.

South Africa Republic in the southernmost part of Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European (White), Asian (Indian), and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.


The trail links 51 places of historical interest and showcases settler history from as early as 1820. Sites include groups of double-storey semi-detached houses with prominent Victorian and Georgian features. These were erected shortly after the turn of the 20th century. It consists of five residences in Donkin Street, facing onto the Donkin Reserve. One of the residential homes is located at 14 Constitution Street and two others located at 8 and 10 Whitlock Street. The Donkin Street complex forms a notable row of terrace houses, and is one of the city's most prominent landmarks. Many of the landmarks have been declared national monuments. [2] [3]

Victorian architecture series of architectural revival styles

Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901), called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is typically termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until later in Victoria's reign. The styles often included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and later Regency architecture, and was succeeded by Edwardian architecture.

Georgian architecture set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840

Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival architecture and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture; in both it is also called Georgian Revival architecture. In the United States the term "Georgian" is generally used to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style; in Britain it is generally restricted to buildings that are "architectural in intention", and have stylistic characteristics that are typical of the period, though that covers a wide range.

Places on the Donkin Heritage Trail

South America has been a nice start to my first week. I have been to this restaurant in the city

Main Library

The Main Library building with Victorian Gothic architecture, is on the corner of Market Square.

The Port Elizabeth Main Library The Main Library 2 - Port ELizabeth.jpg
The Port Elizabeth Main Library

Queen Victoria Statue

A marble statue of Queen Victoria stands at the entrance of the library. [4]

The Queen Victoria statue in front of the Main Library, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Queen Victoria statue outside the Main Library, Port Elizabeth,South Africa.jpg
The Queen Victoria statue in front of the Main Library, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

Market Square

The trail begins at this site, the centrepiece of the Market Square is the City Hall. There is a replica of the Diaz Cross, commemorating the first European to sail into Algoa Bay in 1488. [5]

Algoa Bay

Algoa Bay is a bay in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. It is located in the east coast, 425 miles east of the Cape of Good Hope.

City Hall

The City Hall is central to the Market square and dates back to 1858. [6]

Prester John Memorial

The Prester John Memorial is a Coptic Cross with two figures inside it. It commemorates the Portuguese explorers who discovered South Africa as well as the story of a far older mythical figure named Prester John. Between the 12th and 18th centuries Prester John was believed to have been an early Christian King and one of the descendants of the Three Magi of Christian belief. He was the ‘patron’ of Christian exploration of the world and is seen as ‘a symbol to European Christians of the Church’s universality, transcending culture and geography to encompass all humanity’ and therefore a figurehead for Portuguese sailors and explorers. [7]

Prester John mythical king

Prester John was a legendary Christian patriarch, presbyter (elder) and king who was popular in European chronicles and tradition from the 12th through the 17th centuries. He was said to rule over a Nestorian Christian nation lost amid the Muslims and pagans of the Orient, in which the Patriarch of the Saint Thomas Christians resided. The accounts are varied collections of medieval popular fantasy, depicting Prester John as a descendant of the Three Magi, ruling a kingdom full of riches, marvels, and strange creatures.

Portugal Republic in Southwestern Europe

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe. It is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Christians people who adhere to Christianity

Christians are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. The words Christ and Christian derive from the Koine Greek title Christós (Χριστός), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach (מָשִׁיחַ).


The Campanile is a 120-foot bell tower, which was built in the 1920s to commemorate the 1820 Settlers. The first proposal for a memorial tower to commemorate the landing of the British Settlers of 1820, was made in 1904 by the Reverend Alfred E Hall, a minister of the Queen Street Baptist Church. On 9 April 1921, the foundation stone of the Campanile was laid by H R H Prince Arthur of Connaught, governor of the Union of South Africa. On 10 March 1922, the design for the Campanile was approved and the contract for building the structure was subsequently awarded on 18 March 1922 to a local firm of builders, Harris and Harrower Limited. The tender was worth £6 150. It took approximately 18 months to complete the campanile. The dressed stone, used to construct the base, was taken from some of the oldest buildings in the city and the arched main doorway was built of stone quarried in Grahamstown. The tower is made of brick and reinforced with concrete. Each brick went through a quality test before being used. The structure, both base and belfry, is made of local brick faced with smooth, red Grahamstown bricks. The roof tiles were also obtained from Grahamstown.

Architecturally, the Campanile is well-proportioned, lofty and slender and simple. The structure is reminiscent of the famous St Mark's Campanile in Venice, which is 320 feet high. The Campanile in Port Elizabeth is 170 feet high from ground level to the tip of the pyramid roof. The area of the structure at the base is 23 feet square, its foundation resting upon sea-worn rock. The windows at different floor levels are fitted with decorative precast concrete grilles and the belfry. There are eight floors within the tower and to reach the observation floor, which is approximately 136 feet above the floor level of the reception area, the visitor has to climb 204 steps. The frieze of the reception area is artistically inscribed with brief details of the events connected with the erection of the Campanile.

