Douglas Fairbanks

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Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks cropped.jpg
Douglas Fairbanks, c. late 1910s
Born
Douglas Elton Thomas Ullman

(1883-05-23)May 23, 1883
DiedDecember 12, 1939(1939-12-12) (aged 56)
Resting place Hollywood Forever Cemetery
NationalityAmerican
Education Denver East High School
OccupationActor, director, producer, screenwriter
Years active18991934
Spouse(s)
Children Douglas Fairbanks Jr.

Douglas Fairbanks (born Douglas Elton Thomas Ullman; May 23, 1883 December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director, and producer. [1] He was best known for his swashbuckling roles in silent films including The Thief of Bagdad , Robin Hood , and The Mark of Zorro but spent the early part of his career making comedies.

Swashbuckler film subgenre of the action film genre

Swashbuckler films are a subgenre of the action film genre, often characterised by swordfighting and adventurous heroic characters, known as swashbucklers. Real historical events often feature prominently in the plot, morality is often clear-cut, heroic characters are clearly heroic and even villains tend to have a code of honour. There is often a damsel in distress and a romantic element.

Silent film film with no synchronized recorded dialogue

A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines. The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or even, in large cities, a small orchestra—would often play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from sheet music, or improvisation.

<i>The Thief of Bagdad</i> (1924 film) 1924 film by Raoul Walsh

The Thief of Bagdad is a 1924 American silent swashbuckler film directed by Raoul Walsh and starring Douglas Fairbanks, and written by Achmed Abdullah and Lotta Woods. Freely adapted from One Thousand and One Nights, it tells the story of a thief who falls in love with the daughter of the Caliph of Baghdad. In 1996, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

Contents

Fairbanks was a founding member of United Artists. He was also a founding member of The Motion Picture Academy and hosted the 1st Academy Awards in 1929. With his marriage to Mary Pickford in 1920, the couple became Hollywood royalty and Fairbanks was referred to as "The King of Hollywood", [2] a nickname later passed on to actor Clark Gable.

United Artists American film studio

United Artists Corporation (UA), currently doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American film and television entertainment studio. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, and Douglas Fairbanks, the studio was premised on allowing actors to control their own interests, rather than being dependent upon commercial studios. UA was repeatedly bought, sold, and restructured over the ensuing century. The current United Artists company exists as a successor to the original; as a distributor of films across MGM and third-party titles and as a provider of digital content, in addition to handling most of its post-1952 in-house library and other content it has since acquired. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer acquired the studio in 1981 for a reported $350 million.

1st Academy Awards

The 1st Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 1927 and 1928 and took place on May 16, 1929 at a private dinner held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles, California. AMPAS president Douglas Fairbanks hosted the show. Tickets cost $5, 270 people attended the event and the presentation ceremony lasted 15 minutes. Awards were created by Louis B. Mayer, founder of Louis B. Mayer Pictures Corporation. It is the only Academy Awards ceremony not to be broadcast either on radio or television. The radio broadcast was introduced the following year in 1930.

Mary Pickford Canadian-American actress

Gladys Louise Smith, known professionally as Mary Pickford, was a Canadian-born American film actress and producer. With a career spanning 50 years, she was a co-founder of both the Pickford-Fairbanks Studio and, later, the United Artists film studio, and one of the original 36 founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences who present the yearly "Oscar" award ceremony.

Though widely considered as one of the biggest stars in Hollywood during the 1910s and 1920s, Fairbanks' career rapidly declined with the advent of the "talkies". His final film was The Private Life of Don Juan (1934).

Sound film motion picture with synchronized sound

A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. The first known public exhibition of projected sound films took place in Paris in 1900, but decades passed before sound motion pictures were made commercially practical. Reliable synchronization was difficult to achieve with the early sound-on-disc systems, and amplification and recording quality were also inadequate. Innovations in sound-on-film led to the first commercial screening of short motion pictures using the technology, which took place in 1923.

