Dorothy Stratten

Last updated
Dorothy Stratten
Dorothy Stratten 1979.jpg
Stratten in 1979
Born
Dorothy Ruth Hoogstraten

(1960-02-28)February 28, 1960
DiedAugust 14, 1980(1980-08-14) (aged 20)
Cause of death Gunshot wound
Resting place Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery
NationalityCanadian
OccupationModel, actress
Spouse(s)
Paul Snider (m. 1979)
Partner(s) Peter Bogdanovich
Playboy centerfold appearance
August 1979
Preceded by Dorothy Mays
Succeeded by Vicki McCarty
Playboy Playmate of the Year
1980
Preceded by Monique St. Pierre
Succeeded by Terri Welles

Dorothy Ruth Hoogstraten (February 28, 1960 – August 14, 1980), known professionally as Dorothy Stratten, was a Canadian Playboy Playmate, model, and actress. Stratten was the Playboy Playmate of the Month for August 1979 and Playmate of the Year in 1980. [1] Stratten appeared in three comedy films and in at least two episodes of shows broadcast on US network television. She was murdered at the age of 20 by her estranged husband and manager Paul Snider, who died by suicide on the same day. Her death inspired two motion pictures, the 1981 TV movie Death of a Centerfold and the 1983 theatrical release Star 80 , [2] as well as the book The Killing of the Unicorn and the songs "Californication" by the Red Hot Chili Peppers, "The Best Was Yet to Come" by Bryan Adams and "Cover Girl" by the Canadian rock band Prism.

Contents

Life and career

Stratten was born in Grace Maternity Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, on February 28, 1960, to Simon and Nelly Hoogstraten, who had emigrated from the Netherlands. [1] [3] In 1961, her brother John Arthur was born and, in May 1968, her sister Louise Stratten.

In 1977, Stratten was attending Centennial High School in Coquitlam, British Columbia. Concurrently, she was working part-time at a local Dairy Queen, where she met 26-year-old Vancouver-area club promoter and pimp Paul Snider, who began dating her. Snider later had a photographer take professional nude photos of her which were sent to Playboy magazine in the summer of 1978. She was under the age of 19 (the legal age of majority in British Columbia), so she had to persuade her mother to sign the model release form. [3]

In August 1978, she moved to Los Angeles, where she was chosen as a finalist for the 25th Anniversary Great Playmate Hunt. [3] Snider joined her in October, and in June the following year, they married. With her surname shortened to Stratten, she became Playboy's Miss August 1979, and began working as a bunny at the Playboy Club in Century City, Los Angeles. [3] Hugh Hefner had high hopes Stratten could have meaningful crossover success as an actress. [3] She featured in episodes of the television series Buck Rogers and Fantasy Island . She also had small roles in 1979 in Americathon and the roller disco comedy Skatetown, U.S.A. , and a lead role in the exploitation film Autumn Born.

Hefner reportedly encouraged Stratten to sever ties with Snider, calling him a "hustler and a pimp." [3] Rosanne Katon and other friends warned Stratten about Snider's behavior. Stratten began an affair with Peter Bogdanovich while he was directing They All Laughed (1981). [3] Snider hired a private detective to follow Stratten. They separated and Stratten moved in with Bogdanovich, planning to file for a divorce from Snider.

When Stratten arrived at the Playboy Mansion for the 25th Anniversary Playmate Hunt she was very shy and naive. She was very uncomfortable with the casual nudity and sex. Several contemporary playmates including Pamela Bryant, Gail Stanton and Marcy Hanson befriended Stratten and protected her from some of Hefner's friends whom they considered to be predators.

Trying to compete with Bob Guccione, who frequently appeared in layouts with nude Penthouse Pets, a pictorial with a nude Stratten and Hefner was shot. However, it was pulled after her death and just a few days before printing.

