|Alma mater||University of California, Berkeley, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology|
|Awards|| IEEE Edison Medal (2008)|
Dov Frohman (Hebrew: דב פרוהמן, also Dov Frohman-Bentchkowsky; born March 28, 1939) is an Israeli electrical engineer and business executive. A former vice president of Intel Corporation, he is the inventor of the erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM) and the founder and first general manager of Intel Israel. He is also the author (with Robert Howard) of Leadership the Hard Way (Jossey-Bass, 2008).
Dov Frohman was born in March 1939 in Amsterdam, five months before the start of World War II. His parents were Abraham and Feijga Frohman, Polish Jews who had emigrated to the Netherlands in the early 1930s to escape rising anti-Semitism in Poland. In 1942, after the German invasion of the Low Countries and as the Nazi grip on Holland’s Jewish community tightened, his parents decided to give their child to acquaintances in the Dutch resistance who placed him with the Van Tilborghs, an orthodox Christian farming family that lived in the village of Sprang-Capelle in the region of North Brabant near the Belgian border. The Van Tilborghs hid Frohman for the duration of the war. His parents died in the Holocaust.
Located by relatives in Israel after the war, Frohman spent a few years in orphanages for Jewish children whose parents had died in the war, before emigrating to Israel in 1949 after the founding of the Jewish state. Adopted by relatives, he grew up in Tel Aviv and served in the Israeli army. In 1959, he enrolled at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology to study electrical engineering. After graduating from the Technion in 1963, Frohman traveled to the United States to study for his masters and Ph.D. at the University of California, Berkeley. After receiving his masters in 1965, he took a job in the R&D labs of Fairchild Semiconductor.
In 1969, after completing his Ph.D., he followed former Fairchild managers Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, and Andrew Grove to Intel Corporation, which they had founded the previous year.
It was while troubleshooting a fault in an early Intel product that Frohman in 1970 developed the concept for the EPROM, the first non-volatile semiconductor memory that was both erasable and easily reprogrammable. At the time, there were two types of semiconductor memories. Random-access memory (RAM) chips were easy to program, but a chip would lose its charge (and the information encoded on the chip) when its power source was turned off. In industry parlance, RAM chips were volatile. Read-only memory (ROM) chips, by contrast, were nonvolatile—that is, the information encoded in the chip was fixed and unchangeable. But the process for programming ROM memories was time-consuming and cumbersome. Typically, the data had to be “burned in” at the factory: physically embedded on the chip through a process called “masking” that generally took weeks to complete. And once programmed, the data in the ROM chip could not be altered.
The EPROM was nonvolatile and reprogrammable. It was the catalyst for innovations and developments that led to flash memory technology. The EPROM was also a key innovation in the personal computer industry. Intel founder Gordon Moore called it “as important in the development of the microcomputer industry as the microprocessor itself.”It remained Intel’s most profitable product well into the 1980s.
After inventing the EPROM, Frohman left Intel to teach electrical engineering at the University of Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana. He returned to Intel in 1973, but his long-term vision was to return to Israel to create a center of high-tech research there. In 1974, he helped Intel establish a small chip design center in Haifa—Intel’s first outside the United States. On his return to Israel, Frohman taught at the School of Applied Sciences at Hebrew University of Jerusalem and worked as a consultant to Intel on the side. In 1985, after negotiations with the Israeli government on the establishment of a semiconductor plant in Jerusalem, Intel’s first outside the United States, he left Hebrew University to become general manager of Intel Israel.
In 1991, during the First Gulf War, when Iraq attacked Israel with Scud missiles, Frohman kept Intel Israel open despite recommendations from the Israel Civil Defense authority that all non-essential businesses close down. As a result, Intel Israel was one of the few businesses, and the only manufacturing business, in the country to remain open throughout the war. Frohman described his experience during the war in an article in the Harvard Business Review .) In 1995, he led Intel’s efforts to establish a second semiconductor fab in Israel, in the town of Kiryat Gat in the south of Israel on the edge of the Negev Desert.
Today, Intel Israel is the headquarters for the corporation’s global R&D for wireless technology. It developed the company’s Centrino mobile computing technology, which powers laptops, and advanced microprocessor products.It is also a major center for chip manufacture. In 2008, the company opened a second semiconductor fab in Kiryat Gat - a $3.5 billion investment, with seven thousand employees. In 2007, Intel Israel’s exports totaled $1.4 billion and represented roughly 8.5 percent of the total exports of Israel’s electronics and information industry.
Frohman retired from Intel in 2001.
He is also a member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
In computing, memory refers to a device that is used to store information for immediate use in a computer or related computer hardware device. It typically refers to semiconductor memory, specifically metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory, where data is stored within MOSFET memory cells on a silicon integrated circuit chip. The term "memory" is often synonymous with the term "primary storage". Computer memory operates at a high speed, for example random-access memory (RAM), as a distinction from storage that provides slow-to-access information but offers higher capacities. If needed, contents of the computer memory can be transferred to secondary storage; a very common way of doing this is through a memory management technique called "virtual memory". An archaic synonym for memory is store.
A programmable read-only memory (PROM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse. It is one type of ROM. The data in them is permanent and cannot be changed. PROMs are used in digital electronic devices to store permanent data, usually low level programs such as firmware or microcode. The key difference from a standard ROM is that the data is written into a ROM during manufacture, while with a PROM the data is programmed into them after manufacture. Thus, ROMs tend to be used only for large production runs with well-verified data, while PROMs are used to allow companies to test on a subset of the devices in an order before burning data into all of them.
EEPROM (also E2PROM) stands for electrically erasable programmable read-only memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless systems, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.
