Downtown Houston

Last updated
Downtown Houston
Panoramic Houston skyline.jpg
Aerial view of the Downtown skyline from the east
Houston Downtown Map.png
Road map of Downtown Houston.
CountryFlag of the United States.svg  United States
StateFlag of Texas.svg  Texas
County Harris County
CityFlag of Houston, Texas.svg  Houston
Settled1836
Subdistricts
Area
[1]
  Total4.8 km2 (1.84 sq mi)
Population
(2017) [1]
  Total10,165
  Density2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)
 Greater Downtown (within 2 miles): 74,791
ZIP Code
77002
Area code(s) 281, 346, 713, and 832
Website downtownhouston.org

Downtown is the largest business district in Houston, Texas, located near the geographic center of the metropolitan area at the confluence of Interstate 10, Interstate 45, and Interstate 69. The 1.84-square-mile (4.8 km2) district, enclosed by the aforementioned highways, contains the original townsite of Houston at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou, a point known as Allen's Landing. Downtown has been the city's preeminent commercial district since its founding in 1836.

Houston City in Texas, United States

Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, which is the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles (1,620 km2), Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States. It is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is similarly not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though primarily in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Interstate 10 (I-10) is the major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States. In the U.S. state of Texas, it runs east from Anthony, at the border with New Mexico, through El Paso, San Antonio and Houston to the border with Louisiana in Orange, Texas. At just under 880 miles (1,420 km), the Texas segment of I-10, maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation, is the longest continuous untolled freeway in North America that is operated by a single authority,. It is also the longest stretch of highway with a single designation within a single state. Mile marker 880 and its corresponding exit number in Orange, Texas, are the highest numbered mile marker and exit on any freeway in North America. After widening was completed in 2008, a portion of the highway west of Houston is now also believed to be the widest in the world, at 26 lanes. There is a wider section in China on the G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway; however, that section is a toll plaza approach.

Contents

Today home to nine Fortune 500 corporations, Downtown contains 50 million square feet (4,600,000 m2) of office space and is the workplace of 150,000 employees. [1] Downtown is also a major destination for entertainment and recreation. Nine major performing arts organizations are located within the 13,000-seat Theater District at prominent venues including Alley Theatre, Hobby Center for the Performing Arts, Jones Hall, and the Wortham Theater Center. Two major professional sports venues, Minute Maid Park and the Toyota Center, are home to the Houston Astros and Houston Rockets, respectively. Discovery Green, an urban park located on the east side of the district adjacent to the George R. Brown Convention Center, anchors the city's convention district.

<i>Fortune</i> 500 Annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine

The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United States corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years. The list includes publicly held companies, along with privately held companies for which revenues are publicly available. The concept of the Fortune 500 was created by Edgar P. Smith, a Fortune editor, and the first list was published in 1955. The Fortune 500 is more commonly used than its subset Fortune 100 or superset Fortune 1000.

Houston Theater District Neighborhood of Houston in Harris County, Texas, United States

The Houston Theater District, a 17-block area in the heart of Downtown Houston, Texas, United States, is home to Houston's nine professional performing arts organizations, the 130,000-square-foot (12,000 m2) Bayou Place entertainment complex, restaurants, movies, plazas, and parks. More than two million people visit the Houston Theater District annually.

Alley Theatre theater company and theater in Houston, Texas, United States

The Alley Theatre is a Tony Award-winning theatre company in Houston, Texas. It is the oldest professional theatre company in Texas and the third oldest resident theatre in the United States. Alley Theatre productions have played on Broadway at Lincoln Center, toured more than 40 American cities, and played internationally in Berlin, Paris, and St. Petersburg.

Downtown is Houston's civic center, containing Houston City Hall, the jail, criminal, and civil courthouses of Harris County, and a federal prison and courthouse. Downtown is also a major public transportation hub, lying at the center of the light rail system, park and ride system, and the metropolitan freeway network; the Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County (METRO) is headquartered in the district. Over 100,000 people commute through Downtown daily. [1] An extensive network of pedestrian tunnels and skywalks connects a large number of buildings in the district; this system also serves as a subterranean mall.

Houston City Hall city hall

The Houston City Hall building is the headquarters of the City of Houston's municipal government. Constructed during 1938 and 1939, the City Hall complex is located on Bagby Street on the western side of Downtown Houston. It is surrounded by the Houston Skyline District and is similar in design to dozens of other city halls built in the southwest United States during the same time period. City Hall is flanked by Tranquility Park and the Houston Public Library. The simply designed structure featured many construction details that have helped to make this building an architectural classic.

Harris County Jail

Harris County Jail is a jail complex that services Harris County. It is the main jail complex of the county and is located in the city of Houston. The complex lies in the peninsula formed by the Buffalo Bayou in northern Downtown Houston. While most of the complex is based on county jails serving Harris County, Joe Kegans State Jail is also located within the complex. The Harris County District Court is located just next to the jail complex.

Harris County, Texas County in the United States

Harris County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas, located in the southeastern part of the state near Galveston Bay. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 4,092,459, making it the most populous county in Texas and the third most populous county in the United States. Its county seat is Houston, the largest city in Texas and fourth largest city in the United States. The county was founded in 1836 and organized in 1837. It is named for John Richardson Harris, who founded the town of Harrisburg on Buffalo Bayou in 1826. According to a July 2017 Census estimate, Harris County's population had grown to 4,652,980, comprising over 16 percent of Texas's population.