March 1980 – June 1980

On March 22, 1980, Stratten flew to New York City to begin work on what would be her last film project, They All Laughed , a romantic comedy being directed by Bogdanovich. [4] Laughed would be Stratten's fifth movie in a career that had only begun the year before and represented her first substantial role in a big-budget picture, playing the unhappily-married love interest of John Ritter, one of the film's stars. [lower-alpha 1] Bogdanovich, who also wrote the screenplay, said in an interview that he had based the backstory of Stratten's character on what he'd learned about her marriage to Snider. [5]

Stratten had spent the first two and a half months of 1980 completing her Playmate of the Year shoot and making her previous movie, Galaxina , in Southern California. With all her work close to home, Snider assumed the role of his wife's chauffeur, as well as her ersatz manager and acting coach. But Snider's near-constant presence, his criticism of and almost daily arguments with his wife caused Stratten so much stress that her co-workers at Playboy and the Galaxina set began to take notice. As the spring of 1980 approached, Snider insisted on accompanying his wife to New York, but Stratten at least recognized the problems he could cause while she was making the most important picture of her young career. Also wanting the freedom to pursue a relationship with Bogdanovich, Stratten convinced Snider to remain in Los Angeles after explaining that the director had decided to close the set of his new film to all but the cast and immediate crew. [3]

Stratten and Bogdanovich consummated their affair on the day after her arrival in New York. [6]

In April, Stratten briefly returned to California to prepare for her upcoming introduction as the new Playmate of the Year and follow-on publicity tour. [7] With several months of filming left to be completed in New York, this was the last time that she would live with Snider in their Los Angeles-area home.

On Wednesday, April 30, at a luncheon held on the grounds of Hefner's mansion, Stratten was presented to the assembled entertainment press as the 1980 Playmate of the Year. [8] In his introductory remarks, Hefner noted that Stratten was from Canada and had received $200,000 in cash and gifts in addition to the title. In a fleeting comment, Hefner also acknowledged the effect that Stratten's charming combination of beauty, intelligence, and sensitivity had on many who knew her when he said, ". . and she is something rather special. They always are, but Dorothy is really quite unique." After taking the lectern, Stratten thanked Mario Casilli, the photographer who shot both her Playmate of the Month and Year pictorials, several Playboy executives, and finally Hefner, who she declared "has made me probably the happiest girl in the world today." [9]

Later that evening, Stratten appeared as a guest on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. [3]

The next day Stratten began a two-week promotional tour of Canada. Having no events scheduled over the first weekend, on a whim she flew to New York to surprise Bogdanovich. Conflicted about her marriage now more than ever, Stratten wrote to her husband from Canada asking for more freedom in their relationship. With Stratten beyond his immediate control and fearing the worst, upon reading her letter Snider telephoned from L.A. and flew into a rage when she answered. Stratten's tour was arranged to end in her hometown of Vancouver so she might relax for a few days with family before returning to work on They All Laughed. But Snider appeared in Vancouver at the last minute, where he coerced Stratten into spending some of her brief vacation making personal appearances at several local nightclubs. Since Snider knew many of the club owners, he personally negotiated and collected his wife's appearance fees and then pocketed the entire sum when she returned to New York City and Bogdanovich. [8]

It was during this time in Vancouver, it was reported, that Stratten and Snider had a particularly heated argument. At some point during the fight Stratten offered to give up her acting career and suggested the couple permanently return to Canada, however, according to the story Snider rebuffed his wife's attempt to rescue their marriage. [3]

In the days and weeks after Snider returned to Los Angeles, he found it increasingly difficult to get in touch with Stratten. Then in late June, just a few weeks after their first wedding anniversary, Snider received another letter from her, this one declaring that they were now physically and financially separated. Snider had several responses to the second letter: He emptied the couples' joint bank account, he had a brief affair with an old girlfriend, and now convinced that Stratten was having her own affair with Bogdanovich, Snider hired a private detective to gather evidence of his wife's infidelity. [10]

As a foreign national living in the US without a green card that would allow him to hold a job and having no other source of regular income, Snider relied on Stratten, now through her business manager, to pay the monthly household bills. Little was left over for extravagances, such as the expenses incurred by a private detective working a case 3,000 miles from home. So over the summer of 1980, Snider began selling Stratten's Playmate of the Year prizes at a loss for quick cash, the most notable example being a Jaguar sports car that Playboy had valued at $26,000. [11] [12]

August 1980

On the night of July 31, 1980, Snider, by now aware that his estranged wife was living with Bogdanovich, hid among the shadows just outside the director's Los Angeles estate carrying a borrowed handgun, intending to shoot anyone who appeared at the entrance to the property. After several hours of inactivity, Snider grew impatient and left, drove up into the hills overlooking the city and, admitting later to a friend, had thoughts of suicide. [13]