An EPROM, or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of programmable read-only memory (PROM) chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off. Computer memory that can retrieve stored data after a power supply has been turned off and back on is called non-volatile. It is an array of floating-gate transistors individually programmed by an electronic device that supplies higher voltages than those normally used in digital circuits. Once programmed, an EPROM can be erased by exposing it to strong ultraviolet light source. EPROMs are easily recognizable by the transparent fused quartz window in the top of the package, through which the silicon chip is visible, and which permits exposure to ultraviolet light during erasing.
The Intel 4004(pronounced:fourty-oh-four or four-thousand-four) is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. It was the first commercially available microprocessor, and the first in a long line of Intel CPUs. The chip design, implemented with the MOS silicon gate technology, started in April 1970, and was created by Federico Faggin who led the project from beginning to completion in 1971. Marcian Hoff formulated and led the architectural proposal in 1969, and Masatoshi Shima contributed to the architecture and later to the logic design. The first commercial sale of the fully operational 4004 occurred in March 1971 to Busicom Corp. of Japan for its 141-PF electronic calculator, for which it was originally designed and built as a custom chip.
Non-volatile random-access memory (NVRAM) is random-access memory that is non-volatile. This is in contrast to dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) and static random-access memory (SRAM), which both maintain data only for as long as power is applied.
Micron Technology, Inc. is an American producer of computer memory and computer data storage including dynamic random-access memory, flash memory, and USB flash drives. It is headquartered in Boise, Idaho. Its consumer products are marketed under the brands Crucial and Ballistix. Micron and Intel together created IM Flash Technologies, which produces NAND flash memory. It owned Lexar between 2006 and 2017.
Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled. In contrast, volatile memory needs constant power in order to retain data. Examples of non-volatile memory include flash memory, read-only memory (ROM), ferroelectric RAM, most types of magnetic computer storage devices, optical discs, and early computer storage methods such as paper tape and punched cards.
Dr. Frank Marion Wanlass was an American electrical engineer. He is best known for inventing CMOS logic with Chih-Tang Sah in 1963. CMOS has since become the standard semiconductor device fabrication process for MOSFETs.
Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic semiconductor device used for digital data storage, such as computer memory. It typically refers to MOS memory, where data is stored within metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) memory cells on a silicon integrated circuit memory chip. There are numerous different types of implementations using various MOS technologies. The two main types of random-access memory (RAM) are static RAM (SRAM), which uses several MOSFETs per memory cell, and dynamic RAM (DRAM), which uses a single MOSFET and MOS capacitor per cell. Non-volatile memory uses floating-gate memory cells, which consist of a single floating-gate MOSFET per cell.
Busicom was a Japanese company that owned the rights to Intel's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, which they created in partnership with Intel in 1970.
The floating-gate MOSFET (FGMOS), also known as a floating-gate transistor, is a type of MOSFET where the gate is electrically isolated, creating a floating node in DC, and a number of secondary gates or inputs are deposited above the floating gate (FG) and are electrically isolated from it. These inputs are only capacitively connected to the FG. Since the FG is completely surrounded by highly resistive material, the charge contained in it remains unchanged for long periods of time. Usually Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and hot-carrier injection mechanisms are used to modify the amount of charge stored in the FG.
The 800 nanometer (800 nm) process refers to the level of MOSFET semiconductor fabrication process technology that was reached around the 1987–1990 timeframe, by leading semiconductor companies like NTT, NEC, Toshiba, IBM, Hitachi, Matsushita, Mitsubishi Electric and Intel.
The 600 nanometer (600 nm) process refers to the level of CMOS (MOSFET) semiconductor fabrication process technology that was commercialized around the 1990–1995 timeframe, by leading semiconductor companies like Mitsubishi Electric, Toshiba, NEC, Intel and IBM.
Dov Moran is an Israeli entrepreneur, inventor and investor, best known as the inventor of the USB memory stick, and one of the most prominent Israeli hi-tech leaders in the world.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be electronically modified after the manufacture of the memory device. Read-only memory is useful for storing software that is rarely changed during the life of the system, sometimes known as firmware. Software applications for programmable devices can be distributed as plug-in cartridges containing read-only memory.
refers to memory that is hard-wired, such as diode matrix or a mask ROM integrated circuit, which cannot be electronically changed after manufacture. Although discrete circuits can be altered in principle, integrated circuits (ICs) cannot. Correction of errors, or updates to the software, require new devices to be manufactured and to replace the installed device.
The IEEE Robert N. Noyce Medal is a science award presented by the IEEE for outstanding contributions to the microelectronics industry. It is given to individuals who have demonstrated contributions in multiple areas including technology development, business development, industry leadership, development of technology policy, and standards development. The medal is named in honour of Robert N. Noyce, the founder of Intel Corporation. He was also renowned for his 1959 invention of the integrated circuit. The medal is funded by Intel Corporation and was first awarded in 2000.
Dawon Kahng was a Korean-American electrical engineer and inventor, known for his work in solid-state electronics. He is best known for inventing the MOSFET, also known as the MOS transistor, with Mohamed Atalla in 1959. Atalla and Kahng developed both the PMOS and NMOS processes for MOSFET semiconductor device fabrication. The MOSFET is the most widely used type of transistor, and the basic element in most modern electronic equipment.
The memory cell is the fundamental building block of computer memory. The memory cell is an electronic circuit that stores one bit of binary information and it must be set to store a logic 1 and reset to store a logic 0. Its value is maintained/stored until it is changed by the set/reset process. The value in the memory cell can be accessed by reading it.
Shlomo (Sol) Gradman born in 1956 is an Israeli entrepreneur and investor. He is one of Israel's senior executives of high-tech companies and acts as the chairman of the Israeli High tech CEO Forum.