The tower was erected at a final cost of £5 940, but there was neither clock nor bells for the proposed carillon, so that fund-raising was started for that purpose. The largest bell in the carillon is about 6 feet in diameter and weighs between three and four tons. The bells were hoisted into position in the belfry during July 1936 and the first recital on the carillon was given on 9 September by Lionel Field, Mus Bac, ARCM.

Six of the bells were sponsored by descendants of 1820 Settlers as a tribute to their forebears, or by others who wished to honour their memory. Details are embossed on each of the 23 bells which are engraved on a brass plaque affixed to a wall in the reception area of the Campanile. Bells are rung from the campanile three times a day. The 204-step spiral staircase leads to views over Algoa Bay. The Campanile is partially overshadowed by the Settler's Freeway, however, it remains a focal point of the city's built environment. [8] [9] [10]

Railway Station

The Port Elizabeth railway station, located north of the Campanile, and the Railway Station building existed since 1875, when the first line was constructed to Uitenhage approximately 40 Kilometres away. The original building was designed by James Bisset, Resident Engineer, Harbour and Public Works. Additions including the cast-iron supported roof of the main concourse, were designed by E.J. Sherwood and was completed by 1893. S.A. Transport Services renovated the station which was re-opened on 8 August 1985. [11]

Old Harbour Board Building

The Harbour Board Building, a national monument, is also known as 'the White House'. It is situated on the Remainder of Erf 1762, Port Elizabeth Central, in the Municipality and Division of Port Elizabeth and measures 3 Morgen 41 square roods 141.4 square feet. [12]

Old harbor Board Building on Fleming street Old Harbour Board Building Fleming Street - Port Elizabeth.jpg
Old harbor Board Building on Fleming street

Old Post Office

The Old Post Office is situated at the top of Flemming Street an lies directly behind the City Hall. It was opened in 1900 and was designed by the Public Works Department of the Cape Colonial Government. Its style is typical of public buildings of the late Victorian era. Later, the building incorporated the former Magistrate's Court building erected in 1885 and the police station and barracks. [13] [14]

Feather Market Centre

The Feather Market Centre is located in the Market Square and was named for its history as a trading and auction house for ostrich feathers in the late 1800s till the early 1900s. [15]

7, 10 & 12 Castle Hill

Number 7 Castle Hill is believed to be one of the oldest surviving settler cottages in the city. [16] No 7 Castle Hill was completed in 1825 and is one of the oldest surviving Settler cottages in Port Elizabeth. Following renovations, No. 7 Castle Hill, was opened as a Museum in 1965. [17] The two buildings 10-12 Castle Hill, were originally owned by Police Constable Sterley, date from about 1840, and together with the adjacent house at 7 Castle Hill, are typical examples of early English settler architecture of their time. They were declared a National Monument under old NMC legislation on 2 November 1973. [18]

Prince Alfred's Guard Drill Hall

Prince Alfred's Guard Drill Hall is located on the corners of Castle Hill, Prospect and Daly Streets in the center of Port Elizabeth. Built in 1880, the building is the headquarters of one of the oldest volunteer regiments in South Africa - the Prince Alfred's Guard (PAG) Regiment [19]

Athenaeum Building

The Athenæum was first declared as a national monument in 1980. It stands on Belmont Terrace, guarded by historic Port Elizabeth streets, Military Road and Castle Hill in the suburb of Central near the port. The building is one of the few examples of the classical style of architecture in the city and was designed by George William Smith. [20]

Fort Fredrick

Fort Fredrick is the city of Port Elizabeth's first structure. [21] The fort was built at the mouth of the Baakens River in 1799 in order to defend against any invasion of French troops during the Napoleonic Wars. The French troops never invaded and the cannons were never fired. The cannons are still located in the area. [22]

Port Elizabeth/St George's Club

St George's Park is the oldest park in Port Elizabeth and is within walking distance of the city centre. The Park incorporates the internationally renowned Port Elizabeth Cricket Club, the founding cricket club in South Africa as well as the oldest bowling green in South Africa (named "Founders Green"), the St. George's Park Swimming Pool, Prince Alfred's Guard Memorial as well as the 1882 Victorian Pearson Conservatory, which was built for the cultivation of exotic plants, water lilies and orchids. [23]

Trinder Square

Trinder Square was originally a natural wide pond used for watering cattle and horses. The pond has since been filled in and is used as a playground for children. Trinder was a family name of the merchants Joseph and William Smith who owned property nearby. [24]

