Hart in 1953
|Born||June 20, 1925|
St. Louis, Missouri, United States
|Died||May 29, 2015 89) (aged|
Coral Gables, Florida, United States
|Retired||1955 (but played at the 1968 Wimbledon Championships and the 1969 US Open)|
|Int. Tennis HoF||1969 (member page)|
|Highest ranking||No. 1 (1951)|
|Grand Slam Singles results|
|Australian Open||W (1949)|
|French Open||W (1950, 1952)|
|US Open||W (1954, 1955)|
|Grand Slam Doubles results|
|Australian Open||W (1950)|
|French Open||W (1948, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953)|
|Wimbledon||W (1947, 1951, 1952, 1953)|
|US Open||W (1951, 1952, 1953, 1954)|
|Grand Slam Mixed Doubles results|
|Australian Open||W (1949, 1950)|
|French Open||W (1951, 1952, 1953)|
|Wimbledon||W (1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955)|
|US Open||W (1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955)|
Doris Hart (June 20, 1925 – May 29, 2015) was a tennis player from the United States who was active in the 1940s and first half of the 1950s. She was ranked World No. 1 in 1951. She was the fourth player, and second woman, to win a Career Grand Slam in singles. She was the first of only three players (all women) to complete the career "Boxed Set" of Grand Slam titles, which is winning at least one title in singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles at all four Grand Slam events. Only Margaret Smith Court and her achieved this during the amateur era of the sport.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court. The object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will.
The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events. They offer the most ranking points, prize money, public and media attention, the greatest strength and size of field, and greater number of "best of" sets for men. The Grand Slam itinerary consists of the Australian Open in mid January, the French Open around late May through early June, Wimbledon in June-July, and the US Open in August-September. Each tournament is played over a two-week period. The Australian and United States tournaments are played on hard courts, the French on clay, and Wimbledon on grass. Wimbledon is the oldest, founded in 1877, followed by the US in 1881, the French in 1891, and the Australian in 1905. However, of these four, only Wimbledon was a major before 1924–25, when all four became designated Grand Slam tournaments. Skipping majors—especially the Australian Open because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates and the low prize money—was not unusual before 1982.
Margaret Court, also known as Margaret Smith Court, is a retired Australian tennis player and former world No. 1. She amassed more major titles than any other player in history and is considered as one of the greatest Tennis players of all time. She is currently a Christian minister in Perth, Western Australia.
Hart reached 67 Grand Slam finals and won 35 titles, tying with Louise Brough for sixth on the all-time list (behind Margaret Smith Court (64), Martina Navratilova (59), Billie Jean King (39), Serena Williams (39), and Margaret Osborne duPont (37)). Six of her titles were in women's singles, 14 in women's doubles, and 15 in mixed doubles.Hart is one of only three players, all women, to have a "boxed set" of Grand Slam titles — every possible title (singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles) from all four Grand Slam tournaments. The others are Margaret Smith Court and Martina Navratilova. Hart was the first person to accomplish this feat.
Althea Louise Brough Clapp was an American tennis player. During her career between 1939 and 1959, she won six Grand Slam singles titles as well as numerous doubles and mixed doubles titles. At the end of the 1955 tennis season, Lance Tingay of the London Daily Telegraph ranked her world No. 1 for the year.
Martina Navratilova is a Czechoslovak-born American former professional tennis player and coach. In 2005, Tennis magazine selected her as the greatest female tennis player for the years 1975 through 2005 and she is considered one of the best female tennis players of all time.
Billie Jean King is an American former World No. 1 professional tennis player. King won 39 Grand Slam titles: 12 in singles, 16 in women's doubles, and 11 in mixed doubles. She won the singles title at the inaugural WTA Tour Championships. She often represented the United States in the Federation Cup and the Wightman Cup. She was a member of the victorious United States team in seven Federation Cups and nine Wightman Cups. For three years, she was the United States' captain in the Federation Cup.
As a child, Hart suffered from osteomyelitis, which resulted in a permanently impaired right leg. She started playing tennis when she was 10 years old, greatly encouraged by her brother Bud.
Osteomyelitis (OM) is an infection of bone. Symptoms may include pain in a specific bone with overlying redness, fever, and weakness. The long bones of the arms and legs are most commonly involved in children, while the feet, spine, and hips are most commonly involved in adults.
After losing seven Grand Slam finals from 1942 through 1946, Hart won her first Grand Slam title at the 1947 Wimbledon Championships in women's doubles. At that point, she was still a student at the University of Miami.
The 1947 Wimbledon Championships took place on the outdoor grass courts at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club in Wimbledon, London, United Kingdom. The tournament was held from Monday 23 June until Saturday 5 July 1947. It was the 61st staging of the Wimbledon Championships. In 1947, as in 1946, Wimbledon was held before the French Championships and was thus the second Grand Slam tennis event of the year. Jack Kramer and Margaret Osborne won the singles titles.
