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|Earl of Clancarty|
|Predecessor||Charles MacCarty, 1st Viscount Muskerry|
|Successor||Charles MacCarty, 2nd Earl of Clancarty|
|Died||5 August 1665|
|Father||Charles MacCarty, 1st Viscount Muskerry|
Donough MacCarthy (Irish: Donnchadh Mac Cárthaigh), 1st Earl of Clancarty, 2nd Viscount Muskerry (1594–1665), was a leader of the Irish Confederation. He led the Confederates' Munster army during most of the Irish Confederate Wars and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. He belonged to the moderate faction, which wanted to collaborate with the royalists against the Commonwealth and the Covenanters. He was one of the last to surrender. In 1658, in exile, Charles II created him Earl of Clancarty. He recovered his lands at the Restoration.
Donough was born in 1594,probably at Blarney Castle, the habitual seat of his parents. He was the second son of Charles MacCarty and his first wife Margaret O'Brien. His father was the 1st Viscount of Muskerry. His grandfather was Sir Cormac MacCarthy, who had received an English title to his lands during the Tudor conquest of Ireland. Donough's mother was a daughter of Donogh O'Brien, 4th Earl of Thomond. Both sides of the family were important Gaelic Irish dynasties. His parents married about 1590.
He was the younger of two brothers:
His sisters were:
He married Eleanor Butler (1612–1682), eldest daughter of Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles sometime before 1641.This marriage made him a brother-in-law of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond.
Donough and Eleanor had five children, three sons:
—and two daughters:
Already in his forties, he sat in the Irish House of Commons in the Irish parliaments of 1634 and 1640 as member for County Cork.
His elder brother having predeceased his father, he succeeded his father in 1640 at the age of forty-six as the 2nd Viscount Muskerry.As he was promoted Earl of Clancarty only in 1657, he was known as Lord Muskerry during the events of the Irish Rebellion of 1641, the Confederate Wars and the Cromwellian conquest.
Ireland suffered 11 years of war from 1641 to 1652, which are usually decomposed into the Rebellion of 1641, the Confederate Wars, and the Cromwellian Conquest. Muskerry was involved in all of those.
The Irish Rebellion of 1641 was launched by Phelim O'Neill from the northern province of Ulster in October 1641. Initially, Muskerry raised an armed force of his tenants and dependants to try to maintain law and order.However, he was soon prompted to join the rebellion by the atrocities committed by the English President of Munster, William St Leger, against the Irish Catholic population in general.
In addition, many of Muskerry's relatives, who had lost lands to Protestant settlers in the Plantations of Ireland had already joined the rebellion – a factor that doubtless influenced Muskerry's decision. In 1642, being already 49, he put his armed men at the service of the Confederate Catholic Association of Ireland, an alternative, Catholic government based in Kilkenny, which had been formed by the rebels.
Muskerry was appointed to the "Supreme Council" of the Confederation of Kilkenny, their effective government. He was part of the team that negotiated with Charles I and his representative in Ireland, James Butler, Earl of Ormond, to secure an alliance between the Irish Confederates and English Royalists in the context of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Ormond was his brother-in-law. Muskerry was sympathetic towards royalism and disliked the more intransigent Confederates led by Giovanni Battista Rinuccini and Owen Roe O'Neill. Muskerry, who was already 49 at the time, was given the command of the Confederate Munster army. However, large parts of Munster were held by the Inchiquin's Protestant army.
On 4 June 1643 he commanded the Confederate Ulster army at the Cloghleagh where the Irish horse under Castlehaven, seconded from the Leinster Army, routed a detachment of Inchiquin's troops.
In 1646 Muskerry commanded the Confederate army that laid siege to Bunratty Castle and captured it mid-July 1646 from the army of the Parliament.
Early in August 1647 Muskerry resigned as general of the Confederate Munster Army.The Confederate Supreme Council gave this command to Viscount Taaffe, who lost the Battle of Knocknanauss on 13 November 1647 against English and Munster Protestant troops under Inchiquin. He sent his eldest son, Charles, at the head of a regiment to France.
In 1649, shortly after the execution of Charles I and the declaration of the Commonwealth of England, the Confederates did eventually approve a treaty with Charles II and the English Royalists. However, Ireland was soon invaded by the Parliamentarian New Model Army in 1649 under Oliver Cromwell, who had the aims of avenging the uprising of 1641, confiscating enough Irish Catholic owned land to pay off some of the Parliament's creditors, and eliminating a dangerous outpost of royalism.
Muskerry fought the last three years of this campaign in his own lands in western Cork and Kerry, from where he raised troops from his tenants and guerrilla bands known as "tories". He tried to relieve the siege of Limerick in 1651 but was intercepted and defeated on 26 July 1651 by General Roger Boyle, Lord Broghill, later Earl of Orerry, in the Battle of Knocknaclashy (also called Knockbrack), near Banteer, east of Killarney,and never came near Limerick, which surrendered on 27 October. Knocknaclashy was the last pitched battle of the war.