At approximately noon on Friday, August 8, Stratten and Snider saw each other for the first time in nearly three months at Snider's (and Stratten's former) house in West Los Angeles. After having already persuaded Stratten to pose for Playboy and then marry him, Snider was supremely confident before the meeting that he would convince his wife to take him back. But his hopes of a reconciliation were quickly shattered when Stratten admitted that she had fallen in love with Bogdanovich and wanted to finalize their separation. A dejected Snider agreed to meet Stratten one more time the following week to discuss a monetary settlement. [3] [14]

Later that afternoon, less than a week before Stratten's murder, Snider had to return the borrowed gun to its owner. [3] Over the next five days, he would become obsessed with getting another.

On August 9, the day after his meeting with Stratten, Snider and the private detective he'd hired went to a local gun store. After being told that the store couldn't sell him a firearm because of his Canadian citizenship, Snider asked the detective to buy the gun Snider wanted for him. The man said no. [15] When Snider saw the private detective again the following day, he tried to convince the man to buy him a machine gun, for "home protection" as Snider explained, but the detective talked him out of the idea. [3] The next day, August 11, Snider drove out into the San Fernando Valley to look at a gun he'd found for sale in a newspaper. He got lost, however, and eventually gave up and went home before finding the owner's address. [15]

August 13, 1980 marked the two-year anniversary of the day that Stratten had first arrived in Los Angeles to begin her acting and modeling career. [16]

Murder

Dorothy Stratten's grave Dorothy Stratten grave at Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Brentwood, California.JPG
Dorothy Stratten's grave

On August 13, 1980, the day before Stratten was murdered, Snider bought a used, 12-gauge, pump action shotgun from a private seller he found in a local classified ad. [3] [15] Later that evening in a conversation with friends, Snider described how he had purchased a gun that day and finished his story by cryptically declaring that he was "going to take up hunting." [15]

During the same conversation, barely more than 12 hours before the murder, [17] an otherwise jovial Snider casually brought up the subject of Playmates who had unexpectedly died. In particular, he spoke of Claudia Jennings, an actress and former Playmate of the Year who had been killed in a car accident the year before. [15] Snider made several morbid remarks to his companions related to the problems at Playboy magazine caused by Jennings' death, including a comment about how the editors will pull nude photos of a dead Playmate from the next issue if there's time. [15] [17]

Stratten arrived for her meeting with Snider at his rented West Los Angeles house at approximately noon on Thursday, August 14. [18] [3] She had spent the morning conferring with her business manager, and one of the topics the pair discussed was the amount of the property settlement the Playmate would offer her estranged husband that afternoon. [19] The police later found $1,100 in cash among Stratten's belongings in the house, which she had apparently brought for Snider as a down payment. [3]

Towards the end of her morning meeting, Stratten's business manager made a fateful observation: that his young client could avoid spending any more time with her husband by handing off the remaining separation and divorce negotiations to her lawyer. Stratten replied that the process would go easier if she dealt with Snider personally, explaining that he was being nice about everything and finally adding, "I'd like to remain his friend." [11]

Snider's two roommates had left in the morning, so the couple was alone when Stratten stepped into the house that she had shared with her husband until just a few months earlier. [20] [11] By all appearances, Stratten had spent some time in the living room, where her purse was found lying open, before she and Snider went into his bedroom. [21]

By eight o'clock that evening, both of the roommates had returned to the house. [22] They saw Stratten's car parked out front and noted that Snider's bedroom door was closed. [3] Assuming that the couple had reconciled and wanted their privacy, the roommates spent the next several hours watching television in the living room. [23]

Alerted by Snider's private detective, the roommates entered the bedroom shortly after 11 pm that night and discovered the bodies of Stratten and Snider. [22] Each had been killed by a single blast from Snider's shotgun. Both bodies were nude. [3] According to the police timeline, Snider had shot Stratten that afternoon within an hour of her arrival at the house. Snider then committed suicide approximately one hour after the murder. [24]

Sometime after midnight in the early morning of August 15, the private detective telephoned the Playboy Mansion and told Hefner that Stratten had been murdered. Hefner then called Bogdanovich. [25] After collapsing at the news, Bogdanovich was sedated. [26] Stratten's mother was told of her daughter's death at her Vancouver-area home later that morning by an RCMP Mountie. [16]

Stratten's body was cremated and the remains interred at the Westwood Village Memorial Park cemetery in Los Angeles. [27] The remains of Hefner (d. 2017) and Marilyn Monroe (d. 1962), his magazine's first centerfold, are interred there as well.