Geographically, Downtown is bordered by East Downtown to the east, Third Ward to the south, Midtown to the southwest, Fourth Ward to the west, Sixth Ward to the northwest, and Near Northside to the north. The district's streets form a strict grid plan of approximately 400 square blocks, [2] oriented at a southwest to northeast angle. The northern end of the district is crossed by Buffalo Bayou, the banks of which function as a linear park with a grade-separated system of hike-and-bike trails.

East Downtown Houston human settlement in Houston, Texas, United States of America

East Downtown Houston (EaDo) is a district in Houston, Texas, United States. The East Downtown Management District (EDMD), manages the area with offices headquartered at START Houston, a co-working space 1121 Delano Street. The community is located east of Downtown Houston and north of Interstate 45. It is between the George R. Brown Convention Center and the East End district.

Third Ward, Houston human settlement in Houston, Texas, United States of America

The Third Ward is an area of Houston, Texas, United States that evolved from one of the six historic wards of the same name. It is located in the southeast Houston management district.

Midtown, Houston Neighborhood of Houston in Harris County, Texas, USA

Midtown is a central neighborhood of Houston, located west-southwest of Downtown. Separated from Downtown by an elevated section of Interstate 45, Midtown is characterized by a continuation of Downtown's square grid street plan, anchored by Main Street and the METRORail Red Line. Midtown is bordered by Neartown (Montrose) to the west, the Museum District to the south, and Interstate 69 to the east. Midtown's 325 blocks cover 1.24 square miles (3.2 km2) and contained an estimated population of nearly 8,600 in 2015.

Composition

Downtown Houston is a 1,178-acre (1.841 sq mi) area bounded by Interstate 45, Interstate 69/U.S. Highway 59, and Interstate 10/U.S. Highway 90. [3] Several sub-districts exist within Downtown, including: [4]

Interstate 45 (I-45) is an interstate highway located entirely within the U.S. state of Texas. While most interstate routes ending in five are cross-country north-south routes, I-45 is comparatively short, with the entire route located in Texas. It connects the cities of Dallas and Houston, continuing southeast from Houston to Galveston over the Galveston Causeway to the Gulf of Mexico.

Interstate 69 Interstate from Texas to Michigan

Interstate 69 (I-69) is an Interstate Highway in the United States currently consisting of seven disjointed parts with an original continuous segment from Indianapolis, Indiana, northeast to the Canada–US border in Port Huron, Michigan, at 355.8 miles (572.6 km). The remaining separated parts are variously completed and posted or unposted parts of an extension southwest to the Mexican border in Texas. Of this extension—nicknamed the NAFTA Superhighway because it would help trade with Canada and Mexico spurred by the North American Free Trade Agreement—five pieces near Corpus Christi, Houston, northwestern Mississippi, Memphis, and Evansville have been newly built or upgraded and signposted as I-69. A sixth segment of I-69 through Kentucky utilizing that state's existing parkway system and a section of I-24 was established by federal legislation in 2008, but only a portion is signposted. A section of the previously existing Western Kentucky Parkway from Eddyville to Nortonville was approved and signposted in late 2011, with the Pennyrile Parkway between Nortonville and Henderson being signed as I-69 in 2015, and the Purchase Parkway between Mayfield and Calvert City signed in July 2018. This brings the total length to about 720 miles (1,160 km).

History

Marker in Downtown Houston commemorating the founding of Houston by the Allen Brothers TownofHoustonHistory.JPG
Marker in Downtown Houston commemorating the founding of Houston by the Allen Brothers

Downtown Houston encompasses the original townsite of Houston. After the Texas Revolution, two New York real estate investors, John Kirby Allen and Augustus Chapman Allen, purchased 6,642 acres (2,688 ha) of land from Thomas F.L. Parrot and his wife, Elizabeth (John Austin's widow), for US$9,428 (equivalent to $215,101in 2018). [6] The Allen brothers settled at the confluence of White Oak and Buffalo bayous, a spot now known as Allen's Landing.

A team of three surveyors, including Gail Borden, Jr. (best known for inventing condensed milk) and Moses Lapham, platted a 62-square-block townsite in the fall of 1836, each block approximately 250 by 250 feet, or 62,500 square feet (5,810 m2) in size. [7] The grid plan was designed to conform to the winding route of Buffalo Bayou; east-west streets were aligned at an angle of north 55º west, while north-south streets were at an angle of south 35º west. [8] Each block was subdivided into 12 lots – five 50-by-100 foot lots on each side of the block, and two 50-by-125 foot lots between the rows of five. [8] The Allen brothers, motivated by their vision for urban civic life, specified wide streets to easily accommodate commercial traffic and reserved blocks for schools, churches, and civic institutions. [9] The townsite was then cleared and drained by a team of Mexican prisoners and black slaves. [9] By April 1837, Houston featured a dock, commercial district, the capitol building of the Republic of Texas, and an estimated population of 1,500. [9] The first city hall was sited at present-day Market Square Park in 1841; this block also served as the city's preeminent retail market. [10]

The relocation of the Texan republic's capital to Houston required a significant political campaign by the Allen brothers. The Allens gifted a number of city blocks to prominent Texas politicians and agreed to construct the new capitol building and a large hotel at no cost to the government. [8] The Allens also donated blocks to celebrities, relatives, prominent lawyers, and other influential people in order to attract additional investment and speculation to the town. [8] During the late 1830s and early 1840s, Houston was in the midst of a land boom, and lots were selling at "enormous prices," according to a visitor to the town in 1837. [8]

