Doris Hart

Last updated

Doris Hart
Doris Hart1953.jpg
Hart in 1953
Country (sports)Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Born(1925-06-20)June 20, 1925
St. Louis, Missouri, United States
DiedMay 29, 2015(2015-05-29) (aged 89)
Coral Gables, Florida, United States
Retired1955 (but played at the 1968 Wimbledon Championships and the 1969 US Open)
Int. Tennis HoF 1969 (member page)
Singles
Highest rankingNo. 1 (1951)
Grand Slam Singles results
Australian Open W (1949)
French Open W (1950, 1952)
Wimbledon W (1951)
US Open W (1954, 1955)
Doubles
Grand Slam Doubles results
Australian Open W (1950)
French Open W (1948, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953)
Wimbledon W (1947, 1951, 1952, 1953)
US Open W (1951, 1952, 1953, 1954)
Grand Slam Mixed Doubles results
Australian Open W (1949, 1950)
French Open W (1951, 1952, 1953)
Wimbledon W (1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955)
US Open W (1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955)

Doris Hart (June 20, 1925 – May 29, 2015) was a tennis player from the United States who was active in the 1940s and first half of the 1950s. She was ranked World No. 1 in 1951. She was the fourth player, and second woman, to win a Career Grand Slam in singles. She was the first of only three players (all women) to complete the career "Boxed Set" of Grand Slam titles, which is winning at least one title in singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles at all four Grand Slam events. Only Margaret Smith Court and her achieved this during the amateur era of the sport.

Tennis ball sport with racket and net

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court. The object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will.

Grand Slam (tennis) the four most important tennis tournaments

The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events. They offer the most ranking points, prize money, public and media attention, the greatest strength and size of field, and greater number of "best of" sets for men. The Grand Slam itinerary consists of the Australian Open in mid January, the French Open around late May through early June, Wimbledon in June-July, and the US Open in August-September. Each tournament is played over a two-week period. The Australian and United States tournaments are played on hard courts, the French on clay, and Wimbledon on grass. Wimbledon is the oldest, founded in 1877, followed by the US in 1881, the French in 1891, and the Australian in 1905. However, of these four, only Wimbledon was a major before 1924–25, when all four became designated Grand Slam tournaments. Skipping majors—especially the Australian Open because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates and the low prize money—was not unusual before 1982.

Margaret Court Australian tennis player

Margaret Court, also known as Margaret Smith Court, is a retired Australian tennis player and former world No. 1. She amassed more major titles than any other player in history and is considered as one of the greatest Tennis players of all time. She is currently a Christian minister in Perth, Western Australia.

Contents

Tennis career

Hart reached 67 Grand Slam finals and won 35 titles, tying with Louise Brough for sixth on the all-time list (behind Margaret Smith Court (64), Martina Navratilova (59), Billie Jean King (39), Serena Williams (39), and Margaret Osborne duPont (37)). Six of her titles were in women's singles, 14 in women's doubles, and 15 in mixed doubles. [1] Hart is one of only three players, all women, to have a "boxed set" of Grand Slam titles — every possible title (singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles) from all four Grand Slam tournaments. The others are Margaret Smith Court and Martina Navratilova. [1] Hart was the first person to accomplish this feat. [2]

Louise Brough American tennis player

Althea Louise Brough Clapp was an American tennis player. During her career between 1939 and 1959, she won six Grand Slam singles titles as well as numerous doubles and mixed doubles titles. At the end of the 1955 tennis season, Lance Tingay of the London Daily Telegraph ranked her world No. 1 for the year.

Martina Navratilova American-Czech tennis player

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Billie Jean King American tennis player

Billie Jean King is an American former World No. 1 professional tennis player. King won 39 Grand Slam titles: 12 in singles, 16 in women's doubles, and 11 in mixed doubles. She won the singles title at the inaugural WTA Tour Championships. She often represented the United States in the Federation Cup and the Wightman Cup. She was a member of the victorious United States team in seven Federation Cups and nine Wightman Cups. For three years, she was the United States' captain in the Federation Cup.