Muskerry fell back into the mountains of Kerry. On 27 June 1652 he surrendered to Edmund Ludlow, handing over his last stronghold Ross Castle near Killarney and disbanding his 5000-men army.One of his sons was with him in Ross Castle and was given to Ludlow as hostage to guarantee his father's compliance with the terms. This son must have been Callaghan, his the second son, as his eldest, Cormac, was away in France and Justin was only about nine years old and probably with his mother in France.
He was allowed to embark to Spain.He lost his estates in the Act of Settlement of 1652. His name is the eighth on the list of over 100 men who were excluded from pardon. He found that he was not welcome in Spain because he had opposed Giovanni Battista Rinuccini, the papal nuncio. He therefore returned to Ireland in 1653, where he was put on trial in Dublin, being accused of having been responsible for the murder of English settlers in 1641 during their evacuation from his house at Macroom to Cork. However, it was established that he had tried to protect them and he was acquitted.
After his acquittal he was again allowed to embark to Spain, but he seems to have gone to France where his family had already moved some time before the capture of Ross Castle. His wife lived with her sister Mary Butler, Lady Hamilton, in the convent of the Feuillantines in Paris,and his daughter Helen was sent to boarding school at the abbey of Cistercian nuns of Port-Royal-des-Champs, near Versailles, together with her cousin Elizabeth Hamilton.
In 1657 Charles II sent Muskerry, together with Sir George Hamilton to Madrid on a fruitless diplomatic mission.
Charles II, in exile at Brussels in 1658 rewarded him with the title of Earl of Clancarty .
At the restoration Clancarty, as he was now, and his family returned to the British Isles. He eventually recovered his estates under the Act of Settlement of 1662.
In 1665 his son Charles, Lord Muskerry, was killed in the Battle of Lowestoft, a naval engagement with the Dutchduring the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–1667). Charles left an infant son, also called Charles who became heir apparent.
Clancarty died in London on 4 August 1665.Charles's infant son died on 22 September 1666. The succession then reverted to Donough's second son Callaghan, who became the 3rd Earl of Clancarty.
|As only the year, but not the month and day, of his birth is known, his age could be a year younger than given.|
|0||1594||Born, probably at Blarney Castle.|
|38||1632, about||Married Eleanor Butler, eldest sister of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond.|
|39||1633 or 1634||Eldest son Charles born.|
|40||1634||Sat as MP for County Cork in the Irish Parliament.|
|46||1640||Succeeded his father as 2nd Viscount Muskerry.|
|49||1643, about||Youngest son Justin born.|
|49||1643, 4 Jun||Commanded the foot at the Battle of Cloughleagh and arrived too late.|
|52||1646, Jul||Besieged and captured Bunratty Castle.|
|55||1649, 15 Aug||Oliver Cromwell landed in Dublin.|
|57||1651, early||His wife and children fled to France;|
|57||1651, 16 Jul||Defeated at the Battle of Knocknaclashy.|
|58||1652, 27 Jun||Surrendered at Ross Castle.|
|64||1658, 14 Jun N.S.||Battle of the Dunes|
|64||1658, 27 Nov||Created Earl of Clancarty by Charles II at Brussels;|
|66||1660, 29 May||Restoration of King Charles II.|
|66||1660||Returned to England and Ireland with the Restoration.|
|71||1665, 3 Jun||Son Charles killed in the Battle of Lowestoft, a naval engagement with the Dutch.|
|71||1665, 4 Aug||Died in London.|
|Peerage of Ireland|
|New creation|| Earl of Clancarty |
| Viscount Muskerry |
Lieutenant-General James FitzThomas Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond, KG, PC (1610–1688), was an Irish statesman and soldier, known as Earl of Ormond from 1634 to 1642 and Marquess of Ormond from 1642 to 1661. Following the failure of the senior line of the Butler family, he was the second representative of the Kilcash branch to inherit the earldom.
Earl of Clancarty is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Kingdom of Desmond was a historic kingdom in southwestern Ireland. It was founded in 1118 by king Tadhg Mac Cárthaigh, when the Treaty of Glanmire formally divided the Kingdom of Munster into Desmond and Thomond. It comprised all of what is now County Cork and most of County Kerry. Desmond was ruled by the Mac Cárthaigh (MacCarthy) dynasty. Other clans within the kingdom included the O'Sullivans and O'Donovans. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland in the late 12th century, the eastern half of Desmond was conquered by the Anglo-Normans and became the Earldom of Desmond, ruled by the FitzGeralds and Fitzmaurices. The king of Desmond, Diarmaid Mac Cárthaigh, submitted to Henry II of England, but the western half of Desmond lived on as a semi-independent Gaelic kingdom. It was often at war with the Anglo-Normans. Fínghin Mac Carthaigh's victory over the Anglo-Normans at the Battle of Callann (1261) helped preserve Desmond's independence. The kings of Desmond founded sites such as Blarney Castle, Ballycarbery Castle, Muckross Abbey and Kilcrea Friary. Following the Nine Years' War of the 1590s, Desmond became part of the Kingdom of Ireland.