<i>The Private Life of Don Juan</i> 1934 film by Alexander Korda

The Private Life of Don Juan is a 1934 British comedy-drama film directed by Alexander Korda and starring Douglas Fairbanks, Merle Oberon and Benita Hume. It was Fairbanks' final film role. The film is about the life of the aging Don Juan, based on the 1920 play L'homme à la Rose by Henry Bataille. It was made by Korda's London Film Productions at British & Dominion Studios in Elstree/Borehamwood and distributed by United Artists.

Early life

Fairbanks was born Douglas Elton Thomas Ullman (spelled "Ulman" by Douglas Fairbanks Jr. in his memoirs) in Denver, Colorado, the son of Hezekiah Charles Ullman (September 15, 1833 February 23, 1915) and Ella Adelaide (née Marsh; 18471915). He had two half-brothers, John Fairbanks, Jr. (born 1873) and Norris Wilcox (February 20, 1876 October 21, 1946), [3] and a full brother, Robert Payne Ullman (March 13, 1882 – February 22, 1948). His father was born in Berrysburg, Pennsylvania, and raised in Williamsport. He was the fourth child in a Jewish family consisting of six sons and four daughters. Charles's parents, Lazarus Ullman and Lydia Abrahams, had immigrated to the U.S. in 1830 from Baden, Germany.

Douglas Fairbanks Jr. American actor and United States naval officer

Douglas Elton Fairbanks Jr.,, was an American actor and producer, and a decorated naval officer of World War II. He is best known for starring in such films as The Prisoner of Zenda (1937), Gunga Din (1939) and The Corsican Brothers (1941). He was the son of actor Douglas Fairbanks and was once married to Joan Crawford.

Berrysburg, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Berrysburg is a borough in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 368 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Harrisburg–Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Williamsport, Pennsylvania City in Pennsylvania, United States

Williamsport is a city in, and the county seat of, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, United States. In 2017, the population was estimated at 28,462. It is the principal city of the Williamsport, Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of about 114,000.

When he was 17, Charles started a small publishing business in Philadelphia. Two years later, he left for New York to study law.

Charles met Ella Adelaide Marsh after she married his friend and client John Fairbanks, a wealthy New Orleans sugar mill and plantation owner. The couple had a son, John, and shortly thereafter John Senior died of tuberculosis. Ella, born into a wealthy southern Roman Catholic family, was overprotected and knew little of her husband's business. Consequently, she was swindled out of her fortune by her husband's partners. Even the efforts of Charles Ullman, acting on her behalf, failed to regain any of the family fortune for her.[ citation needed ]

Distraught and lonely, she met and married a courtly Georgian, Edward Wilcox, who turned out to be an alcoholic. After they had a son, Norris, she divorced Wilcox with Charles acting as her own lawyer in the suit. The pretty southern belle soon became romantically involved with Charles and agreed to move to Denver with him to pursue mining investments. They arrived in Denver in 1881 with her son, John. (Norris was left in Georgia with relatives and was never sent for by his mother.) They were married and in 1882 had a child, Robert and then a second son, Douglas, a year later. Charles purchased several mining interests in the Rocky Mountains, and he re-established his law practice. Charles Ullman, after hearing of his wife's philandering, abandoned the family when Douglas was five years old. Douglas and his older brother Robert were brought up by their mother, who gave them the family name Fairbanks, after her first husband.[ citation needed ]

Rocky Mountains mountain range in North America

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers (3,000 mi) from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, and the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west.

Career

Early career

Douglas Fairbanks began acting at an early age, in amateur theatre on the Denver stage, performing in summer stock at the Elitch Gardens Theatre, and other productions sponsored by Margaret Fealy, who ran an acting school for young people in Denver. [4] He attended Denver East High School, and was expelled for cutting the wires on the school piano. [4]

He left school in the spring of 1899, at the age of 15. [4] He variously claimed to have attended Colorado School of Mines and Harvard University, but neither claim is true. He went with the acting troupe of Frederick Warde, beginning a cross country tour in September 1899. He toured with Warde for two seasons, functioning in dual roles, both as actor and as the assistant stage manager in his second year with the group. [4]