As a child, Hart suffered from osteomyelitis, which resulted in a permanently impaired right leg. She started playing tennis when she was 10 years old, greatly encouraged by her brother Bud. [1]

Osteomyelitis bone inflammation disease that has material basis in infection located in bone or located in bone marrow

Osteomyelitis (OM) is an infection of bone. Symptoms may include pain in a specific bone with overlying redness, fever, and weakness. The long bones of the arms and legs are most commonly involved in children, while the feet, spine, and hips are most commonly involved in adults.

After losing seven Grand Slam finals from 1942 through 1946, Hart won her first Grand Slam title at the 1947 Wimbledon Championships in women's doubles. At that point, she was still a student at the University of Miami. [3] [4]

The 1947 Wimbledon Championships took place on the outdoor grass courts at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club in Wimbledon, London, United Kingdom. The tournament was held from Monday 23 June until Saturday 5 July 1947. It was the 61st staging of the Wimbledon Championships. In 1947, as in 1946, Wimbledon was held before the French Championships and was thus the second Grand Slam tennis event of the year. Jack Kramer and Margaret Osborne won the singles titles.

Doris Hart and Pat Todd defeated the defending champions Louise Brough and Margaret Osborne in the final, 3–6, 6–4, 7–5 to win the Ladies' Doubles tennis title at the 1947 Wimbledon Championships.

Her first Grand Slam singles title came at the 1949 Australian National Championships, where she was the only non-Australian player in the draw. She also won singles titles at the 1950 and 1952 French International Championships, the 1951 Wimbledon Championships (routing doubles partner Shirley Fry in the final) [3] , and the 1954 and 1955 U. S. National Championships. [3] [5] The 1955 U. S. singles final was the last Grand Slam singles match of her career. [5]

The 1949 Australian Championships was a tennis tournament that took place on outdoor Grass courts at the Memorial Drive, Adelaide, Australia from 22 January to 31 January. It was the 37th edition of the Australian Championships, the 9th held in Adelaide, and the first Grand Slam tournament of the year. The singles titles were won by Australian Frank Sedgman and American Doris Hart.

First-seeded Doris Hart defeated Nancye Bolton 6–3, 6–4 in the final to win the Women's Singles title at the 1949 Australian Championships.

The 1950 French Championships was a tennis tournament that took place on the outdoor clay courts at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France. The tournament ran from 24 May until 3 June. It was the 54th staging of the French Championships, and the second Grand Slam tennis event of 1950. Budge Patty and Doris Hart won the singles titles.

Hart won the singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles titles at the 1951 Wimbledon Championships, playing the finals of all three events on the same day (July 7, 1951). [3] She also won the "triple crown" at the 1952 French International Championships and the 1954 U. S. National Championships. [6]

Louise Brough was the defending champion, but lost in the semifinals to Shirley Fry.

Shirley Fry and Doris Hart defeated the defending champions Louise Brough and Margaret duPont in the final, 6–3, 13–11 to win the Ladies' Doubles tennis title at the 1951 Wimbledon Championships.

Eric Sturgess and Louise Brough were the defending champions, but lost in the semifinals to Mervyn Rose and Nancye Bolton.

During her Wightman Cup career from 1946 through 1955, Hart was a perfect 14–0 in singles matches and 8–1 in doubles matches. [1]

Hart did not lose a Grand Slam women's doubles match from the 1951 French International Championships through the semifinals of the 1954 Wimbledon Championships, 43 matches in total, although she skipped 4 Grand Slam tournaments during this period. She also did not lose a mixed doubles match at the 13 Grand Slam tournaments she played from the 1951 French International Championships through the 1955 U. S. National Championships. She (and partner Stan Smith) finally lost in the third round of the 1968 Wimbledon Championships to Frew McMillan and Annette Van Zyl Du Plooy 6-3, 12-10.

According to John Olliff and Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail , Hart was ranked in the world top ten from 1946 through 1955 (no rankings issued from 1940 through 1945), reaching a career high of World No. 1 in those rankings in 1951. [7] Hart was included in the year-end top ten rankings issued by the United States Lawn Tennis Association from 1942 through 1955. She was the top ranked U. S. player in 1954 and 1955. [8]

Hart never played Helen Wills Moody, Helen Jacobs, Alice Marble, Angela Mortimer, Ann Haydon Jones, Maria Bueno, or Darlene Hard in a Grand Slam singles tournament. Her win-loss record against her major rivals in those tournaments was as follows:

Hart retired from the tour in late 1955 to become a tennis teaching professional. Her autobiography, Tennis with Hart, was published that year. [6]

She was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1969.

