Dorothy F. Bleek
Dorothea Frances Bleek
26 March 1873
|Died||27 July 1948 75)(aged|
|Occupation||Anthropologist and philologist|
Dorothea Frances Bleek (later Dorothy F. Bleek; born 26 March 1873, Mowbray, Cape Town – died 27 June 1948, Newlands, Cape Town)was a South African-born German anthropologist and philologist known for her research on the Bushmen (the San people) of southern Africa.
Dorothea Bleek was born into her profession as the fifth daughter of Wilhelm Bleek, a pioneering philologist studying the languages and cultures of southern Africa in the late 1800s. Much of his work was done in partnership with his sister-in-law (Dorothy Bleek's aunt, Lucy Lloyd). The work of Dorothy Bleek was largely a continuation of her father and aunt's research, but she also made numerous notable contributions of her own to the field. Her culminating work, published after death, was the book A Bushman Dictionary, still referenced today.
Laurens van der Post, who liked to think of himself as "a white Bushman", credited her book Mantis and His Hunter (along with Specimens of Bushman Folklore by her father and aunt) as "a sort of Stone Age Bible". This is in the introduction to The Heart of the Hunter (1961), a follow-up to The Lost World of the Kalahari, the book based on the BBC series that brought the Bushmen to international attention.
Bleek's research and findings are often overshadowed by the work of her father, and she has been criticised for lacking the empathy and intuition of him and her aunt. This has led to a misperception of her as a racist.
Despite this, Bleek's research on the language, customs, and especially rock art of southern Africa (present-day South Africa, Tanzania, Botswana, and Namibia) stands as a vital contribution to scholarship on the region. Her photographs and audio recordings were especially important to later researchers.
Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek was a German linguist. His work included A Comparative Grammar of South African Languages and his great project jointly executed with Lucy Lloyd: The Bleek and Lloyd Archive of ǀxam and !kun texts. A short form of this eventually reached press with Specimens of Bushman Folklore, which Laurens van der Post drew on heavily.
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoe-Sān, is a catch-all term for the "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen and the Sān or Sākhoen.
The San or Saan peoples, also known as the "Bushmen", are members of various Khoisan-speaking indigenous hunter-gatherer groups that are the first nations of Southern Africa, and whose territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa. There is a significant linguistic difference between the northern peoples living between the Okavango River in Botswana and Etosha National Park in northwestern Namibia, extending up into southern Angola; the central peoples of most of Namibia and Botswana, extending into Zambia and Zimbabwe; and the southern people in the central Kalahari towards the Molopo River, who are the last remnant of the previously extensive indigenous Sān of South Africa.
ǀXam is an extinct Khoisan language of South Africa formerly spoken by the ǀXam-ka-ǃkʼe people of South Africa. It is part of the ǃUi branch of the Tuu languages and closely related to the moribund Nǁng language. Much of the scholarly work on ǀXam was performed by Wilhelm Bleek, a German linguist of the 19th century, who studied a variety of ǀXam spoken at Achterveld, and another spoken at Strandberg and Katkop while working with ǁKábbo, Diaǃkwāin, ǀAǃkúṅta, ǃKwéite̥n ta ǁKēn, ǀHaṅǂkassʼō and other speakers. The surviving corpus of ǀXam comes from the stories told by and vocabulary recorded from these individuals in the Bleek and Lloyd Collection.
Sir Laurens Jan van der Post, CBE, was a 20th-century South African Afrikaner author, farmer, soldier, political adviser to British heads of government, close friend of Prince Charles, godfather of Prince William, educator, journalist, humanitarian, philosopher, explorer and conservationist.
Specimens of Bushman Folklore is a book by the linguist Wilhelm H. I. Bleek and Lucy C. Lloyd, which was published in 1911. The book records eighty-seven legends, myths and other traditional stories of the ǀXam Bushmen in their now-extinct language. The stories were collected through interviews with various narrators, chief among them ǀA!kunta, ǁKabbo, Diäǃkwain, ǃKweiten ta ǁken and ǀHanǂkasso.
The Iziko South African Museum is a South African national museum located in Cape Town. The museum was founded in 1825, the first in the country. It has been on its present site in the Company's Garden since 1897. The museum houses important African zoology, palaeontology and archaeology collections. Iziko is a Xhosa word meaning "hearth".
Lucy Catherine Lloyd was the creator, along with Wilhelm Bleek, of the 19th-century archive of ǀXam and !Kung texts.