Doris Hart and Pat Todd defeated the defending champions Louise Brough and Margaret Osborne in the final, 3–6, 6–4, 7–5 to win the Ladies' Doubles tennis title at the 1947 Wimbledon Championships.
Her first Grand Slam singles title came at the 1949 Australian National Championships, where she was the only non-Australian player in the draw. She also won singles titles at the 1950 and 1952 French International Championships, the 1951 Wimbledon Championships (routing doubles partner Shirley Fry in the final), and the 1954 and 1955 U. S. National Championships. The 1955 U. S. singles final was the last Grand Slam singles match of her career.
The 1949 Australian Championships was a tennis tournament that took place on outdoor Grass courts at the Memorial Drive, Adelaide, Australia from 22 January to 31 January. It was the 37th edition of the Australian Championships, the 9th held in Adelaide, and the first Grand Slam tournament of the year. The singles titles were won by Australian Frank Sedgman and American Doris Hart.
First-seeded Doris Hart defeated Nancye Bolton 6–3, 6–4 in the final to win the Women's Singles title at the 1949 Australian Championships.
The 1950 French Championships was a tennis tournament that took place on the outdoor clay courts at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France. The tournament ran from 24 May until 3 June. It was the 54th staging of the French Championships, and the second Grand Slam tennis event of 1950. Budge Patty and Doris Hart won the singles titles.
Hart won the singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles titles at the 1951 Wimbledon Championships, playing the finals of all three events on the same day (July 7, 1951).She also won the "triple crown" at the 1952 French International Championships and the 1954 U. S. National Championships.
Louise Brough was the defending champion, but lost in the semifinals to Shirley Fry.
Shirley Fry and Doris Hart defeated the defending champions Louise Brough and Margaret duPont in the final, 6–3, 13–11 to win the Ladies' Doubles tennis title at the 1951 Wimbledon Championships.
Eric Sturgess and Louise Brough were the defending champions, but lost in the semifinals to Mervyn Rose and Nancye Bolton.
During her Wightman Cup career from 1946 through 1955, Hart was a perfect 14–0 in singles matches and 8–1 in doubles matches.
Hart did not lose a Grand Slam women's doubles match from the 1951 French International Championships through the semifinals of the 1954 Wimbledon Championships, 43 matches in total, although she skipped 4 Grand Slam tournaments during this period. She also did not lose a mixed doubles match at the 13 Grand Slam tournaments she played from the 1951 French International Championships through the 1955 U. S. National Championships. She (and partner Stan Smith) finally lost in the third round of the 1968 Wimbledon Championships to Frew McMillan and Annette Van Zyl Du Plooy 6-3, 12-10.
According to John Olliff and Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail , Hart was ranked in the world top ten from 1946 through 1955 (no rankings issued from 1940 through 1945), reaching a career high of World No. 1 in those rankings in 1951.Hart was included in the year-end top ten rankings issued by the United States Lawn Tennis Association from 1942 through 1955. She was the top ranked U. S. player in 1954 and 1955.
Hart never played Helen Wills Moody, Helen Jacobs, Alice Marble, Angela Mortimer, Ann Haydon Jones, Maria Bueno, or Darlene Hard in a Grand Slam singles tournament. Her win-loss record against her major rivals in those tournaments was as follows:
Hart retired from the tour in late 1955 to become a tennis teaching professional. Her autobiography, Tennis with Hart, was published that year.
She was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1969.
She died on May 29, 2015, at her home in Coral Gables, Florida, aged 89.