She died on May 29, 2015, at her home in Coral Gables, Florida, aged 89. [9]

Grand Slam record

Grand Slam finals

Singles (6 titles, 12 runners-up)

LossYearChampionshipSurfaceOpponentScore
Loss1946 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Pauline Betz 9–11, 3–6
Loss1947 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont 2–6, 4–6
Loss1947 French International Championships Clay Flag of the United States.svg Patricia Canning Todd 3–6, 6–3, 4–6
Loss1948 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough 3–6, 6–8
Win1949 Australian National Championships Grass Flag of Australia (converted).svg Nancye Wynne Bolton 6–3, 6–4
Loss1949 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont3–6, 1–6
Loss1950 Australian National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough4–6, 6–3, 4–6
Win1950 French International Championships Clay Flag of the United States.svg Patricia Canning Todd6–4, 4–6, 6–2
Loss1950 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont4–6, 3–6
Loss1951 French International Championships Clay Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry 3–6, 6–3, 3–6
Win1951 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry6–1, 6–0
Win1952 French International Championships (2)Clay Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry6–4, 6–4
Loss1952 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Maureen Connolly3–6, 5–7
Loss1953 French International Championships Clay Flag of the United States.svg Maureen Connolly2–6, 4–6
Loss1953 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Maureen Connolly6–8, 5–7
Loss1953 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Maureen Connolly2–6, 4–6
Win1954 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough6–8, 6–1, 8–6
Win1955 U. S. National Championships (2)Grass Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Patricia Ward 6–4, 6–2

Women's doubles (14 titles, 16 runner-ups)

LossYearChampionshipSurfacePartnerOpponentsScore
Loss1942 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Pauline Betz Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
6–2, 5–7, 0–6
Loss1943 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Pauline Betz Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 3–6
Loss1944 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Pauline Betz Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
6–4, 4–6, 3–6
Loss1945 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Pauline Betz Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 3–6
Loss1946 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Pauline Betz Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 6–2, 3–6
Loss1946 French International Championships Clay Flag of the United States.svg Pauline Betz Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 6–0, 1–6
Win1947 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Patricia Canning Todd Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 6–4, 7–5
Loss1947 French International Championships Clay Flag of the United States.svg Patricia Canning Todd Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
5–7, 2–6
Loss1947 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Patricia Canning Todd Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
7–5, 3–6, 5–7
Win1948 French International Championships Clay Flag of the United States.svg Patricia Canning Todd Flag of the United States.svg Mary Arnold Prentiss
Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry
6–4, 6–2
Loss1948 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Patricia Canning Todd Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
1–6, 1–6
Loss1948 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Patricia Canning Todd Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 10–8, 1–6
Loss1949 Australian National Championships Grass Flag of Australia (converted).svg Marie Toomey Flag of Australia (converted).svg Nancye Wynne Bolton
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Thelma Coyne Long
0–6, 1–6
Loss1949 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 8–10
Win1950 Australian National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough Flag of Australia (converted).svg Nancye Wynne Bolton
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Thelma Coyne Long
6–3, 2–6, 6–3
Win1950 French International Championships Clay Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
1–6, 7–5, 6–2
Loss1950 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 7–5, 1–6
Loss1950 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
2–6, 3–6
Win1951 French International Championships Clay Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg Beryl Bartlett
Flag of the United States.svg Barbara Scofield
10–8, 6–3
Win1951 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
6–2, 13–11
Win1951 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Nancy Chaffee
Flag of the United States.svg Patricia Canning Todd
6–4, 6–2
Win1952 French International Championships Clay Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg Hazel Redick-Smith
Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg Julia Wipplinger
7–5, 6–1
Win1952 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Maureen Connolly
8–6, 6–3
Win1952 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Maureen Connolly
10–8, 6–4
Win1953 French International Championships Clay Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Maureen Connolly
Flag of the United States.svg Julia Sampson
6–4, 6–3
Win1953 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Maureen Connolly
Flag of the United States.svg Julia Sampson
6–0, 6–0
Win1953 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
6–2, 7–9, 9–7
Loss1954 Wimbledon Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
6–4, 7–9, 1–6
Win1954 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
6–4, 6–4
Loss1955 U. S. National Championships Grass Flag of the United States.svg Shirley Fry Flag of the United States.svg Louise Brough
Flag of the United States.svg Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 6–1, 3–6