Despite the efforts of the Allen brothers and high economic interest in the town, first few years of Houston's existence were plagued by yellow fever epidemics, flooding, searing heat, inadequate infrastructure, and crime. [9] Houston suffered from woefully inadequate city services; the Allens failed to accommodate transit, water service, sewerage, road paving, trash service, or gas service in their plans. [8] As a result, in 1839 the Texas Capitol was moved to Austin. [9]

In 1840, Houston adopted a ward system of municipal governance, which, at the time, was considered more democratic than a strong-mayor system and had already been adopted by the United States' largest cities. [11] The boundaries of the original four wards of Houston radiated out from the intersection of Main and Congress streets; the First Ward was located to the northwest, Second to the northeast, Third to the southeast, and Fourth to the southwest. [11] Fifth Ward was created in 1866, encompassing the area north of Buffalo Bayou and east of White Oak Bayou; Sixth Ward, the final addition to the system, replaced the section of Fourth Ward north of Buffalo Bayou in 1877. [11] The ward system, which featured elected aldermen who served as representatives of each neighborhood, remained Houston's form of municipal government until 1905, when the city switched to a commission government and the wards, as political entities, were dissolved. [11]

Houston grew steadily throughout the late 19th century, and the neighborhoods within the boundaries of modern Downtown diversified. To the northeast, around present-day Minute Maid Park, Quality Hill emerged as an elite neighborhood, occupied by entrepreneurs like William Marsh Rice (namesake of Rice University), William J. Hutchins, and William L. Foley (namesake of Foley's department stores). [12] The neighborhood was well known for its opulent residential architecture, often in the Greek Revival style. [12] To the north, along a bend in Buffalo Bayou, the working-class neighborhood of Frost Town welcomed immigrants from Europe and Mexico during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [13]

Prior to the arrival of the first streetcars in Houston in the 1870s, most development in the city had been centered in and around the present-day Downtown area. One of the first systems, the Houston City Street Railway, opened in 1874 with four lines along the principal commercial thoroughfares in the heart of the business district. [14] While generally focused on the most prosperous areas of town, the Houston City Street Railway extended one line a full mile south of the center of the city, making it the first streetcar network designed to spur residential development. [14] By the 1890s, new, larger local streetcar companies finally accumulated the capital necessary to begin constructing streetcar suburbs beyond the conventional boundaries of the city. [14] This led to the development and rapid growth of areas like the Houston Heights and Montrose. [14] Residential development subsequently moved out of the central business district; Quality Hill was virtually abandoned by the turn of the 20th century. [12]

Downtown's growth can be attributed to two major factors: The first arose after the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, when investors began seeking a location close to the ports of Southwest Texas, but apparently free of the dangerous hurricanes that frequently struck Galveston and other port cities. Houston became a wise choice, as only the most powerful storms were able to reach the city. The second came a year later with the 1901 discovery of oil at Spindletop, just south of Beaumont, Texas. Shipping and oil industries began flocking to east Texas, many settling in Houston. From that point forward the area grew substantially, as many skyscrapers were constructed, including the city's tallest buildings. In the 1980s, however, economic recession canceled some projects and caused others to be scaled back, such as the Bank of the Southwest Tower. [15]

In the 19th century much of what was the Third Ward, the present day east side of Downtown Houston, was what Stephen Fox, an architectural historian who lectured at Rice University, referred to as "the elite neighborhood of late 19th-century Houston." Ralph Bivins of the Houston Chronicle wrote that Fox said that area was "a silk-stocking neighborhood of Victorian-era homes." Bivins said that the construction of Union Station, which occurred around 1910, caused the "residential character" of the area to "deteriorate." Hotels opened in the area to service travelers. Afterwards, according to Bivins, the area "began a long downward slide toward the skid row of the 1990s" and the hotels devolved into flophouses. Passenger trains stopped going to Union Station in 1974. [16] The construction of Interstate 45 in the 1950s separated portions of the historic Third Ward from the rest of the Third Ward and brought those portions into Downtown. [17]

Beginning in the 1960s the development of the 610 Loop caused the focus of the Houston area to move away from Downtown Houston. Joel Barna of Cite 42 said that this caused Greater Houston to shift from "a fragmenting but still centrally focused spatial entity into something more like a doughnut," and that Downtown Houston began to become a "hole" in the "doughnut." As interchange connections with the 610 Loop opened, according to Barna Downtown "became just another node in a multi-node grid" and, as of 1998, "has been that, with already established high densities and land prices." In the mid-1980s, the bank savings and loan crisis forced many tenants in Downtown Houston buildings to retrench, and some tenants went out of business. Barna said that this development further caused Downtown Houston to decline. [18]

The Gulf Hotel fire occurred in 1943.

Areas which are now considered part of Downtown were once within Third and the Fourth wards; the construction of Interstate 45 in the 1950s separated the areas from their former communities and placed them in Downtown. Additional freeway construction in the 1960s and 1970s solidified the current boundaries of Downtown. Originally, Downtown was the most important retail area of Houston. Suburban retail construction in the 1970s and 1980s reduced Downtown's importance in terms of retail activity. [17]

From 1971 to 2018, about 40 downtown buildings and other properties have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The onset of the 1980s oil glut had devastating economic consequences for Downtown. In the mid-1980s, a bank savings and loan crisis forced many tenants in Downtown Houston buildings to retrench, and some went out of business. This development further caused Downtown Houston to decline. [18] In 1986, Downtown's Class A office occupancy rate was 81.4%. [19] The Downtown Houston business occupancy rate of all office space increased from 75.8% at the end of 1987 to 77.2% at the end of 1988. [20] By the late 1980s, 35% of Downtown Houston's land area consisted of surface parking. [18] In the early 1990s Downtown Houston still had more than 20% vacant office space. [21] By 1987 many of the office buildings in Downtown Houston were owned by non-U.S. real estate figures. [22]