After two years he moved to New York, where he found his first Broadway role in Her Lord and Master, which premiered in February 1902. He worked in a hardware store and as a clerk in a Wall Street office between acting jobs. [5] His Broadway appearances included the popular A Gentleman from Mississippi in 190809. On July 11, 1907, Fairbanks married Anna Beth Sully, the daughter of wealthy industrialist Daniel J. Sully, in Watch Hill, Rhode Island. They had one son, Douglas Fairbanks Jr., also a noted actor. In 1915, the family moved to Los Angeles.[ citation needed ]

Hollywood

D.W. Griffith, Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin (seated) and Douglas Fairbanks at the signing of the contract establishing United Artists motion picture studio in 1919. Lawyers Albert Banzhaf (left) and Dennis F. O'Brien (right) stand in the background. United Artists contract signature 1919.jpg
D.W. Griffith, Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin (seated) and Douglas Fairbanks at the signing of the contract establishing United Artists motion picture studio in 1919. Lawyers Albert Banzhaf (left) and Dennis F. O'Brien (right) stand in the background.

After moving to Los Angeles, Fairbanks signed a contract with Triangle Pictures in 1915 and began working under the supervision of D.W. Griffith. His first film was titled The Lamb, in which he debuted the athletic abilities that would gain him wide attention among theatre audiences. [6] His athleticism was not appreciated by Griffith, however, and he was brought to the attention of Anita Loos and John Emerson, who wrote and directed many of his early romantic comedies.

In 1916, Fairbanks established his own company, the Douglas Fairbanks Film Corporation, [7] and would soon get a job at Paramount. [7]

Fairbanks speaking in front of a crowd at a 1918 war bond drive in New York City. Douglas Fairbanks at third Liberty Loan rally HD-SN-99-02174.JPEG
Fairbanks speaking in front of a crowd at a 1918 war bond drive in New York City.

Fairbanks met actress Mary Pickford at a party in 1916, and the couple soon began an affair. In 1917, they joined Fairbanks' friend Charlie Chaplin [6] selling war bonds by train across the United States. Pickford and Chaplin were the two highest paid film stars in Hollywood at that time. To curtail these stars' astronomical salaries, the large studios attempted to monopolize distributors and exhibitors. By 1918, Fairbanks was Hollywood's most popular actor, [8] and within three years of his arrival, Fairbanks' popularity and business acumen raised him to the third-highest paid.

In 1917, Fairbanks capitalized on his rising popularity by publishing a self-help book, Laugh and Live which extolled the power of positive thinking and self-confidence in raising one's health, business and social prospects. [9]

To avoid being controlled by the studios and to protect their independence, Fairbanks, Pickford, Chaplin, and D. W. Griffith formed United Artists in 1919, which created their own distributorships and gave them complete artistic control over their films and the profits generated. The company was kept solvent in the years immediately after its formation largely by the success of Fairbanks' films.

The Mark of Zorro. FairbanksMarkofZorro.jpg
The Mark of Zorro .

In late 1918, Sully was granted a divorce from Fairbanks, the judgment being finalized in early 1919. After the divorce, Fairbanks was determined to have Pickford become his wife, but she was still married to actor Owen Moore. He finally gave her an ultimatum. She then obtained a fast divorce in the small Nevada town of Minden on March 2, 1920. Fairbanks leased the Beverly Hills mansion Grayhall and was rumored to have used it during his courtship of Pickford. The couple married on March 28, 1920. Pickford's divorce from Moore was contested by Nevada legislators, however, and the dispute was not settled until 1922. Even though the lawmakers objected to the marriage, the public went wild over the idea of "Everybody's Hero" marrying "America's Sweetheart." They were greeted by large crowds in London and Paris during their European honeymoon, becoming Hollywood's first celebrity couple. During the years they were married, Fairbanks and Pickford were regarded as "Hollywood Royalty," famous for entertaining at their Beverly Hills estate, Pickfair.

Douglas Fairbanks in the title role in Robin Hood (1922). Fairbanks Robin Hood standing by wall w sword.jpg
Douglas Fairbanks in the title role in Robin Hood (1922).