The epitaph on Stratten's grave marker includes a passage chosen by Bogdanovich from Chapter 34 of the Ernest Hemingway novel A Farewell to Arms . [28] Three years after Stratten's murder, the author's granddaughter, Mariel Hemingway, played Stratten in Star 80 , the Bob Fosse biopic about the doomed Playmate and her husband.

Appearances

Filmography

YearTitleRoleNotes
1979 Americathon Stage escort dressed as Playboy BunnyUncredited, Film debut
Skatetown, U.S.A. Girl at the snack barFirst speaking part
Autumn BornTara Dawson
1980 Galaxina GalaxinaOnly starring role
1981 They All Laughed Dolores MartinFinal film role, Released posthumously

Television

YearTitleRoleNotes
1979Playboy's Roller-Disco & Pajama PartyHerselfAppears in running gag with host Richard Dawson
Fantasy Island MickeyEpisode: "The Victim/The Mermaid"
Buck Rogers in the 25th Century Miss CosmosEpisode: "Cruise Ship to the Stars"
1980 The Tonight Show HerselfEpisode: "04/30/1980"

Aftermath of Stratten's murder

Bogdanovich and They All Laughed

In August 1981, one year after Stratten's death, her final film, the romantic comedy They All Laughed , which was written and directed by Bogdanovich, had its US release. [29] After a disappointing limited run in a handful of theaters in the southwest, the upper midwest, and the northeast, the picture was quietly withdrawn. [30] [31]

Upset that what would be his only project with Stratten did not have a nationwide release, and determined that her last screen performance have a chance to be seen by a broader audience, Bogdanovich bought the theatrical rights to the picture. Out of his own pocket, he paid for a re-release of They All Laughed in nearly a dozen large markets across North America beginning in late 1981 and rolling into the following year. Despite generally favorable reviews and strong attendance in some theaters, Bogdanovich ultimately sank more than five million dollars, his entire net worth at the time, into the vanity project to properly promote and distribute the movie and rescue Stratten's film legacy. [32]

Bogdanovich declared bankruptcy in 1985. In the process, he lost his Los Angeles home where Stratten had lived for the last few weeks of her life. [33]

In the years since its inauspicious debut, They All Laughed has been recognized by filmmakers, critics, and others as being one of Bogdanovich's best pictures. One Day Since Yesterday, a documentary about the making and cultural importance of Bogdanovich's romantic comedy, which includes interviews with the director and his remembrances of Stratten, premiered in 2014. [34]

The Killing of the Unicorn

In August 1984, four years after Stratten's death, the publisher William Morrow released a book by Bogdanovich titled The Killing of the Unicorn: Dorothy Stratten 1960-1980 . [35]

The Killing of the Unicorn is by turns a biography of Stratten, a memoir of Bogdanovich's affair with the married Playmate who was half his age, and a scathing, feminist attack on Hefner, his Playboy philosophy and the hedonistic sexual mores he celebrated in his magazine and practiced at his mansion, and the entire Playboy organization. By far the most controversial part of the book is the director's claim that Hefner had sexually assaulted a then eighteen-year-old Stratten in August 1978. According to Bogdanovich's allegation the assault occurred while the two were alone in a secluded area of the Playboy Mansion at the end of Stratten's first day of posing for the magazine's photographer. [36] (Bogdanovich chose to use the word "seduced" to describe Hefner's behavior in the book, [37] however, he originally used the word "raped" in the drafts of his manuscript. Bogdanovich and the publisher made the change after being threatened with a lawsuit by Hefner's lawyers.) [38]

Among the other allegations that Bogdanovich made in his book, the most significant are: 1) That Stratten had not married Snider out of love, but rather used her marriage as an excuse to block the advances of Hefner who, Bogdanovich claimed, pursued Stratten as a sexual partner after the purported assault, 2) That Stratten loathed nude modeling and dealing with Playboy in general, and only tolerated the humiliating work in order to promote her acting career, and 3) That Hefner was responsible, in part, for enabling Snider's killing rage when he was banned from entering the Playboy Mansion just days before the murder. [38] Bogdanovich's underlying assertion for the last charge is that Snider was banned because Hefner hated the man. In his defense, Hefner explained that the purpose of the ban was to encourage Stratten and Bogdanovich to appear at the mansion as a couple.