Downtown skyline during Jean Michel Jarre's concert, Rendez-Vous Houston Rendezvous houston.jpg
Downtown skyline during Jean Michel Jarre's concert, Rendez-Vous Houston

On April 5, 1986, the entire Downtown area was transformed as part of a concert by French musician Jean Michel Jarre. Called Rendez-Vous Houston, the open-air show used the skyscrapers as giant projection screens, and as launchpads for fireworks. The show celebrated 25 years of NASA, 150 years of Texas, and was a tribute to the astronauts killed in the recent Challenger Disaster. The show attracted a then-record live audience of 1.3 million people. [23]

Downtown began to rebound from the oil crisis by the mid-1990s. A dozen companies relocated to Downtown in 1996 alone, bringing 2,800 jobs and filling 670,000 square feet (62,000 m2) of space. [24] In 1997 Tim Reylea, the vice president of Cushman Realty, said that "None of the major central business districts across the country has seen the suburban-to-downtown shift that Houston has." [25]

By 2000, demand for Downtown office space increased, and construction of office buildings resumed. [21] The cutbacks by firms such as Dynegy, in addition to the fall of Enron, caused the occupancy rate of Downtown Houston buildings to decrease to 84.1% in 2003 from 97.3% less than two years previously. In 2003, the types of firms with operations in Downtown Houston typically were accounting firms, energy firms, and law firms. Typically newer buildings had higher occupancy rates than older buildings. [19] In 2004, the real estate firm Cresa Partners stated that the vacancy rate in Downtown Houston's Class A office space was almost 20%. [26] The Texas Legislature established the Downtown Houston Management District in 1995. [3]

In recent years, Downtown has experienced a boom in high-rise residential construction, spurred in large part by the Downtown Living Initiative (DLI), a tax incentive program created by the city. Between 2013 and 2015, the DLI subsidized 5,000 proposed residential units. As a result, Downtown's residential population has increased to 10,165 people in 4,777 units, up from 900 units in the 1995. [1] [27] Many of Downtown's older residential units are located in lofts and converted commercial space, many of which are located around the performance halls of the Houston Theater District and near Main Street in the Historic District.[ citation needed ] In spring 2009, luxury high-rise One Park Place opened-up with 346 units. [28] In early 2017 Downtown's largest residential building opened when Market Square Tower's 463 units were completed.

Developers have invested more than US$4 billion in the first decade of the 21st century to transform Downtown into an active city center with residential housing, a nightlife scene and new transportation. [29] The Cotswold Project, a $62 million project started in 1998, has helped to rebuild the streets and transform 90 downtown blocks into a pedestrian-friendly environment by adding greenery, trees and public art. [30] January 1, 2004 marked the opening of the "new" Main Street, a plaza with many eateries, bars and nightclubs, which brings many visitors to a newly renovated locale. [31]

Phoenicia Specialty Foods opened a downtown grocery store in 2011, located in One Park Place. [32] [33]

Architecture

Wells Fargo Plaza Wells Fargo Bank Plaza, Houston, from base.jpg
Wells Fargo Plaza

In the 1960s, downtown comprised a modest collection of mid-rise office structures, but has since grown into one of the largest skylines in the United States. In 1960, the central business district had 10 million square feet (930,000 m²) of office space, increasing to about 16 million square feet (1,500,000 m²) in 1970. Downtown Houston was on the threshold of a boom in 1970 with 8.7 million square feet (800,000 m²) of office space planned or under construction and huge projects being launched by real estate developers. The largest proposed development was the 32-block Houston Center. Only a small part of the original proposal was ultimately constructed, however. Other large projects included the Cullen Center, Allen Center, and towers for Shell Oil Company. The surge of skyscrapers mirrored the skyscraper booms in other cities, such as Los Angeles and Dallas. Houston experienced another downtown construction spurt in the 1970s with the energy industry boom.[ citation needed ]

JPMorgan Chase Tower Chase Tower, a block away.jpg
JPMorgan Chase Tower

The first major skyscraper to be constructed in Houston was the 50-floor, 218 m (714 ft) One Shell Plaza in 1971. A succession of skyscrapers were built throughout the 1970s, culminating with Houston's tallest skyscraper, the 75-floor, 305 m (1,002 ft) JPMorgan Chase Tower (formerly the Texas Commerce Tower), which was completed in 1982. In 2002, it was the tallest structure in Texas, ninth-tallest building in the United States, and the 23rd tallest skyscraper in the world. In 1983, the 71-floor, 296 m (970 ft) Wells Fargo Plaza was completed, which became the second-tallest building in Houston and Texas, and 11th-tallest in the country. Skyscraper construction in downtown Houston came to an end in the mid-1980s with the collapse of Houston's energy industry and the resulting economic recession.