Grand Slam tournament timelines

Key
W F SFQF#RRRQ#ANH
(W) Won; (F) finalist; (SF) semifinalist; (QF) quarterfinalist; (#R) rounds 4, 3, 2, 1; (RR) round-robin stage; (Q#) qualification round; (A) absent; (NH) not held. SR=strike rate (events won/competed)

Singles

Tournament194019411942194319441945194611947119481949195019511952195319541955Career SRWin-Loss
Australian National Championships ANHNHNHNHNHAAA W F AAAAA1 / 28-1
French International Championships NHRRRRA QF F SF A W F W F AA2 / 728-5
Wimbledon Championships NHNHNHNHNHNH QF F F A SF W QF F SF SF 1 / 943-8
U. S. National Championships 2R 1R QF SF QF SF F SF QF F F SF F F W W 2 / 1656-13
SR0 / 10 / 10 / 10 / 10 / 10 / 10 / 30 / 30 / 31 / 21 / 41 / 31 / 30 / 31 / 21 / 26 / 34
Win-Loss0-00-13-13-12-13-110-314-311-39-119-315-213-214-310-19-1135-27

Women's doubles

Tournament19421943194419451946119471194819491950195119521953195419551956– 196719681969Career SR
Australian National Championships NHNHNHNHAAAFWAAAAAAAA1 / 2
French International Championships RRRAFFWAWWWWAAAAA5 / 7
Wimbledon Championships NHNHNHNHFWFAFWWWF2RA2RA4 / 10
U. S. National Championships FFFFSFFFFFWWWWFAA1R4 / 15
SR0 / 10 / 10 / 10 / 10 / 31 / 31 / 30 / 22 / 43 / 33 / 33 / 31 / 20 / 20 / 00 / 10 / 114 / 34

Mixed doubles

Tournament19421943194419451946119471194819491950195119521953195419551956–196719681969Career SR
Australian National Championships NHNHNHNHAAAWWAAAAAAAA2 / 2
French International Championships RRRA2RAFA3RWWWAAAAA3 / 6
Wimbledon Championships NHNHNHNH4RSFFASFWWWWWA3RA5 / 10
U. S. National Championships 2R1RQFFQF1RSFQFFWWWWWAAQF5 / 15
SR0 / 10 / 10 / 10 / 10 / 30 / 20 / 31 / 21 / 43 / 33 / 33 / 32 / 22 / 20 / 00 / 10 / 115 / 33

R = tournament restricted to French nationals and held under German occupation.
1In 1946 and 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Frank Litsky (May 31, 2015). "Doris Hart, Tennis Standout Despite Physical Limitations, Dies at 89". The New York Times. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
  2. Reuters (May 30, 2015). "Grand Slam tennis champ Doris Hart of U.S. dies at 89". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Richard Evans (May 31, 2015). "Doris Hart obituary". The Guardian . London. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  4. Howard Kleinberg (2013). Legendary Locals of Greater Miami. Arcadia Publishing. p. 56.
  5. 1 2 Associated Press (May 30, 2015). "Tennis Career Grand Slam Winner Doris Hart Dies at 89". ABC News. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  6. 1 2 "Doris Hart, tennis champion – obituary". The Daily Telegraph. June 1, 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  7. Collins, Bud (2008). The Bud Collins History of Tennis: An Authoritative Encyclopedia and Record Book. New York City: New Chapter Press. pp. 695, 702–3. ISBN   0-942257-41-3.
  8. United States Tennis Association (1988). 1988 Official USTA Tennis Yearbook. Lynn, Massachusetts: H. O. Zimman, Inc. pp. 260–1.
  9. "Tennis career Grand Slam winner Doris Hart dies at 89". Sports Illustrated. May 30, 2015. Retrieved May 30, 2015.