By 1920, Fairbanks had completed twenty-nine films (twenty-eight features and one two-reel short), which showcased his ebullient screen persona and athletic ability. By 1920, he had the inspiration of staging a new type of adventure-costume picture, a genre that was then out of favor with the public; Fairbanks had been a comic in his previous films. [2] In The Mark of Zorro , Fairbanks combined his appealing screen persona with the new adventurous costume element. It was a smash success and parlayed the actor into the rank of superstar. For the remainder of his career in silent films he continued to produce and star in ever more elaborate, impressive costume films, such as The Three Musketeers (1921), Douglas Fairbanks in Robin Hood (1922), The Thief of Bagdad (1924), The Black Pirate (1926), and The Gaucho (1927). Fairbanks spared no expense and effort in these films, which established the standard for all future swashbuckling films.

In 1921, he, Pickford, Chaplin, and others, helped to organize the Motion Picture Fund to assist those in the industry who could not work, or were unable to meet their bills.

During the first ceremony of its type, on April 30, 1927, Fairbanks and Pickford placed their hand and foot prints in wet cement at the newly opened Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. (In the classic comedy Blazing Saddles , Harvey Korman's villain character sees Fairbanks' prints at Grauman's and exclaims, "How did he do such fantastic stunts...with such little feet?")

Fairbanks was elected first President of the Motion Picture Academy of Arts and Sciences that same year, and he presented the first Academy Awards at the Roosevelt Hotel. Today, Fairbanks also has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7020 Hollywood Boulevard.

Career decline and retirement

Fairbanks in Private Life of Don Juan (1934) Douglas Fairbanks Sr. - Private Life of Don Juan.jpg
Fairbanks in Private Life of Don Juan (1934)

While Fairbanks had flourished in the silent genre, the restrictions of early sound films dulled his enthusiasm for film-making. His athletic abilities and general health also began to decline at this time, in part due to his years of chain-smoking. [10] On March 29, 1928, at Pickford's bungalow, United Artists brought together Pickford, Fairbanks, Charlie Chaplin, Norma Talmadge, Gloria Swanson, John Barrymore, D.W. Griffith and Dolores del Rio to speak on the radio show The Dodge Brothers Hour to prove Fairbanks could meet the challenge of talking movies. [11]

Fairbanks's last silent film was the lavish The Iron Mask (1929), a sequel to 1921's The Three Musketeers.The Iron Mask included an introductory prologue spoken by Fairbanks. He and Pickford chose to make their first talkie as a joint venture, playing Petruchio and Kate in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew (1929). This film, and his subsequent sound films, were poorly received by Depression-era audiences. The last film in which he acted was the British production The Private Life of Don Juan (1934), after which he retired from acting.[ citation needed ]

Fairbanks and Pickford separated in 1933, after he began an affair with Sylvia, Lady Ashley. Pickford had also been seen in the company of a high-profile industrialist. They divorced in 1936, with Pickford keeping the Pickfair estate. [12] Fairbanks and Ashley were married in Paris in March 1936. [13]

He continued to be marginally involved in the film industry and United Artists, but his later years lacked the intense focus of his film years. His health continued to decline, and in his final years he lived at 705 Ocean Front (now Pacific Coast Highway) in Santa Monica, California, although much of his time was spent traveling abroad with his third wife, Sylvia, Lady Ashley.

Death

On December 12, 1939, Fairbanks suffered a heart attack. He died later that day at his home in Santa Monica at the age of 56. [14] His last words were reportedly, "I've never felt better." [15] His funeral service was held at the Wee Kirk o' the Heather Church in Glendale's Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery where he was placed in a crypt in the Great Mausoleum.

Fairbanks's tomb at Hollywood Forever Cemetery. Fairbanksgrave.JPG
Fairbanks's tomb at Hollywood Forever Cemetery.

Two years following his death, he was removed from Forest Lawn by his widow, Sylvia, who commissioned an elaborate marble monument for him featuring a long rectangular reflecting pool, raised tomb, and classic Greek architecture in Hollywood Forever Cemetery in Los Angeles.[ citation needed ] The monument was dedicated in a ceremony held in October 1941, with Fairbanks's close friend Charlie Chaplin reading a remembrance. The remains of his son, Douglas Fairbanks Jr., were also interred there upon his death in May 2000.[ citation needed ]

Legacy

Reissue poster for 1916 cocaine comedy The Mystery of the Leaping Fish. The Mystery of the Leaping Fish.jpg
Reissue poster for 1916 cocaine comedy The Mystery of the Leaping Fish .