Twelve years later, the Houston-based Enron Corporation began constructing a 40-floor, 1,284,013sq.ft [34] skyscraper in 1999 (which was completed in 2002) [35] with the company collapsing in one of the most dramatic corporate failures in the history of the United States only two years later. Chevron bought this building to set up a regional upstream energy headquarters, and in late 2006 announced further consolidation of employees downtown from satellite suburban buildings, and even California and Louisiana offices by leasing the original Enron building across the street. Both buildings are connected by a second-floor unique walk-across, air-conditioned circular skybridge with three points of connection to both office buildings and a large parking deck. Other smaller office structures were built in the 2000–2003 period. As of January 2015, downtown Houston had more than 44 million square feet (4,087,733 m²) of office space, including more than 29 million square feet (1,861,704 m²) of class A office space. [36] [37]

Notable buildings

Sweeney, Coombs & Fredericks Building Sweeney, Coombs & Fredricks Building, Houston.jpg
Sweeney, Coombs & Fredericks Building
Heritage Plaza Heritage Plaza Building Houston Texas.jpg
Heritage Plaza

Notable buildings that form Houston's downtown skyline:

Economy

Downtown is Houston's single largest office market, containing 50 million square feet (4,600,000 m2) of space. [1] A premium submarket, Downtown commands the highest office rental rates in the city [38] and was one of the ten most expensive office markets in the United States in 2016. [39] Louisiana Street, which runs through the heart of the district, is one of the fifteen most expensive streets in the United States. [40]

3,500 businesses in the district employ approximately 150,000 workers. Major employers include Chevron, JPMorgan Chase, Shell Oil Company, and United Airlines. [3] Downtown Houston has between 35% and 40% of the Class A office locations of the business districts in Houston. [41]

Companies based in Downtown

One Shell Plaza, which houses the headquarters of the Shell Oil Company OneShellPlaza.jpg
One Shell Plaza, which houses the headquarters of the Shell Oil Company

Firms which are headquartered in Downtown include:

Companies with operations in Downtown

Continental Airlines (now known as United Airlines) formerly had its headquarters in Continental Center I. [61] At one point, ExpressJet Airlines had its headquarters in Continental's complex. [62] [63] In September 1997 Continental Airlines announced it would consolidate its Houston headquarters in the Continental Center complex; [64] the airline scheduled to move its employees in stages beginning in July 1998 and ending in January 1999. Bob Lanier, Mayor of Houston, said that he was "tickled to death" by the airline's move to relocate to Downtown Houston. [65] Tim Reylea, the vice president of Cushman Realty, said that the Continental move "is probably the largest corporate relocation in the central business district of Houston ever." [25]

Hotel operators in Downtown reacted favorably, predicting that the move would cause an increase in occupancy rates in their hotels. [66] In 2008 Continental renewed its lease in the building. Before the lease renewal, rumors spread stating that the airline would relocate its headquarters to office space outside of Downtown. Steven Biegel, the senior vice president of Studley Inc. and a representative of office building tenants, said that if Continental's space went vacant, the vacancy would not have had a significant impact in the Downtown Houston submarket as there is not an abundance of available space, and the empty property would be likely that another potential tenant would occupy it. Jennifer Dawson of the Houston Business Journal said that if Continental Airlines left Continental Center I, the development of Brookfield Properties's new office tower would have been delayed. [67] As of September 2011 the headquarters moved out, but Continental will continue to house employees in the building. It will have about half of the employees that it once had. [68]

JPMorgan Chase Bank has its Houston operations headquartered in the JPMorgan Chase Building (Gulf Building). [69] LyondellBasell (and predecessor company Lyondell Chemical Company) has offices in 1 Houston Center which was renamed LyondellBasell Towers. [70] Hess Corporation has exploration and production operations in One Allen Center., [71] but will move its offices to the under construction Hess Tower (Named after the company) upon its completion. [72]

ExxonMobil has Exploration and Producing Operations business headquarters at the ExxonMobil Building. [73] Qatar Airways operates an office within Two Allen Center; [74] it also has a storefront in the Houston Pavilions. [75] [76] Enbridge has its Houston office in the Enterprise Plaza. [77] KPMG has their Houston offices in the new BG place at 811 Main St. Mayer Brown has his Houston office in the Bank of America Center. [78] [79]

Former economic operations

When Texas Commerce Bank existed, its headquarters were in what is now the JPMorgan Chase Building (Gulf Building). [69] Prior to its collapse in 2001, Enron was headquartered in Downtown. [80] In 2005 Federated Department Stores announced that it will close Foley's 1,200 employee headquarters in Downtown Houston. [81]

Houston Industries (HI, later Reliant Energy) and subsidiary Houston Power & Lighting (HL&P) historically had their headquarters in Downtown. [82]

Halliburton's corporate headquarters office was in 5 Houston Center. [83] In 2001, Halliburton canceled a move to redevelop land in Westchase to house employees; real estate figures associated with Downtown Houston approved of the news. Nancy Sarnoff of the Houston Business Journal said it made more sense for the company to lease existing space instead of constructing new office space in times of economic downturns. [84] By 2009 Halliburton closed its Downtown Office, moved its headquarters to northern Houston, and consolidated operations at its northern Houston and Westchase facilities. [85]

Government

Local government

Houston City Hall HoustonCityHall DANIEL2986.jpg
Houston City Hall
Fire Station 8 Downtown FireStation8HoustonTX.JPG
Fire Station 8 Downtown

Two city council districts, District H and District I, cover portions of Downtown. [86] [87] As of 2015 Mayor Pro-Tem Ed Gonzalez and Robert Gallegos, respectively, represent the two districts. [88]

Houston City Hall, the Margaret Helfrich Westerman Houston City Hall Annex, and the Bob Lanier Public Works Building are all located in Downtown Houston.

