Doti District

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Doti District

डोटी जिल्ला
Doti Sudurpashchim locator.png
Location of Doti District
Country Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal
Province Sudurpashchim Province
Admin HQ. Silgadhi
Government
  Type Coordination committee
  Body DCC, Doti
Area
  Total2,025 km2 (782 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
  Total211,746
  Density100/km2 (270/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+05:45 (NPT)
Main Language(s) Doteli

Doti District (Nepali : डोटी जिल्ला pronounced  [ɖoʈi] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), part of Sudurpashchim Province, is one of the 77 districts of Nepal. This district, with Silgadhi as its headquarters, covers an area of 2,025 square kilometres (782 sq mi) with a population of 207,066 in 2001 and increasing marginally to 211,746 in 2011. [1]

Contents

History

Doti was a medieval kingdom of Kumaon. It was founded by Niranjan Malla Dev, the last son of the Katyuri dynasty and younger brother of Abhay Pal of Askot. Previously, the area between Ramganga in the west and the Karnali River in the east was under the control of the Raikas (rulers of the Doti kingdom, alternately Kumaun or Rainka Maharaj). [2]

Ancient Doti was a part of Kumaon Kingdom, Now remaining Kumaon region is part of Uttrakhand a state in modern-day india, Nepal's neighboring country. Kingdom of Kumaon lost Doti during the expansion of Nepal Kingdom in 1790. It was formed after the Katyuri Kingdom's disintegration during the 13th century. [3] Doti was one of eight different princely states formed after the disintegration, and all claim Katyuri heritage. [4] The seven other known states are:

The Katyuri Kingdom's dissolution is attributed to the invasion of Khas Kings Ashoka Challa and Krachalla, from the Karnali zone (Dullu) in 1191 and 1223 respectively. [5] Later, the whole land between Ramganga in the west (Uttarakhand) and the Karnali in the east (which divides the far western region from other parts of Nepal), came under the Raikas' rule — after the establishment of the Katyuri's dynastic Raikas Doti. Brahma Dev Mandi at Kanchanpur; a district within Mahakali, was established by Katyuri King Brahma Dev.

Raikas of Doti and their lineage

Historical evidence [6] of the following raikas has been discovered:

Conflict with Gorkha Kingdom

The historic place of war between the Doti Kingdom and Gorkha kingdom during the period of Expanding Kingdom of Nepal in 1790, is Nari-Dang which lies on the bank of the Seti River and Dumrakot was the base of the Doti Kingdom during the fighting against the Gorkhalis. [12]

Doti was captured by Gorkha forces, and the Gorkha rulers went on to destroy several historical sites in Doti — attempting to cover its legendary bravery and tenacity. [12] The Dotyali people were also subject to ethnic prejudice, and were frequently excluded from government jobs and offices of state. [12] Somehow in 1950, a few Dotyalis established their identities as national heroes based solely on their courage, daring, and contribution to their country. [12] Noted among them are Martyr Dashrath Chand Ministry of Home Affairs, Martyr Bhim Dutta Pant Ministry of Home Affairs, and K.I. Singh, [13] [14] a revolutionary leader who later became prime minister.

Dotyali language.

Dotiyali is the local language spoken in the Doti region; the far western region of Nepal, which is similar to the Kumauni language, a language spoken by people of Kumaon, a state in modern-day india, Nepal's neighboring country. According to Rahul Sankrityayan, Dotiyali is the dialect of the Kumauni language which was brought to Doti by a section of the Katyuri dynasty of Kumaun which had ruled over Doti until 1790. [12] The Doti kingdom was formed after the Katyuri kingdom had broken up into eight different princely states of different sections of the Katyuris. However, in Nepal it is considered as a Nepali dialect; though Local intellectuals and people of Doti, those who are speaking Dotiyali language that they are increasingly demanding their language to be recognized as one of the national language of Nepal. [15]

Geography and climate

Climate Zone [16] Elevation Range% of Area
Lower Tropical below 300 meters (1,000 ft) 0.1%
Upper Tropical300 to 1,000 meters
1,000 to 3,300 ft.
22.2%
Subtropical 1,000 to 2,000 meters
3,300 to 6,600 ft.
58.8%
Temperate 2,000 to 3,000 meters
6,400 to 9,800 ft.
17.6%
Subalpine 3,000 to 4,000 meters
9,800 to 13,100 ft.
 1.2%

Demographics

At the time of the 2011 Nepal census, Doti District had a population of 211,746. Of these, 90.1% spoke Doteli, 7.4% Nepali and 1.0% Magar as their first language. [17] The largest ethnic group is Khas/ Chhetri make 56% of total population, Khas/Thakuri makes 14% of population. Bahun and sanyasi/giri makes 16% of total population and khas dalit makes 12% of total population. Magars make 2% of population.