John Qace Hardbattle (1945-1996) was one of the best-known Bushman activists in Botswana. "Son of a half-Bushman mother, Khwa, and an English father, Tom Hardbattle",His father a retired policeman who traveled to South Africa and then Botswana. There he married "Kawi", John's mother. John Hardbattle co-founded and became leader of the First People of Kalahari (FPK).
James David Lewis-Williams is a South African archaeologist. He is best known for his research on southern African San (Bushmen) rock art, of which it can be said that he found a 'Rosetta Stone'. He is the founder and previous director of the Rock Art Research Institute and is currently professor emeritus of cognitive archaeology at the University of the Witwatersrand (WITS). Lewis-Williams is recognised by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa as a leading international researcher, with an A1 rating.
ǀKaggen is Mantis, a demi-urge and folk hero of the ǀXam people of southern Africa. He is a trickster god who can shape shift, usually taking the form of a praying mantis but also a bull eland, a louse, a snake, and a caterpillar.
John Kennedy Marshall was an American anthropologist and acclaimed documentary filmmaker best known for his work in Namibia recording the lives of the Ju/'hoansi.
Janette Deacon is a South African archaeologist specialising in heritage management and rock art conservation. She has studied the changes in stone tools from sites in the southern Cape in relation to climate change over the past 20,000 years. From 1985, she located rock engravings at places where the /Xam informants of Wilhelm Bleek and Lucy Lloyd lived in the nineteenth century. She served as a member of the SAHRA Council and was first chairperson of Heritage Western Cape.
The ǀXam and ǂKhomani heartland tentative World Heritage Site, consists of regions located to the south and north of Upington, respectively, in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. The ǀXam and ǂKhomani people were linguistically related groups of San (Bushman) people, their respective languages being part of the ǃKwi language group. Descendants of both the ǀXam and Nǁnǂe include Afrikaans-speaking ‘Coloured’ people on farms or in towns in the region amongst whom the precolonial languages are either entirely extinct or can be spoken by but a very few people.
Alfred ("Alf") John Wannenburgh was a South African author, journalist, and anti-Apartheid activist of Anglo-Germanic and French Huguenot descent. Wannenburgh attended Rondebosch Boys' High School (RBHS) and received his undergraduate degree in Cultural Anthropology and African History from the University of Cape Town. During his undergraduate degree, he worked as a land surveyor's assistant, salesman, clerk, and window-dresser in the Cape Town City Bowl. Wannenburgh worked for many years as a reporter, columnist, and sub-editor for the Cape Times and a variety of other newspaper houses and other diverse publications. Spoken of by his colleagues in his 2010 Cape Times' staff obituary as an "affable activist" and "laid-back hero" who perpetually underplayed his contribution to the anti-Apartheid struggle, as a member of the Congress of Democrats, the armed (military) wing of the African National Congress (ANC), and the Communist Party in South Africa. Wannenburgh is most significantly associated with the Sophiatown Renaissance, his role as one of the thirty Congress Alliance delegates chosen to travel to the historic 1955 Congress of the People (political) gathering held in Kliptown in June of that year, wherein a vision for a new democratic South Africa would be realised and explicitly expressed through the drawing-up of the Freedom Charter. He was a covert member of the Umkhonto we Sizwe noted for his part in the Underground Movement.
Katriena |Una Kassie Rooi was one of the last eight speakers of Nuu language, also known as N/uu, n/huki, ‡Khomani, South Africa's last original San language. Ouma |Una Rooi, or Kaitjie as she was affectionately known, was born in 1930 at Tweerivieren (≠aka≠nous), in what is now the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park which straddles the boundary between South Africa and Botswana. She died on 3 March 2012. |Una was the fourth child of |Khuka and Ari Kassie. |Una, her San name, refers to the soft powder puff, made from the ear of a bat-eared fox. The |una is used to spread buchu powder on new born babies, which is traditionally carried in a purse made from the shell of a geometric tortoise.
The San, or Bushmen, are indigenous people in Southern Africa particularly in what is now South Africa and Botswana. Their ancient rock paintings and carvings are found in caves and on rock shelters. The artwork depicts non-human beings, hunters, and half-human half-animal hybrids. The half-human hybrids are believed to be medicine men or healers involved in a healing dance.”
People of the Karoo refers to notable individuals who come from, or whose lives have included substantial engagement with, the area known as the Karoo. The Karoo is a widespread physiographic province in the western interior of South Africa, straddling much of the Northern Cape, southern Free State, Eastern Cape interior and parts of the Western Cape Provinces.
The traditional religion and mythology of the San people is poorly attested due to their interactions with Christianity.
George William Stow was a South African geologist and ethnologist, a poet, historian, artist, cartographer and writer.