In 1998, a group of Fairbanks fans started the Douglas Fairbanks Museum in Austin, Texas. The museum building was temporarily closed for mold remediation and repairs in February 2010. [16]

In 2002, AMPAS opened the "Fairbanks Center for Motion Picture Study" located at 333 S. La Cienega Boulevard in Beverly Hills. The building houses the Margaret Herrick Library. [17]

On November 6, 2008, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences celebrated the publication of their "Academy Imprints" book Douglas Fairbanks, authored by film historian Jeffrey Vance, with the screening of a new restoration print of The Gaucho with Vance introducing the film. [18]

The following year, opening January 24, 2009, AMPAS mounted a major Douglas Fairbanks exhibition at their Fourth Floor Gallery titled, "Douglas Fairbanks: The First King of Hollywood." The exhibit featured costumes, props, pictures, and documents from his career and personal life. [19] In addition to the exhibit, AMPAS screened The Thief of Bagdad and The Iron Mask in March 2009. Concurrently with the Academy's efforts, the Museum of Modern of Art held their first Fairbanks film retrospective in over six decades, titled "Laugh and Live: The Films of Douglas Fairbanks" which ran from December 17, 2008 – January 12, 2009. Jeffrey Vance opened the retrospective with a lecture and screening of the restoration print of The Gaucho. [20]

Recently, due to his involvement with the USC Fencing Club, a bronze statue of Fairbanks was erected in the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences Courtyard of the new School of Cinematic Arts building on the University of Southern California campus. Fairbanks was a key figure in the film school's founding in 1929, and in its curriculum development. [21] [ citation needed ]

The 2011 film The Artist was loosely based on Fairbanks, with the film's lead portraying Zorro in a silent movie featuring a scene from the Fairbanks version.[ citation needed ] While thanking the audience in 2012 for a Golden Globe award as Best Actor for his performance in the film, actor Jean Dujardin added, "As Douglas Fairbanks would say," then moved his lips silently as a comedic homage. When Dujardin accepted the 2011 Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role, Fairbanks was cited at length as the main inspiration for Dujardin's performance in The Artist.[ citation needed ]

An important accolade given to the Douglas Fairbanks legacy was a special screening of his masterpiece, The Thief of Bagdad, at the 2012 edition of the Turner Classic Movies Film Festival. On April 15, 2012, the festival concluded with a sold-out screening of the Fairbanks film held at the historic Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood. The evening was introduced by TCM host Ben Mankiewicz and Fairbanks biographer Jeffrey Vance. [22]

The nickname for the sports teams of the University of California-Santa Barbara is The Gauchos in honor of Fairbanks' acting in the eponymous film. [23]