Blarney Castle is a medieval stronghold in Blarney, near Cork, Ireland. Though earlier fortifications were built on the same spot, the current keep was built by the MacCarthy of Muskerry dynasty, a cadet branch of the Kings of Desmond, and dates from 1446. The Blarney Stone is among the machicolations of the castle.
MacCarthy, also spelled Macarthy, McCarthy or McCarty, is a Gaelic Irish clan originating from Munster, an area they ruled during the Middle Ages. It was and continues to be divided into several great branches. The MacCarthy Reagh, MacCarthy of Muskerry, and MacCarthy of Duhallow dynasties were the three most important of these, after the central or MacCarthy Mór line.
The battle of Knocknaclashy, took place in County Cork in southern Ireland in 1651. In it, an Irish Confederate force led by Donagh MacCarthy, Viscount Muskerry was defeated by an English Parliamentarian force under Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery. It was the final pitched battle of the Irish Confederate Wars and one of the last of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
Donough [Donagh] MacCarthy, 4th Earl of Clancarty (1668–1734) fought for James II at the Siege of Derry. His peerage was attainted in 1691 after the defeat. MacCarthy went into exile to the Netherlands, where he lived for some time on the tiny island of Rottumeroog, and in Germany near Hamburg where he died.
Charles MacCarty, Viscount Muskerry was heir apparent to Donough MacCarty, 1st Earl of Clancarty but was killed at the age of 31 in the Battle of Lowestoft, a sea-fight against the Dutch, and never succeeded to the earldom.
Robert MacCarty, Viscount Muskerry was an Irish officer of the Royal Navy, and a colonial administrator. He belonged to the MacCarthy of Muskerry dynasty.
Sir George Hamilton, 1st Baronet was a Scottish-Irish baronet, who fought for the royalists under his brother-in-law James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond during the Irish Confederate Wars and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. He was father of Antoine Hamilton, author of the Mémoires du comte de Grammont, of Richard Hamilton, Jacobite general, and of Elizabeth, Countess de Gramont, "la belle Hamilton".
Thomas Dillon, 4th Viscount DillonPC (Ire) (1615–1673) held his title for 42 years that saw Strafford's administration, the Irish Rebellion of 1641, the Irish Confederate Wars and the Cromwellian Conquest of Ireland. He was a royalist and supported Strafford and Ormond. He sided with the Confederates for a while, but was a moderate who opposed Rinuccini, the papal nuncio. Lord Dillon fled the field of the Battle of Dungan's Hill (1647) and did not rescue Ormond at the Battle of Rathmines (1649). However, he defended Athlone successfully against Ireton in 1650.
Justin MacCarthyViscount Mountcashel, PC (Ire), was a Jacobite general in the Williamite War in Ireland and a personal friend of James II. He commanded Irish Army troops during the conflict, enjoying initial success when he seized Bandon in County Cork in 1689. However, he was defeated and captured at the Battle of Newtownbutler on the same year. He then led an Irish Brigade overseas for service in the French Army of Louis XIV. He died in French exile.
William Burke, 7th Earl of Clanricarde, Irish peer, was the son of Sir William Burke, younger son of Ulick Burke, 3rd Earl of Clanricarde, and Joan O'Shaughnessy.
Cormac na Haoine (1490–1567) was the 13th Prince of Carbery from 1531–1567. He belonged to the MacCarthy Reagh dynasty.
The MacCarthy dynasty of Muskerry is a tacksman branch of the great MacCarthy Mor dynasty, the Kings of Desmond. Their branch descends from Dermod Mor MacCarthy, 1st Lord of Muscry (1310-1367/8), second son of Cormac MacCarthy Mor (1271–1359), King of Desmond.
Callaghan MacCarty, 3rd Earl of Clancarty was born in Ireland, the second son of Donough MacCarty, 1st Earl of Clancarty. Callaghan was destined for a religious career and entered a Catholic monastery in France where his family was in exile during Cromwell's rule. However, when his elder brother died in the Battle of Lowestoft, and the 2nd Earl died in infancy, he unexpectedly left his monastery, returned to Ireland, became a Protestant, and assumed the title. Just before his death he converted back to Catholicism.
Macroom Castle stands in the town of Macroom, County Cork, Ireland, roughly halfway between Cork and Killarney, guarding the historic ford across the River Sullane.
Ulick Burke, 1st Viscount Galway (1670-1691) was an Irish soldier who died at the Battle of Aughrim while fighting for the Jacobite cause during the Williamite War in Ireland.
Lady Helen MacCarty, also styled Helen FitzGerald or Helen Burke, Countess of Clanricarde, was brought to France when her family fled the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. She was educated at Port-Royal-des-Champs together with her cousin Elizabeth Hamilton. She married three times. All her children, among which Margaret, Viscountess Iveagh, and Honora Sarsfield, are by her second husband, William Burke, 7th Earl of Clanricarde.
John Hamilton, comte de Hamilton, was an Irish military officer of Scottish descent, best known for his participation in the Williamite war in Ireland, in which he fought on the side of the deposed James II. He died from wounds received at the Battle of Aughrim.