Nearly every review of The Killing of the Unicorn in the US press was negative. [39] While few objected to Bogdanovich's attacks on Hefner and Playboy, many were skeptical of his newfound feminism, pointing out, for example, that he "seemed oblivious to his own sexist susceptibility to 'the whore/Madonna complex' in his view of women." [40] The review that appeared in the Chicago Tribune , for instance, had its tone concisely summarized in the blunt headline that led off the piece, "Shabby little shocker." [41] Film critic Roger Ebert, writing for the crosstown Chicago Sun-Times , managed to express empathy for Bogdanovich and the tragedy of Stratten's death, but was no less critical, stating that he could understand why Bogdanovich felt the need to write the book, "but I wish he hadn't published it."

In a print article that appeared shortly after the murder, Hefner, who was 33 years older than Stratten, used the word "friendship" to describe his relationship with her and was said to see himself as a "father figure" to the Playmate. [3] The image that Hefner presented to the public as a supportive, benevolent, paternal figure to Stratten was further emphasized the following spring when Playboy published her biography in its May 1981 issue. It was later reported that Hefner had personally supervised the editing of the article. [42]

In 1985, when asked again about his relationship with Stratten after the release of The Killing of the Unicorn, Hefner did concede to a crucial detail that lay at the heart of Bogdanovich's allegation. Namely, Hefner admitted that several weeks after Stratten first arrived in Los Angeles, the two had taken a nude soak in the "grotto" Jacuzzi on the Playboy Mansion grounds, the place where Bogdanovich claimed the sexual assault had occurred. [43] In the same interview, while allowing that they had "hugged" in the Jacuzzi, Hefner denied having forced himself on Stratten. Hefner also denied, despite his reputation, that he'd ever so much as made a pass at the young Canadian, suggesting that his sexual interest in Stratten had ended in the Jacuzzi after learning that she expected to become engaged to her boyfriend. (This conversation would have happened approximately two months before Hefner would first meet Snider.)

Legacy

Stratten's murder was depicted in two films. In the made-for-television Death of a Centerfold: The Dorothy Stratten Story (1981), Jamie Lee Curtis portrayed Stratten and Bruce Weitz played Paul Snider. Bob Fosse's feature film Star 80 (1983) starred Mariel Hemingway [2] as Stratten and Eric Roberts as Snider.

In 1983, film critic Vincent Canby wrote "Miss Stratten possessed a charming screen presence and might possibly have become a first-rate comedienne with time and work". [2]

In December 1988, at age 49, Bogdanovich married Stratten's sister, Louise, who was 20. Bogdanovich had paid for Louise's private schooling and modeling classes following Stratten's death. [44] They divorced in 2001 after being married for 13 years.

Singer-songwriter Bryan Adams, along with co-writer Jim Valance, wrote the song "The Best Was Yet to Come" as the closing track for Adams' 1983 LP "Cuts Like a Knife" as a dedication to Dorothy Stratten.

Bush's song "Dead Meat" is written in her memory. [45]

See also

Notes

  1. Coincidentally, Ritter had played a lead role in Stratten's first movie, the comedy Americathon (1979), although the two had no scenes together.

Related Research Articles

Hugh Hefner American businessman and magazine publisher

Hugh Marston Hefner was an American magazine publisher. He was the founder and editor-in-chief of Playboy magazine, a publication with revealing photographs and articles which provoked charges of obscenity. The first issue of Playboy was published in 1953 featuring Marilyn Monroe in a nude calendar shoot; it sold over 50,000 copies.

Peter Bogdanovich American film director

Peter Bogdanovich is an American director, writer, actor, producer, critic and film historian. He is part of the wave of "New Hollywood" directors, and his most critically acclaimed and well-known film is The Last Picture Show (1971).

<i>Star 80</i> 1983 film by Bob Fosse

Star 80 is a 1983 American biographical drama film written and directed by Bob Fosse, adapted from the Pulitzer Prize-winning Village Voice article "Death of a Playmate" by Teresa Carpenter and based on Playboy model Dorothy Stratten, who was murdered by her husband Paul Snider in 1980. The film’s title is taken from Snider's vanity license plates.