The community is within the Houston Police Department's Downtown Division. [89] The Edward A. Thomas Building, headquarters of HPD, is located in 1200 Travis Downtown. [90]

Houston Fire Department Station 8 Downtown at 1919 Louisiana Street serves the central business district. Station 8 is in Fire District 8. [91] The fire station "Washington #8" first opened in 1895 at Polk at Crawford. The station was closed in 2001 after a sports arena was built on the site. [92] Fire Station 1, which was located at 410 Bagby Street, closed in 2001, [91] as it was merged with Station 8. Station 8, relocated to a temporary building at the corner of Milam and St. Joseph, reopened in June 2001. The current "Super Station" at 1919 Louisiana opened on April 21, 2008. [92] "Stonewall #3," organized in 1867, was located in the current location of the Post Rice Lofts. It 1895 it moved to a location along Preston Street, between Smith and Louisiana, in what is now Downtown. The station, currently Station #3, moved outside of the current day Downtown in 1903. [93] Fire Station 5, originally in what was then the Fifth Ward, moved to Hardy and Nance in what is now Downtown in 1895. The station was rebuilt at that site in 1932, and in 1977 the station moved to Spring Branch. [94] Station 2 moved from what is now the East End to what is now Downtown in 1926. The station moved to the Fourth Ward in 1965. [95]

The Houston Downtown Management District and Central Houston, Inc. is headquartered in Suite 1650 at 2 Houston Center, a part of the Houston Center complex. [96]

County representation

The 1200 Jail, the headquarters of the Harris County Sheriff's Office 1200JailHoustonTX.JPG
The 1200 Jail, the headquarters of the Harris County Sheriff's Office

Downtown is divided between Harris County Precinct 1 and Harris County Precinct 2. [97] As of 2016, Gene L. Locke heads Precinct 1. [98] As of 2016, Jack Morman heads Precinct 2. [99] Harris County Precinct Two operates the Raul C. Downtown Courthouse annex in Downtown. [100]

The Harris County court system is located within a five block area bounded by Franklin, San Jacinto, Caroline, and Congress Streets. This complex includes the following: [101] [102]

All are located around a central plaza, nicknamed "Justice Square", located above the underground Harris County Jury Plaza. [103] Along with Harris County's facilities, there are several constable courts and support facilities nearby.

The Harris County jail facilities are in northern Downtown on the north side of the Buffalo Bayou. The 1200 Jail, [104] the 1307 Jail, (originally a Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) facility, leased by the county), [105] and the 701 Jail (formed from existing warehouse storage space) are on the same site. [106]

State representation

Much of Downtown is located in District 147 of the Texas House of Representatives. As of 2016, Garnet F. Coleman represents the district. [107] Some of Downtown is located in District 148 of the Texas House of Representatives. As of 2016, Jessica Farrar represents the district. [108] Downtown is within District 13 of the Texas Senate; as of 2016 Rodney Ellis represents that district. [109]

Joe Kegans Unit, located in Downtown, is a Texas Department of Criminal Justice state jail for men. It is adjacent to the county facilities on the north side of the Buffalo Bayou. [110] Kegans opened in 1997. [111] The South Texas Intermediate Sanction Facility Unit, a parole confinement facility for males operated by Global Expertise in Outsourcing, is in Downtown Houston, west of Minute Maid Park. [112]

As of 2011, the Texas First Court of Appeals and the Texas Fourteenth Court of Appeals are located in the renovated 1910 Courthouse. [113] [114]

Federal representation

Mickey Leland Federal Building LelandFederalBuildingHouston.jpg
Mickey Leland Federal Building

Downtown Houston is in Texas's 18th congressional district. [115] As of 2016, its representative is Sheila Jackson Lee. [116]

The United States Postal Service previously operated a 16-acre (65,000 m2) Houston Post Office at 401 Franklin Street. [117] The building, named after Barbara Jordan, was designed by the architects who designed the Houston Astrodome, opened in 1962 and received its current name in 1984. [118] However, following the sale of the property, the U.S. Postal Service ceased operations at the facility on May 15, 2015 and consolidated its sorting operations. [119] [120] The Sam Houston Station, [121] the new Houston Post Office on Hadley Street in Midtown Houston assumed the role held by the previous one. [122] In 2010 the Houston Press ranked the former Downtown post office as the best post office in Houston. [123] It became an event venue called Post HTX after the company Lovett Commercial took control of it in 2015. [124]

In addition the USPS operates the 2 Houston Center and Civic Center postal units. In July 2011 the USPS announced that the two postal units may close. [125]

Regional offices of U.S. government agencies are located at the Mickey Leland Federal Building at 1919 Smith Street. The 22 story building, with a 6-story parking garage, was designated an Energy Star efficient building in 2000. [126]

The United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas has its offices in 515 Rusk in Downtown Houston. [127]

The Federal Bureau of Prisons operates the Federal Detention Center, Houston in Downtown. [128]

Diplomatic missions

The Consulate-General of the United Kingdom is located in Wells Fargo Plaza, [129] while the Consulate-General of Japan is located in Two Houston Center. [130] The Consulate-General of Switzerland, which resided in Downtown Houston, closed in 2006. [131] [132] [133] [134]

Parks, recreation, and culture

Downtown contains fifteen public parks, varying from linear parks along Buffalo Bayou to block parks and plazas.

On the west side of Downtown along Bagby Street, Sam Houston Park is home to the Houston Heritage Society, which maintains a collection of historic houses from throughout the city's history. Nearby, Tranquility Park uses open green spaces and a series of interconnected fountains to commemorate NASA's landing on the moon's Sea of Tranquility. These parks tie into the larger civic complex anchored by City Hall and the main branch of Houston Public Library.