|Loss||1946||U. S. National Championships||Grass||9–11, 3–6|
|Loss||1947||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||2–6, 4–6|
|Loss||1947||French International Championships||Clay||3–6, 6–3, 4–6|
|Loss||1948||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||3–6, 6–8|
|Win||1949||Australian National Championships||Grass||6–3, 6–4|
|Loss||1949||U. S. National Championships||Grass||3–6, 1–6|
|Loss||1950||Australian National Championships||Grass||4–6, 6–3, 4–6|
|Win||1950||French International Championships||Clay||6–4, 4–6, 6–2|
|Loss||1950||U. S. National Championships||Grass||4–6, 3–6|
|Loss||1951||French International Championships||Clay||3–6, 6–3, 3–6|
|Win||1951||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||6–1, 6–0|
|Win||1952||French International Championships (2)||Clay||6–4, 6–4|
|Loss||1952||U. S. National Championships||Grass||3–6, 5–7|
|Loss||1953||French International Championships||Clay||2–6, 4–6|
|Loss||1953||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||6–8, 5–7|
|Loss||1953||U. S. National Championships||Grass||2–6, 4–6|
|Win||1954||U. S. National Championships||Grass||6–8, 6–1, 8–6|
|Win||1955||U. S. National Championships (2)||Grass||6–4, 6–2|
|Loss||1942||U. S. National Championships||Grass||6–2, 5–7, 0–6|
|Loss||1943||U. S. National Championships||Grass||4–6, 3–6|
|Loss||1944||U. S. National Championships||Grass||6–4, 4–6, 3–6|
|Loss||1945||U. S. National Championships||Grass||3–6, 3–6|
|Loss||1946||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||3–6, 6–2, 3–6|
|Loss||1946||French International Championships||Clay||4–6, 6–0, 1–6|
|Win||1947||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||3–6, 6–4, 7–5|
|Loss||1947||French International Championships||Clay||5–7, 2–6|
|Loss||1947||U. S. National Championships||Grass||7–5, 3–6, 5–7|
|Win||1948||French International Championships||Clay||6–4, 6–2|
|Loss||1948||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||1–6, 1–6|
|Loss||1948||U. S. National Championships||Grass||4–6, 10–8, 1–6|
|Loss||1949||Australian National Championships||Grass||0–6, 1–6|
|Loss||1949||U. S. National Championships||Grass||4–6, 8–10|
|Win||1950||Australian National Championships||Grass||6–3, 2–6, 6–3|
|Win||1950||French International Championships||Clay||1–6, 7–5, 6–2|
|Loss||1950||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||4–6, 7–5, 1–6|
|Loss||1950||U. S. National Championships||Grass||2–6, 3–6|
|Win||1951||French International Championships||Clay||10–8, 6–3|
|Win||1951||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||6–2, 13–11|
|Win||1951||U. S. National Championships||Grass||6–4, 6–2|
|Win||1952||French International Championships||Clay||7–5, 6–1|
|Win||1952||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||8–6, 6–3|
|Win||1952||U. S. National Championships||Grass||10–8, 6–4|
|Win||1953||French International Championships||Clay||6–4, 6–3|
|Win||1953||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||6–0, 6–0|
|Win||1953||U. S. National Championships||Grass||6–2, 7–9, 9–7|
|Loss||1954||Wimbledon Championships||Grass||6–4, 7–9, 1–6|
|Win||1954||U. S. National Championships||Grass||6–4, 6–4|
|Loss||1955||U. S. National Championships||Grass||3–6, 6–1, 3–6|
|Australian National Championships||A||NH||NH||NH||NH||NH||A||A||A||W||F||A||A||A||A||A||1 / 2||8-1|
|French International Championships||NH||R||R||R||R||A||QF||F||SF||A||W||F||W||F||A||A||2 / 7||28-5|
|Wimbledon Championships||NH||NH||NH||NH||NH||NH||QF||F||F||A||SF||W||QF||F||SF||SF||1 / 9||43-8|
|U. S. National Championships||2R||1R||QF||SF||QF||SF||F||SF||QF||F||F||SF||F||F||W||W||2 / 16||56-13|
|SR||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 3||0 / 3||0 / 3||1 / 2||1 / 4||1 / 3||1 / 3||0 / 3||1 / 2||1 / 2||6 / 34|
|Tournament||1942||1943||1944||1945||19461||19471||1948||1949||1950||1951||1952||1953||1954||1955||1956– 1967||1968||1969||Career SR|
|Australian National Championships||NH||NH||NH||NH||A||A||A||F||W||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||1 / 2|
|French International Championships||R||R||R||A||F||F||W||A||W||W||W||W||A||A||A||A||A||5 / 7|
|Wimbledon Championships||NH||NH||NH||NH||F||W||F||A||F||W||W||W||F||2R||A||2R||A||4 / 10|
|U. S. National Championships||F||F||F||F||SF||F||F||F||F||W||W||W||W||F||A||A||1R||4 / 15|
|SR||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 3||1 / 3||1 / 3||0 / 2||2 / 4||3 / 3||3 / 3||3 / 3||1 / 2||0 / 2||0 / 0||0 / 1||0 / 1||14 / 34|
|Australian National Championships||NH||NH||NH||NH||A||A||A||W||W||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||2 / 2|
|French International Championships||R||R||R||A||2R||A||F||A||3R||W||W||W||A||A||A||A||A||3 / 6|
|Wimbledon Championships||NH||NH||NH||NH||4R||SF||F||A||SF||W||W||W||W||W||A||3R||A||5 / 10|
|U. S. National Championships||2R||1R||QF||F||QF||1R||SF||QF||F||W||W||W||W||W||A||A||QF||5 / 15|
|SR||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 3||0 / 2||0 / 3||1 / 2||1 / 4||3 / 3||3 / 3||3 / 3||2 / 2||2 / 2||0 / 0||0 / 1||0 / 1||15 / 33|
R = tournament restricted to French nationals and held under German occupation.
1In 1946 and 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon.
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