<i>Playboy</i> Playmate Female model featured in a centerfold of Playboy magazine

A Playmate is a female model featured in the centerfold/gatefold of Playboy magazine as Playmate of the Month (PMOM). The PMOM's pictorial includes nude photographs and a centerfold poster, along with a pictorial biography and the "Playmate Data Sheet", which lists her birthdate, measurements, turn-ons, and turn-offs. At the end of the year, one of the 12 Playmates of the Month is named Playmate of the Year (PMOY). Every Playmate of the Month is awarded a prize of US$25,000 and each Playmate of the Year receives an additional prize of US$100,000 plus a car and other discretionary gifts. In addition, Anniversary Playmates are usually chosen to celebrate a milestone year of the magazine.

<i>They All Laughed</i> 1981 film by Peter Bogdanovich

They All Laughed is a 1981 American romantic comedy film directed by Peter Bogdanovich and starring Audrey Hepburn, Ben Gazzara, John Ritter, Colleen Camp, Patti Hansen, and Dorothy Stratten. The film was based on a screenplay by Bogdanovich and Blaine Novak. It takes its name from the George and Ira Gershwin song of the same name.

Lindsey Eve (Vuolo) Handrinos is an American glamor model and actress best known for her appearance in Playboy as the November 2001 Playmate of the Month. She has appeared in a number of Playboy Special Editions, and in Playboy videos. She also appeared on TV shows such as The Girls Next Door and The Celebrity Apprentice.

Barbi Benton American actor, model and singer

Barbi Benton is an American retired model, actress, television personality and singer. She is known for appearing in Playboy magazine, as a four-season regular on the comedy series Hee Haw, and for recording several modestly successful albums in the 1970s. She retired from show business in the 1980s to raise her children.

Tina Marie Jordan American model

Tina Marie Jordan is an American glamour model and actress. Jordan is the Playmate of the Month for March 2002 and a former girlfriend of Hugh Hefner.

Paul Leslie Snider was a Canadian who is best known for the rape and murder of his estranged wife, the Playboy model Dorothy Stratten. Following her murder, he killed himself.

Mario Anthony Casilli was an American photographer. Among other photos, he worked for Playboy magazine between 1957 and 1996 and his first photoshoot there was of Jacquelyn Prescott, as Playmate of the Month of September 1957.

Crystal Hefner American glamour model, singer, DJ, and television personality

Crystal Hefner is an American model and television personality. She was the Playboy Playmate of the Month for December 2009, and is the widow and the third wife of Playboy publisher Hugh Hefner from December 31, 2012, until his death on September 27, 2017.

Somen "Steve" Banerjee was an Indian American entrepreneur and co-founder of Chippendales. After operating a Mobil gas station and a failed backgammon club, Banerjee bought a failed Los Angeles club named "Destiny II" and turned it into a nightclub that featured female mud wrestling and a "Female Exotic Dancing Night." The 1979 addition of a male stripper dance troupe performing to target female audiences was the first of its kind in the United States. Banerjee partnered with Paul Snider and attorney Bruce Nahin in the club and its unique Chippendales male act.

<i>Death of a Centerfold: The Dorothy Stratten Story</i> 1981 television film directed by Gabrielle Beaumont

Death of a Centerfold: The Dorothy Stratten Story is a 1981 American made-for-television biographical drama film, optioned by Larry Wilcox and his company Wilcox Productions. Wilcox signed the paperwork at midnight and beat out Hugh Hefner and MGM. Later, Wilcox developed the story and pitched it to MGM where he had a production development deal and subsequently to NBC. MGM and Wilcox then hired the director Gabrielle Beaumont. It is a dramatization of the life and the murder of Playboy Playmate of the Year Dorothy Stratten, played by Jamie Lee Curtis. The movie aired on November 1, 1981. Two years later, the same story was developed by director Bob Fosse in his movie Star 80, starring Mariel Hemingway and Eric Roberts.

Killing of the Unicorn: Dorothy Stratten 1960–1980 is a book by Peter Bogdanovich detailing the relationship between Bogdanovich and Dorothy Stratten, the making of They All Laughed and Stratten's murder. There is also criticism of Hugh Hefner and Playboy and its treatment of women.