Tranquility Park TranquilityparkHouston2.JPG
Tranquility Park

In the Historic District to the north, Market Square Park occupies a block formerly covered by Houston's open air market which fronted the old City Hall. Renovations completed in 2010 added two dog runs, a Greek restaurant, and Houston's only memorial to the September 11 attacks. [135] [136]

George H.W. Bush statue in Sesquicentennial Park looking towards Downtown Houston. SesquicentennialPark GeorgeHWBushStatue.jpg
George H.W. Bush statue in Sesquicentennial Park looking towards Downtown Houston.

Buffalo Bayou's route through Downtown contains multiple parks which segue together to form a continuous greenway. Allen's Landing, near the intersection of Smith and Preston, commemorates the landing site of the Allen brothers, the New York entrepreneurs who founded the city. Sesquicentennial Park, across Buffalo Bayou from Allen's Landing, commemorates the 150-year anniversary of the city's founding. The park contains a statue of former President George H. W. Bush, who represented a portion of west Houston during his time in the United States House of Representatives.

Discovery Green Discovery green.JPG
Discovery Green

In the Convention District, Discovery Green, immediately west of the George R. Brown Convention Center, contains an amphitheater, two restaurants, a dog run, a jogging trail, multiple lawns, and an artificial lake on nearly 12 acres (49,000 m2) of land. [137] Since its opening in 2008, Discovery Green has become one of Downtown's main attractions, hosting approximately 1.2 million visitors a year and serving as one of the city's premier public spaces. [138] Discovery Green's environs, formerly covered by surface parking lots, have seen over US$600 million in new development since the park's opening. [139]

A number of other smaller parks and plazas are spread throughout Downtown. Main Street Square is a pedestrian-only promenade with a reflection pool and fountains on the METRORail line between Lamar and Dallas streets. [140] Near the Toyota Center, Root Square occupies a single block and features a public basketball court. [141] Harris County Precinct One operates the 2-acre (8,100 m2) Quebedeaux Park near the county court complex. [142] The park includes a stage area, picnic tables, and benches. The park surrounds the Harris County Family Law Center. [143]

Downtown hosts a branch of the YMCA, featuring a center for teenagers, a wellness center for females, a child watch area, a community meeting space, a chapel, group exercise rooms, and a racquetball court. [144] The Downtown YMCA has provided dormitory space for around 100 years. [145]

Katharine Shilcutt of the Houston Press said in 2012 that because of the Houston tunnel system taking traffic during the daytime and many office workers leaving for suburbs at night, many street level restaurants in Downtown Houston have difficulty operating. She added that the popularity of business-related lunches and dinners resulted in steakhouses in Downtown becoming successful. [146]

In 2018 the street artist Dual made a mural representing Produce Row, which was a group of produce businesses on Commerce Street, on the Main & Co. building; at the time the area was in the first ward. [147]

Entertainment venues

Hobby Center for the Performing Arts Hobbycenter.jpg
Hobby Center for the Performing Arts
The Wortham Theater Center Wortham Center.jpg
The Wortham Theater Center
Minute Maid Park Minutemaidpark.jpg
Minute Maid Park
Toyota Center Toyota Center entr.jpg
Toyota Center

Downtown Houston has two major league sports venues. Minute Maid Park, opened in 2000, is home to MLB Houston Astros, and the Toyota Center, opened in 2003, is home to the NBA Houston Rockets. From 2004 to 2007, Toyota Center was also home to the now defunct WNBA Houston Comets.

The Theater District is one of the largest in the country as measured by the number of theater seats.[ citation needed ] Houston is one of only five cities in the United States with permanent professional resident companies in all of the major performing art disciplines of opera, ballet, music, and theater.[ citation needed ] Venues in the theater district include the Wortham Center (opera and ballet), the Alley Theatre (theater), the Hobby Center (resident and traveling musical theater, concerts, events), the Bayou Music Center (concerts and events) and Jones Hall (symphony).

The George R. Brown Convention Center is located on the east side of Downtown, between Discovery Green and Interstate 69, and contains 1,800,000 square feet (170,000 m2) of convention space and two adjoining hotels. In the mid-2010s, the promenade between the Center and Discovery Green was transformed into Avenida Houston, a mixed-use corridor featuring restaurants and retail spaces. [148]

Hotels and accommodations

Major hotels in downtown Houston are:

Boutique hotels include:

Retail

GreenStreet HoustonPavilionsHoustonTX.JPG
GreenStreet

The Shops in Houston Center, located within the Houston Center complex, is an enclosed shopping mall. A few blocks away, GreenStreet is an open-air shopping center. The Houston Downtown Tunnel System is also home to many shops and restaurants. Several restaurants in Downtown Houston are in the Tunnel system, only open during working hours. [ citation needed ]

Media

The Houston Chronicle , the citywide newspaper, previously had its headquarters in Downtown, but has since relocated. [151] Beginning in 1998, [152] Houston Press headquarters was located in Downtown, [153] in the former Gillman Pontiac dealership building. [154] On the weekend after Friday October 25, 2013 the Houston Press was scheduled to move to its new offices in Midtown Houston. [152]

The magazine Houston Downtown was a Downtown-oriented magazine published by Rosie Walker. [155] Most area residents called it the "Downtowner." Walker was originally an office worker in Downtown Houston who was upset that she had learned of events occurring in Downtown Houston after they had already occurred. Walker said "Several people in our office decided to start a newsletter. It sort of expanded throughout our company and throughout our building." [156] It had been published for 14 years. In 1991 the business had paid off its debts. Walker decided not to take out loans to update her equipment and printing processes and instead closed the magazine during that year. [155]