Administration

The district consists of nine municipalities, out of which two are urban municipalities and seven are rural municipalities. These are as follows: [18]

Former Village Development Committees

Prior to the restructuring of the district, Doti District consisted of the following Village development committees:

Map of the VDCs in Doti District NepalDotiDistrictmap.png
Map of the VDCs in Doti District

See also

Related Research Articles

Kumaon division Administrative division of Uttarakhand, India

Kumaon or Kumaun is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of the Indian state of Uttarakhand, the other being Garhwal. It includes the districts of Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, and Udham Singh Nagar. It is bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Nepal, on the south by the state of Uttar Pradesh, and on the west by the Garhwal region. The people of Kumaon are known as Kumaonis and speak the Kumaoni language.

Mahakali Zone Zone in Nepal

Mahakali was one of the fourteen zones located in the Far-Western Development Region of Nepal, covering an area of 6,205 km2 in the most western part of the country. It stretches along Nepal's far western border with India, marked by the Kali River or Mahakali River.

Baitadi District District in Sudurpashchim Province, Nepal

Baitadi District, historical name “Bairath” (बैराथ), a part of Sudurpashchim Province, is one of the 77 districts of Nepal. It is a Hill district. Baitadi, with Dasharathchand as its headquarters, covers an area of 1,519 km2 (586 sq mi) and has a population of 250,898 according to the census (2011). The Baitadi district entails 56 village development councils (VDCs) and two municipality. Baitadi falls into the farthest western regional district of Nepal touching Jhulaghat, India, Nepal's neighboring country, to its border.

Darchula District District in Sudurpashchim Province, Nepal

Darchula District (Nepali: दार्चुला जिल्ला pronounced [ˈdaɾt͡sula], a part of Sudurpashchim Province, is one of the nine districts of province and one of seventy-seven districts of Nepal. The district, with Khalanga as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,322 km2 and has a population of 133,274. Darchula Lies in the west-north corner of the country.

Jumla District District in Karnali Pradesh, Nepal

Jumla District, is one of the ten directly constituent districts of the Karnali province of Nepal. This district has Jumla as its headquarters, an area of 2,531 square kilometres (977 sq mi); it had populations of 89,427 and 108,921, respectively, in the national censuses of 2001 and 2011. Its territory lies between longitudes 81⁰ 28' and 82⁰ 18' East, and between latitudes 28⁰ 58' and 29⁰ 30' North.

Kailali District District in Sudurpashchim Province, Nepal

Kailali District, a part of Sudurpashchim Province in Terai plain, is one of the 77 districts of Nepal. The district, with Dhangadhi as its district headquarters, covers an area of 3,235 square kilometres (1,249 sq mi) and has a population of 775,709.

Askot Town in Uttarakhand, India

Askot or Askote is a small Himalayan town in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand in India. It is the part of Kanalichhina development Block and Didihat Tehsil.

Chand kings

The Chand Kings were a Hindu ruling clan of Kumaon, which ruled the region after the decline of Katyuri Kings in 11th century AD.

Doti Region in Nepal

Doti, also known as Doti region, Dotigarh (डोटीगढ़) as used in the Jagar, in the Farwestern region of Nepal, is a region situated between River Kali bordering the Uttarakhand in the west and the Karnali river on the east. Doti was one of eight different princely states of the Katyuri Kingdom.

Bageshwar district District of Uttarakhand in India

Bageshwar is a district of Uttarakhand state in northern India. The town of Bageshwar is the district headquarters. Prior to its establishment as a district in 1997 it was part of Almora district.

Baijnath, Uttarakhand town in Uttarakhand, India

Baijnath is a small town on the banks of the Gomati river in the Bageshwar district in Kumaon division of Uttarakhand, India. The place is most noted for its ancient temples, which have been recognized as Monuments of National Importance by the Archaeological Survey of India in Uttarakhand. Baijnath has been selected as one of the four places to be connected by the 'Shiva Heritage Circuit' in Kumaon, under the Swadesh Darshan Scheme of the Government of India.

Baise Rajya former confederation in Nepal

Baise Rajya were sovereign and intermittently allied petty kingdoms on the Indian subcontinent, ruled by Khas from medieval India, located around the Karnali-Bheri river basin of modern-day Nepal. The Baise were annexed during the unification of Nepal from 1744 to 1810. The kingdom's founder Prithvi Narayan Shah did not live to see this, but his son and grandson annexed the entire collection by the end of the 18th century.

The Katyuri kings were a medieval ruling clan of present-day Uttarakhand, India. They ruled over the region now known as Kumaon from 700 to 1200 CE.

Uttarakhand is a state in the northern part of India. The name "Uttarakhand" literally translates to the Northern Land or Section in Sanskrit; it finds mention in the early Hindu scriptures as the combined region of Kedarkhand and Manaskhand.

Far-Western Development Region, Nepal Regions in Far-Western Development Region, Nepal

The Far-Western Development Region was one of Nepal's five development regions. It was located at the western end of the country and had its headquarters in Dipayal.

