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Doujinshi (同人誌), also romanized as dōjinshi, is the Japanese term for self-published print works, such as magazines, manga, and novels. Part of a wider category of doujin (self-published) works, doujinshi are often derivative of existing works and created by amateurs, though some professional artists participate in order to publish material outside the regular industry.
Groups of doujinshi artists refer to themselves as a sākuru (サークル, circle). Several such groups actually consist of a single artist: they are sometimes called kojin sākuru (個人サークル, personal circles).
Since the 1980s, the main method of distribution has been through regular doujinshi conventions, the largest of which is called Comiket (short for "Comic Market") held in the summer and winter in Tokyo's Big Sight. At the convention, over 20 acres (81,000 m2) of doujinshi are bought, sold, and traded by attendees. Doujinshi creators who base their materials on other creators' works normally publish in small numbers to maintain a low profile so as to protect themselves against litigation, making a talented creator's or circle's doujinshi a coveted commodity.
The term doujinshi is derived from doujin (同人, literally "same person", used to refer to a person or people with whom one shares a common goal or interest) and shi (誌, a suffix generally meaning "periodical publication").
The pioneer among doujinshi was Meiroku Zasshi (明六雑誌), published in the early Meiji period (since 1874). Not a literary magazine in fact, Meiroku Zasshi nevertheless played a big role in spreading the idea of doujinshi. The first magazine to publish doujinshi novels was Garakuta Bunko (我楽多文庫), founded in 1885 by writers Ozaki Kōyō and Yamada Bimyo. Doujinshi publication reached its peak in the early Shōwa period, and doujinshi became a mouthpiece for the creative youth of that time. Created and distributed in small circles of authors or close friends, doujinshi contributed significantly to the emergence and development of the shishōsetsu genre. During the postwar years, doujinshi gradually decreased in importance as outlets for different literary schools and new authors. Their role was taken over by literary journals such as Gunzo , Bungakukai and others. One notable exception was Bungei Shuto (文芸首都, lit. Literary Capital), which was published from 1933 until 1969. Few doujinshi magazines survived with the help of official literary journals. Haiku and tanka magazines are still published today.[ citation needed ]
It has been suggested that technological advances in the field of photocopying during the 1970s contributed to an increase in publishing doujinshi. During this time, manga editors were encouraging manga authors to appeal to a mass market, which may have also contributed to an increase in the popularity of writing doujinshi.
During the 1980s, the content of doujinshi shifted from being predominantly original content to being mostly parodic of existing series.Often called aniparo, this was often an excuse to feature certain characters in romantic relationships. Male authors focused on series like Urusei Yatsura , and female authors focused on series like Captain Tsubasa . This coincided with the rise in popularity of Comiket, the first event dedicated specifically to the distribution of doujinshi, which had been founded in 1975.
As of February 1991, there were some doujinshi creators who sold their work through supportive comic book stores. This practice came to light when three managers of such shops were arrested for having a lolicon doujinshi for sale.
Over the last decade, the practice of creating doujinshi has expanded significantly, attracting thousands of creators and fans alike. Advances in personal publishing technology have also fueled this expansion by making it easier for doujinshi creators to write, draw, promote, publish, and distribute their works. For example, some doujinshi are now published on digital media. Furthermore, many doujinshi creators are moving to online download and print-on-demand services, while others are beginning to distribute their works through American channels such as anime shop websites and specialized online direct distribution sites. In 2008, a white paper on the otaku industry was published, this estimated that gross revenue from sales of doujinshi in 2007 were 27.73 billion yen, or 14.9% of total otaku expenditure on their hobby.
To avoid legal problems, the dōjin mark (同人マーク) was created. A license format inspired by Creative Commons licenses, the first author to authorize the license was Ken Akamatsu in the manga UQ Holder! , released on August 28, 2013 in the magazine Weekly Shōnen Magazine .