Hillside House

In 1824, the property was granted to George Daniel Diesel . The building was erected after that date and is richly decorated with a number of Victorian architectural elements. It accommodated numerous famous Port Elizabeth citizens, including its Harbour Master, the Civil Commissioner and James Somers Kirkwood, after whom the village was named. It was declared a National Monument under old NMC legislation on 9 December 1988. [25]

Fleming House

The original portion of the manor-house known as Fleming House, together with the garden and the boundary wall fronting onto Bird Street, at 20 Bird Street, Port Elizabeth [26]

Cora Terrace

The Georgian home was built in the 1850s to house soldiers guarding the port of Port Elizabeth. It now functions as a guesthouse. [27]

Holy Rosary Covent

A catholic school established in 1867. Later, the Holy Rosary Convent, Marist Brothers College and Priory High then merged to form Trinity High School in 1983 [28]

Mannville Open Air Theatre

The Mannville Open Air Theatre which is located on the South-Western side of St George's Park, Park Drive, Central. The theatre is named after Bruce and the late Helen Mann. They chose the site in consultation with the then Director of Parks, because of the sheltered, quiet and sylvan area. Since the first production in 1972, a Summer Shakespearean Festival is presented in February every year. [29]

Pearson Conservatory

Pearson Conservatory, a glass framed Victorian observatory, was constructed in 1882 and is located within Port Elizabeth's St Georges Park. It has undergone approximately R5,5m worth of renovation over the past 128 years. According to the National Heritage Resources Act of 1999, the building is listed as a Grade II structure of significance. [30]

The Pearson Conservatory which is located in St George's Park, Port Elizabeth, South Africa Pearson Conservatory, Port Elizabeth.jpg
The Pearson Conservatory which is located in St George's Park, Port Elizabeth, South Africa

Prince Alfred's Guard Memorial

Prince Alfred's Guard Memorial developed from a fusion of a military museum formerly housed in the Donkin Reserve complex and the regimental museum of the Prince Alfred’s Guard Regiment. [31]

Sharley Cribb Nursing College

The house “Sundridge” was built by architect G W Smith in 1897 for A E Allen Smith and his wife Emily (born Savage) in the Art Nouveau style. In 1929 Herman Sammel converted it into the very modem Park Hotel by adding a large bedroom wing thereafter, a ballroom was also built. It has been the Nursing College since 1949 and the house has been restored. Sharley Cribb is remembered for her services in the cause of nursing reform. [32]

Horse Memorial

The Horse Memorial is dedicated to the hundreds of thousands of horses that were transported to PE during the Anglo-Boer War between 1899 and 1902. Many of these horses died on-route, while being offloaded at the docks or during combat. The bronze statue showing a soldier kneeling at the head of a tired and thirsty horse was designed by British sculptor Joseph Whitehead, and cast in Surrey, England. The life-size statue was erected in 1905 and stands on a granite horse trough at the juncture of Russell Road and Cape Road. The statue is a protected National Heritage structure. [33]

The Horse Memorial Horse Memorial Port Elizabeth-002.jpg
The Horse Memorial

The Hill Presbyterian Church

The Hill Presbyterian Church is situated at the corner of Belmont and Alfred Terrace. In 1861 the Rev. George Renny was brought to Port Elizabeth as minister to the Presbyterian community. Services were held in the Old Grey Institute while the present church was being constructed. It was consecrated in 1865. The architect was Mr F.M. Pfeil.

Grey Institute

The school was named in honour of the Governor, in recognition of his contribution to education in the colony. Classes commenced in January 1859 for elementary classes and in April 1859 for the high school. A clock tower was added to the building in 1875. the high school was moved to new premises due to space constraints. The school then became known as the Albert Jackson School. The old building continued to serve the needs of the preparatory school. It was declared a National Monument under old NMC legislation on 10 December 1976. [34]

Early photo of the Grey Institute in Port Elizabeth Port Elizabeth Donkin and Grey institute very early photo.JPG
Early photo of the Grey Institute in Port Elizabeth

Donkin Reserve, Pyramid and Lighthouse

The trail starts at the Donkin Reserve and Lighthouse, where a map of the trail can be purchased. The Nelson Mandela Bay Tourism Info Centre is located in the old lighthouse . The Opera House is also located here. [35] The pyramid was built in memory of Sir Rufane Donkin's wife Elizabeth on the hill which is now known as Donkin's Reserve [36]

Opera House

The Opera House was built in 1892 and was run mainly by candlelight. The Opera House is the oldest running theatre in Africa and is the only Victorian style theatre left on the continent. [37] The Port Elizabeth Opera House and Barn Theatre are located halfway down Whites Road, Central. It was proclaimed a national monument in 1980. [38]

Other Sites

Other Sites include:

See Also

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