Samant or Sawad were the feudal kings of the Doti region, which was formed after the disintegration of Katyuri kingdom of Uttarakhand and far western region of Nepal during the 13th century.

Kumaon Kingdom Former independent kingdom in present-day Uttarakhand, India

Kumaon Kingdom was an independent Himalayan kingdom in the eastern region of present-day Uttarakhand state of India established around 7th century and remained independent sovereign kingdom until 1791.

Doteli Indo-Aryan language

Doteli, or Dotyali (डोटेली) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 800,000 people, most of whom live in Nepal. It is a dialect of Kumaoni but heavily influenced by Nepali, and is written in the Devanagari script. It has official status in Nepal as per Part 1, Section 6 of Constitution of Nepal 2072 (2015). There are four main dialects of Doteli, namely Baitadeli, Bajhangi Nepali, Darchuli and Doteli. The mutual intelligibility between these dialects is high and all dialects of Doteli are able to share language-based materials.

Nepali language Official language of Nepal

Nepali is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari. It is the official language of Nepal and one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. Also known by the endonym Khas kura, the language is also called Gorkhali or Parbatiya in some contexts. It is spoken mainly in Nepal and by about a quarter of the population in Bhutan. In India, Nepali has official status in the state of Sikkim and in the Darjeeling Sadar subdivision and Kalimpong district of West Bengal. It has a significant number of speakers in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram and Uttarakhand. It is also spoken in Myanmar and by the Nepali diaspora worldwide. Nepali developed in proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most notably the other Pahari languages and Maithili and shows Sanskrit influence. However, owing to Nepal's location, it has also been influenced by Tibeto-Burman languages. Nepali is mainly differentiated from Central Pahari, both in grammar and vocabulary, by Tibeto-Burman idioms owing to close contact with this language group.

Sudurpashchim Province Province of Nepal

Sudurpashchim Province is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal which was adopted on 20 September 2015. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Karnali Province and Lumbini Province to the east, and the Indian states of Uttarakhand to the west and Uttar Pradesh to the south. The province covers an area of 19,515.52 km2 - about 13.22% of the country's total area Initially known as Province No. 7, the newly elected Provincial Assembly adopted Sudurpashchim Pradesh as the permanent name for the province in September 2018. As per a 28 September 2018 Assembly voting, the city of Godawari has been declared the capital of the Province. The province is coterminous with the former Far-Western Development Region, Nepal. The three major cities in terms of population and economy are Dhangadhi, Bhimdutta (Mahendranagar) and Tikapur.

References

  1. "National Population and Housing Census 2011(National Report)" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics. Government of Nepal. November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-18. Retrieved November 2012.Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. Badri Datta Pande ; History of Kumaun (1937)
  3. Bhoj Raj Bhattrai. A Historey of Doti Kingdom.
  4. Prof.Dr. Jay Raj pant wrote "Far-Western region of Nepal is called Doti Culturally " : In History of Doti Kingdom (2013)
  5. Yaswant Singh Kathoch. A New History of Ittarakhand.
  6. Badri Dutt Pandey. History of Kumaun.
  7. Advin T. Atkinson (Translated by Ramesh Thapaliyal) (2003). "An old stone has found on the hills of Almora in which name Niraipal and 1348 written". Himalayan Gazetteer Hindi Edition. ISBN   8190100130. p. 267.
  8. 1 2 3 Dr. Ram Singh; A New History of Uttarakhand(2006).Mall Raikas of Sira..
  9. Advin T. Atkinson ; Himalayan Gazetteer; ( Translated by Ramesh Thapaliyal ) Hindi Edition (2003) ISBN   8190100130;..Page 285..Rudra Chand had captured whole territory east of kaliriver in 1581 along with Sira..
  10. Advin T. Atkinson(2003). "Doteli King and East india company agreed to help each other". Himalayan Gazetteer Hindi Edition. p. 380.
  11. Raja Ram Subedi (1997). History of Karnali Region. Subedi has mentioned Pritivipati Shah went to pilibhit and offered his service to British india.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 "History of Nepal". T.R.Vaidya Publications. Archived from the original on 2005-02-09. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  13. Time magazine. 5 August 1957.
  14. The New York Times. 6 October 1982. State Guest of PR of China in 1952 for three years during the rule of Mao Tse-tung & Chou en Lai
  15. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2014-08-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. The Map of Potential Vegetation of Nepal - a forestry/agroecological/biodiversity classification system (PDF), . Forest & Landscape Development and Environment Series 2-2005 and CFC-TIS Document Series No.110., 2005, ISBN   978-87-7903-210-1 , retrieved Nov 22, 2013
  17. 2011 Nepal Census, Social Characteristics Tables
  18. "स्थानिय तह" (in Nepali). Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
Sources

Coordinates: 29°16′N80°56′E / 29.267°N 80.933°E / 29.267; 80.933