Comiket is the world's largest comic convention. It is held twice a year (summer and winter) in Tokyo, Japan. The first CM was held in December 1975, with only about 32 participating circles and an estimated 600 attendees. About 80% of these were female, but male participation in Comiket increased later.In 1982, there were fewer than 10,000 attendees, this increased to over 100,000 attendees as of 1989, and over half a million people in recent years. . This rapid increase in attendance enabled doujinshi authors to sell thousands of copies of their works, earning a fair amount of money with their hobby. In 2009, Meiji University opened a dōjin manga library, named “Yoshihiro Yonezawa Memorial Library” to honour its alumni in its Surugadai campus. It contains Yonezawa's own doujinshi collection, comprising 4137 boxes, and the collection of Tsuguo Iwata, another famous person in the sphere of doujinshi.
Like their mainstream counterparts, doujinshi are published in a variety of genres and types. However, due to the target audience, certain themes are more prevalent, and there are a few major division points by which the publications can be classified. It can be broadly divided into original works and aniparo—works which parody existing anime and manga franchises.
As in fanfics, a very popular theme to explore is non-canonical pairings of characters in a given show (for doujinshi based on mainstream publications). Many such publications contain yaoi or yuri (stories containing same-sex romance) themes, either as a part of non-canon pairings, or as a more direct statement of what can be hinted by the main show.
Another category of doujinshi is furry or kemono, often depicting homosexual male pairings of anthropomorphic animal characters and, less often, lesbian pairings. Furry doujinshi shares some characteristics with the yaoi and yuri genres, with many furry doujinshi depicting characters in erotic settings or circumstances, or incorporating elements typical of anime and manga, such as exaggerated drawings of eyes or facial expressions.
A major part of doujinshi, whether based on mainstream publications or original, contains sexually explicit material, due to both the large demand for such publications and absence of restrictions official publishing houses have to follow. Indeed, often the main point of a given doujinshi is to present an explicit version of a popular show's characters. Such works may be known to English speakers as "H-doujinshi", in line with the former Japanese use of letter H to denote erotic material. The Japanese usage, however, has since moved towards the word ero, (エロ漫画) is the term almost exclusively used to mark doujinshi with adult themes. Sometimes they will also be termed "for adults" (成人向け, seijin muke) or 18-kin (18禁) (an abbreviation of "forbidden to minors less than 18 years of age" (18歳未満禁止, 18-sai-miman kinshi)). To differentiate, ippan (一般, , "general", from the general public it is suitable for) is the term used for publications absent of such content.and so ero manga
Most doujinshi are commercially bound and published by doujinshi-ka (doujinshi authors) who self-publish through various printing services. Copybooks, however, are self-made using xerox machines or other copying methods. Few are copied by drawing by hand.
Not all category terms used by English-language fans of doujinshi are derived from Japanese. For example, an AU doujinshi is one set in an alternate universe.
Many doujinshi are derivative works that are produced without the permission of the original creator, a practice that has existed since the early 1980s.Doujinshi are considered shinkokuzai under Japanese copyright law, meaning that doujinshi creators cannot be prosecuted unless a complaint is made by the holders of the copyrights they have violated. In 2016, then-Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe affirmed that doujinshi "don't compete in the market with the original works and don't damage the original creators' profits, so they are shinkokuzai." Copyright holders take an unofficial policy of non-enforcement towards the doujinshi market, as it is seen as having a beneficial impact on the commercial manga market: it creates an avenue for aspiring manga artists to practice, and talented doujinshi creators are often recruited by publishers. Salil K. Mehra, a law professor at Temple University, hypothesizes that doujinshi market causes the manga market to be more productive, and that strict enforcement of copyright law would cause the industry to suffer.
In 1999, the author of an erotic Pokémon manga was prosecuted by Nintendo. This created a media furor as well as an academic analysis in Japan of the copyright issues around doujinshi. At this time, the legal analysis seemed to conclude that doujinshi should be overlooked because they are produced by amateurs for one-day events and not sold in the commercial market.In 2006, an artist selling an imagined "final chapter" for the series Doraemon , which was never completed, was given a warning by the estate of author Fujiko F. Fujio. His creation apparently looked confusingly similar to a real Doraemon manga. He ceased distribution of his doujinshi and sent compensation to the publisher voluntarily. The publisher noted at this time that doujinshi were not usually a cause of concern for him. The Yomiuri Shinbun noted, "Fanzines don't usually cause many problems as long as they are sold only at one-day exhibitions," but quoted an expert saying that due to their increasing popularity a copyright system should be set up.