References

  1. 1 2 "Playmate data" . Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  2. 1 2 3 Canby, Vincent (November 10, 1983). "SCREEN: 'STAR 80,' A SEX-SYMBOL'S LIFE AND DEATH". The New York Times . Retrieved July 22, 2008.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Carpenter, Theresa (November 5, 1980). "Death of a Playmate" (PDF). The Village Voice . Retrieved July 22, 2008.
  4. Bogdanovich, Peter (1984). The Killing of the Unicorn: Dorothy Stratten 1960-1980 . New York, NY: William Morrow and Company. p. 71. ISBN   0-688-01611-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  5. Bogdanovich, Peter; Anderson, Wes (Interviewer) (2006). They All Laughed 25 Years Later: Director to Director - A Conversation with Peter Bogdanovich and Wes Anderson (DVD). Home Box Office.
  6. Bogdanovich 1984, p. 74.
  7. Rhodes, Richard (May 1981). "Dorothy Stratten: Her Story". Playboy . Vol. 28 no. 5. Based in part on the research of John Riley and Laura Bernstein. Chicago, IL. p. 222. ISSN   0032-1478.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  8. 1 2 Rhodes 1981, p. 224.
  9. Playboy Video Magazine Vol. 4 (VHS). CBS/Fox Video. 1983.
  10. Rhodes 1981, p. 224-6.
  11. 1 2 3 Rhodes 1981, p. 233.
  12. "Gifts Fit for a Queen". Playboy . Vol. 27 no. 6. Chicago, IL. June 1980. p. 221. ISSN   0032-1478.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  13. Rhodes 1981, p. 228.
  14. Rhodes 1981, p. 230.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rhodes 1981, p. 232.
  16. 1 2 Rhodes 1981, p. 242.
  17. 1 2 The Editors of Time-Life Books (1993). "L.A. Story". Death and Celebrity . True Crime. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books. p. 42. ISBN   0-7835-0026-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  18. Rhodes 1981, p. 216.
  19. Rhodes 1981, pp. 232-3.
  20. Bogdanovich 1984, p. 151.
  21. Yule, Andrew (1992). Picture Shows: The Life and Films of Peter Bogdanovich . New York, NY: Limelight Editions. p. 164. ISBN   0-87910-153-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  22. 1 2 Rhodes 1981, p. 234.
  23. Rhodes 1981, pp. 233-4.
  24. Bogdanovich 1984, p. 3.
  25. Rhodes 1981, pp. 234, 236.
  26. Yule 1992, pp. 162, 165.
  27. Rhodes 1981, p. 246.
  28. Rhodes 1981, p. 248.
  29. Yule 1992, p. 170.
  30. "Detail view of Movies Page - THEY ALL LAUGHED (1981)". www.afi.com. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  31. Yule 1992, p. 171.
  32. Yule 1992, pp. 171, 176-8.
  33. Crook, David (December 19, 1985). "Bogdanovich's Bankrupt Memorial". The Los Angeles Times . Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  34. Rooney, David (September 1, 2014). "'One Day Since Yesterday: Peter Bogdanovich & the Lost American Film': Venice Review". The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  35. Scott, Vernon (August 20, 1984). "Scott's World: Hefner fires broadside at Bogdanovich over book". UPI. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  36. Bogdanovich 1984, pp. 28-9.
  37. Bogdanovich 1984, p. 6.
  38. 1 2 Ciotti, Paul (July 1985). "Doing Right by Dorothy". California . Vol. 10 no. 7. Los Angeles. p. 82.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  39. Yule 1992, p. 193.
  40. Watts, Steven (2008). Mr. Playboy: Hugh Hefner and the American Dream. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. p. 384. ISBN   978-0-471-69059-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  41. Gorner, Peter (August 9, 1984). "Tempo/Arts: Shabby litte shocker: Bogdanovichz's 'Unicorn' Tempo reader". Chicago Tribune .
  42. Watts 2008, p. 336.
  43. Ciotti 1985, p. 83.
  44. Nashawaty, Chris (August 12, 1994). "The Centerfold Murder: Playmate Dorothy Stratten is found murdered". Entertainment Weekly .
  45. https://twitter.com/gavinrossdale/status/239356507404247040