Filmography

YearTitleCredited as
RoleProducerWriterDirector
1915 The Lamb Gerald
Martyrs of the Alamo Joe / Texan Soldier
Double Trouble Florian Amidon / Eugene Brassfield
1916 His Picture in the Papers Pete Prindle
The Habit of Happiness Sunny Wiggins
The Good Bad Man Passin' ThroughYes
Reggie Mixes In Reggie Van Deuzen
The Mystery of the Leaping Fish Coke Ennyday / Himself
Flirting with Fate Augy Holliday
The Half-Breed Lo Dorman (Sleeping Water)
Intolerance Man on White Horse (French Story)
Manhattan Madness Steve O'Dare
American Aristocracy Cassius Lee
The MatrimaniacJimmie Conroy
The Americano Blaze Derringer
1917All-Star Production of Patriotic
Episodes for the Second Liberty Loan
Himself
In Again, Out Again Teddy RutherfordYes
Wild and Woolly Jeff Hillington
Down to Earth Billy GaynorYesYes
The Man from Painted Post "Fancy Jim" SherwoodYes
Reaching for the Moon Alexis Caesar Napoleon BrownYes
A Modern Musketeer Ned Thacker/d'Artagnan Yes
1918 Headin' South Headin' SouthYes
Mr. Fix-It Dick RemingtonYes
Say! Young Fellow The Young FellowYes
Bound in Morocco George TravelwellYesYes
He Comes Up Smiling Jerry MartinYes
Sic 'Em, SamDemocracy
Arizona Lt. DentonYesYesYes
1919 The Knickerbocker Buckaroo Teddy DrakeYesYes
His Majesty, the American William BrooksYesYes
When the Clouds Roll by Daniel Boone BrownYesYes
1920 The Mollycoddle Richard Marshall III, IV and VYes
The Mark of Zorro Don Diego Vega / Señor Zorro YesYes
1921 The Nut Charlie JacksonYesYes
The Three Musketeers d'ArtagnanYesYes
1922 Robin Hood Robin Hood YesYes
1923 Hollywood Himself
1924 The Thief of Bagdad The Thief of BagdadYesYes
1925 Don Q, Son of Zorro Don Cesar Vega / ZorroYes
Ben-Hur Crowd extra in chariot race
1926 The Black Pirate The Black PirateYesYes
1927 A Kiss From Mary Pickford Himself
The Gaucho The GauchoYesYes
1928 Show People Himself
1929 The Iron Mask d'ArtagnanYesYes
The Taming of the Shrew Petruchio
1930 Reaching for the Moon Larry DayYes
1932 Mr. Robinson Crusoe Steve DrexelYesYes
1934 The Private Life of Don Juan Don Juan
1937 Ali Baba Goes to Town Himself - at Fictional Premiere
Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Position created
President of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
1927–1929
Succeeded by
William C. deMille

See also

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References

  1. Obituary Variety , December 13, 1939, p. 54.
  2. 1 2 "Douglas Fairbanks Sr. Biography". The Douglas Fairbanks Museum. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008.
  3. "Full text of "The Film Daily (Oct-Dec 1946)"". Archive.org. Retrieved 2016-02-16.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Goessel, TraceyThe First King of Hollywood; The Life of Douglas Fairbanks. Chicago Review Press, 2016.
  5. "Alexander Street Press Authorization". Asp6new.alexanderstreet.com. Retrieved 2016-02-16.
  6. 1 2 "American Experience | Mary Pickford | People & Events". PBS. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
  7. 1 2 "Douglas Fairbanks". Flicker Alley. Archived from the original on August 16, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
  8. Richard Corliss (June 17, 1996). "The King of Hollywood". Time Magazine. Retrieved August 10, 2008.
  9. Douglas Fairbanks, Laugh and Live. New York, Britton, 1917. The work includes an afterward by journalist George Creel profiling Fairbanks as the epitome of American can-do manhood.
  10. Vance, Jeffrey (2008). Douglas Fairbanks. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 162–163.
  11. Ramon, David (1997). Dolores del Río. Clío. ISBN   968-6932-35-6.
  12. "Pickford divorce made final" . Chicago Daily Tribune . XCV (12). 14 January 1936. p. 3 via newspapers.com.
  13. "Mr Douglas Fairbanks weds Lady Ashley in Paris" . The Scotsman (28, 948). 9 March 1936. p. 16 via British Newspaper Archive.
  14. "Doug Fairbanks Dies At His Home". Lawrence Journal-World. December 12, 1939. p. 10. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
  15. Robinson, R. (2003). Famous Last Words. New York: Workman Publishing, p. 1.
  16. "Drymeout.com blog". Blog.drymeout.com. April 29, 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
  17. "Fairbanks Center for Motion Picture Study | Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences". Oscars.org at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on October 3, 2014. Retrieved October 12, 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  18. Soares, Andre. "Douglas Fairbanks in THE GAUCHO Academy Screening". Altfg.com. Retrieved 2016-02-16.
  19. "Douglas Fairbanks: The First King of Hollywood | Exhibitions Presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences". Oscars.org. April 19, 2009. Archived from the original on March 9, 2010. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
  20. "Laugh and Live: The Films of Douglas Fairbanks". MoMA. Retrieved 2016-02-16.
  21. https://cinema.usc.edu/news/article.cfm?id=9771
  22. "'The Artist' is the buzz at the TCM Classic Film Festival". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. 2012-04-16. Retrieved 2016-02-16.
  23. "Nickname "Gauchos"" . Retrieved November 14, 2016.

Further reading