In 2020, the Intellectual Property High Court ordered a doujinshi sharing website to pay ¥2.19 million to a creator whose doujinshi were uploaded to the website without their consent. The file sharing site claimed that as the doujinshi was a derivative work it was not protected by copyright law, though the court ruled that there was insufficient evidence to classify the doujinshi as an illegally derivative work. The ruling was noted by commentators as potentially broadening rights for doujinshi creators under commercial law.
John Oppliger of AnimeNation stated that creating doujinshi is largely popular with Japanese fans, but not with Western fans. Oppliger claimed that because Japanese natives grow up with anime and manga "as a constant companion", Japanese fans "are more intuitively inclined" to create or expand on existing manga and anime in the form of doujinshi.Since Western fans experience a "more purely" visual experience as most Western fans cannot understand the Japanese language, the original language of most anime, and are "encouraged by social pressure to grow out of cartoons and comics during the onset of adolescence", most of them usually participate in utilizing and rearranging existing work into anime music videos.
In most Western cultures, doujinshi is often perceived to be derivative of existing work, analogous to fan fiction and almost completely pornographic.This is partly true: doujinshi are often, though not always, parodies or alternative storylines involving the worlds of popular manga, game or anime series, and can often feature overtly sexual material. However, there are also many non sexually explicit doujinshi being created as well. The Touhou Project series for example, is known to be notable for the large amount of doujinshi being produced for it that are not pornographic in nature. Some groups releasing adults-only themed materials during the annual Touhou only event Reitaisai in 2008 were only estimated at roughly 10%.
This section needs additional citations for verification .(December 2019)
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Yaoi, also known by the wasei-eigo construction boys' love and its abbreviation BL, is a genre of fictional media originating in Japan that features homoerotic relationships between male characters. Though it is typically created by women for women and is distinct from homoerotic media marketed to gay men, it does also attract a male audience and can be produced by male creators. It spans a wide range of media, including manga, anime, drama CDs, novels, video games, television series, films, and fan works. "Boys' love" and "BL" are the generic terms for this kind of media in Japan and much of Asia; though the terms are used by some fans and commentators in the West, yaoi remains more generally prevalent in English.
An anime music video (AMV), known in wasei-eigo as MAD, is a fan-made music video consisting of clips from one or more Japanese animated shows or movies set to an audio track, often songs or promotional trailer audio. The term is generally specific to Japanese anime, however, it can occasionally include footage from other mediums, such as American animation, live action, or video games. AMVs are not official music videos released by the musicians, they are fan compositions which synchronize edited video clips with an audio track. AMVs are most commonly posted and distributed over the Internet through AnimeMusicVideos.org, Video downloads and YouTube. Anime conventions frequently run AMV contests who usually show the finalists/winner's AMVs.
Doujin is a Japanese term for a group of people who share an interest, activity, or hobby. It is sometimes translated into English as clique, fandom, coterie, society, or circle. The term doujin also commonly refers to self-published creative works produced by these groups, including manga, magazines, novels, music, anime and video games. Print doujin works are collectively called doujinshi.
Comic Market, more commonly known as Comiket and sometimes Comike, is a biannual dōjinshi fair in Tokyo, Japan. It is typically held at Tokyo Big Sight in August and December.
Comic Party, sometimes abbreviated to ComiPa, is a dating sim video game by the Japanese game studio Leaf. It was first released on May 28, 1999 for Windows with adult content, but re-released with it removed for the Dreamcast, Windows, and PSP. The main focus of the game is the creation of various dōjinshi by the player's character, during which there are varied opportunities to interact with a cast of girls.
Doujin soft, also called doujin games (同人ゲーム), are video games created by Japanese hobbyists or hobbyist groups, more for fun than for profit; essentially, the Japanese equivalent of independent video games or fangames. Most of them are based on pre-existing material ("modding"), but some are entirely original creations. They are almost always exclusive to Windows-based PCs, but a few notable exceptions also exist for the Dreamcast, a console on which homebrew development was popular.
The Touhou Project, also known simply as Touhou, is a bullet hell shoot 'em up video game series created by one-man Japanese doujin soft developer Team Shanghai Alice. Since 1995, the team's member, Jun'ya "ZUN" Ōta, has independently developed programming, graphics, writing, and music for the series, self-publishing 18 mainline titles and five spin-offs as of May 2021. ZUN has also produced related print works and music albums, and collaborated with developer Twilight Frontier on six official spin-off Touhou fighting games.
Doujin music, also called otokei doujin (音系同人) in Japan, is a sub-category of doujin activity. Doujin are non-official self-published Japanese works which can be based on official products or completely original creations. Such products are sold online on specialized sites, on the authors' own sites, and in conventions such as the popular Comiket.
Zetsuai 1989 is a Japanese yaoi manga known for its melodramatic, almost operatic plot, its "semi-insane characters", and for the controversial style of its artwork. The word "Zetsu-ai" is a compound created by Minami Ozaki which has been translated as "desperate love". Ozaki's preferred English translation is "Everlasting Love". Many western yaoi fans got their introduction to the genre through this series, which defined the genre for them.
Naoki Hisaya, born Naoki Hayashi, is a Japanese screenwriter who has worked for Tactics, Key and Siesta, but as of 2006, he is a freelance writer. He is well known for being the main writer of the popular visual novel Kanon while working under Key. Additional works include Moon, One: Kagayaku Kisetsu e, and Moon Childe. He is also known for being the original concept writer for Sola and Sora no Method. He later wrote the scenario for the action role-playing game Crystar. He also does work in a dōjin circle named Cork Board.
The yaoi fandom consists of the readers of yaoi, a genre of male x male romance narratives aimed at those who participate in communal activities organized around yaoi, such as attending conventions, maintaining or posting to fansites, creating fan fiction or fan art, etc. In the mid-1990s, estimates of the size of the Japanese yaoi fandom were at 100,000–500,000 people. Despite increased knowledge of the genre among the general public, readership remains limited in 2008. English-language fan translations of From Eroica with Love circulated through the slash fiction community in the 1980s, forging a link between slash fiction fandom and yaoi fandom.
Bara is a colloquialism used to refer to a genre of Japanese comic art and media known within Japan as gay manga (ゲイ漫画) or gei komi. The genre focuses on male same-sex love, as created primarily by gay men for a gay male audience. Bara can vary in visual style and plot, but typically features masculine men with varying degrees of muscle, body fat, and body hair, akin to bear or bodybuilding culture. While bara is typically pornographic, the genre has also depicted romantic and autobiographical subject material, as it acknowledges the varied reactions to homosexuality in modern Japan.
Kuroko's Basketball is a Japanese sports manga series written and illustrated by Tadatoshi Fujimaki. It was serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump from December 2008 to September 2014, with the individual chapters collected into 30 tankōbon volumes by Shueisha. It tells the story of a high school basketball team trying to make it to the national tournament.
A doujin shop is a store that specializes in doujinshi, self-published works. They exist mainly in Japan. Doujin shops can be both brick and mortar as well as online stores. Some sell only second-hand doujinshi, but particularly larger chain stores also sell new doujinshi. Many doujin shops also handle other kinds of doujin works, such as doujin music or doujin games, or commercially published popular media such as manga and anime.
A doujinshi convention is a type of fan convention dedicated to the sale of doujinshi, or self-published works. Doujinshi conventions are usually referred to as sokubaikai or ibento. Thousands of doujinshi conventions take place in Japan every year, but doujinshi conventions are also held in other East Asian countries, and sometimes outside that region as well.
A doujinshi printer is a printer that specializes in doujinshi, self-published works. They are mostly active in Japan.
Takeshi Matsu is a Japanese gay manga artist.
Jun'ya Ota, known by his pseudonym ZUN, is a Japanese video game developer best known for developing and self-publishing the Touhou Project video game series through the dojin group Team Shanghai Alice, of which he is the only member. In 2010, the Guinness World Records called the Touhou Project "the most prolific fan-based shooter series" ever created. ZUN is also known as the Hakurei Kannushi (博麗神主), which is also the name he uses for his Twitter account.
The story is an AU Swan Lake set after the Princess Tutu anime series... F.A.Q... What does AU mean? Alternate Universe.