The Downtown, Inc./Downtown Voice was another Downtown-related magazine. Kevin Clear of the Creneau Media Group planned to establish a magazine about Downtown Houston that would be published by Creneau. In January 1990 his company had developed a business plan aimed towards competing with Houston Downtown magazine. Houston Downtown was closed before Clear could develop a new magazine. Clear said "I hate to say we danced on their grave, but we weren't unhappy about the way things turned out." [155] Clear planned to introduce his magazine in May 1991. As of January 1991 he had not decided on a name for the magazine. [155] Elise Perachio became the editor of the magazine, which was ultimately named Downtown, Inc. [157] On August 1, 1994, the magazine, then called Downtown Voice, was sold to company Media Ink. [158]

Regional sports network AT&T SportsNet Southwest is headquartered in Downtown at GreenStreet. [159]

Transportation

Light rail station at the Downtown Transit Center DowntownTransitCenterHoustonTX0.JPG
Light rail station at the Downtown Transit Center

The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County (METRO) operates Houston's public transportation systems. Downtown lies at the convergence of the three lines of Houston's light rail system, known as METRORail. The Red Line, which runs along Main Street, contains the following stations (from south to north): Downtown Transit Center, Bell, Main Street Square, Preston, and UH–Downtown . [160] The Southeast/Purple Line and East End/Green Lines stop at the Central, Convention District, and Theater District stations.

METRO operates many bus lines through Downtown. [161] Greenlink, a free-to-ride circulator shuttle, follows a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) circular route around the district. Greenlink is the successor to a trolley-style free-to-ride bus service which carried over 10,000 riders each day on five different routes prior to its disbandment in 2005. [162]

There are a number of taxi cabs that can be hailed from the street, twenty-one taxi stands, or at the various hotels. Taxi trips within Downtown have a flat rate of US$6, mandated by the city. [163] Since the implementation of transportation network company ordinance in 2014, Uber continues to operate within the city and surrounding areas.

Education

University of Houston-Downtown
One Main Building (formerly the Merchants and Manufacturers Building) Merchants and Manufacturers Building (bayou view) Houston.jpg
University of Houston–Downtown
One Main Building (formerly the Merchants and Manufacturers Building)

Colleges and universities

The University of Houston–Downtown (UHD) is a four-year state university, located at the northern-end of Downtown. Founded in 1974, it is one of four separate and distinct institutions in the University of Houston System. UHD has an enrollment of 14,255 students—making it the 15th largest public university in Texas and the second-largest university in the Houston area. [164]

The South Texas College of Law is a private law school located within Downtown and is one of three law schools in Houston. [165]

Downtown is within the Houston Community College System, and it is in close proximity to the Central Campus in Midtown. [166] [167]

Primary and secondary education

Public schools

Kinder High School for the Performing and Visual Arts Kinder High School for the Performing and Visual Arts.jpg
Kinder High School for the Performing and Visual Arts
Young Scholars Academy for Excellence Youngscholarsacaddownt.jpg
Young Scholars Academy for Excellence

The grade-school children of Downtown are served by the Houston Independent School District (HISD).

One public K-8 school, an HISD-affiliated charter school called Young Scholars Academy for Excellence (Y.S.A.F.E.), is in Downtown. [168] It was established on May 15, 1996 by Kenneth and Anella Coleman. [169] HISD's High School for the Performing and Visual Arts (HSPVA), a public magnet high school, broke ground on a new downtown campus in 2014, [170] and classes began there in 2019, replacing HSPVA's previous Montrose-area campus. [171]

Three public district elementary schools have zoning boundaries that extend to areas of Downtown with residential areas; they are:

Gregory Lincoln Education Center [175] (in the Fourth Ward) takes most of Downtown's students at the middle school level. Marshall Middle School [176] (in Northside) takes students at the middle school level from a small section of northern Downtown. Northside High School (formerly Jefferson Davis High School), [177] also in Northside, takes students from almost all of Downtown at the high school level. Heights High School (formerly Reagan High School), [178] in the Houston Heights, take students in the high school level from a small section of northwest Downtown.

As part of rezoning for the 2014-2015 school year, in Downtown all areas previously under the Blackshear attendance zone and many areas in the Bruce attendance zone will be rezoned to Gregory-Lincoln K-8. [179]

History of public schools

The block bounded by Austin, Capitol, Caroline, and Rusk held schools for many years. Houston Academy was established there in the 1850s. In 1894 the groundbreaking for Central High School occurred there. Central burned down in March 1919. In 1921 Sam Houston High School opened at the site. [180] The current Sam Houston building in the Northside opened in 1955. [181] The previous building became the administrative headquarters of the Houston Independent School District. By the early 1970s HISD moved its headquarters out of the building, which was demolished. As of 2011 a parking lot occupies the former school lot; a state historical marker is located at the lot. [180]

Booker T. Washington High School's first location, 303 West Dallas, served as the school's location from 1893 to 1959, when it moved to the north. Lockett Junior High School was established in the former Washington campus and closed in 1968. [182]

Anson Jones Elementary School served a portion of Downtown until its closing in Summer 2006. [182] [183] Anson Jones opened in 1892 as the Elysian Street School; its first campus was destroyed in a fire, and that was replaced in 1893 with a three-story building at 914 Elysian in what is now Downtown. It was named after Anson Jones in 1902. In the 1950s many students resided in Clayton Homes and the students were majority Hispanic and Latino. In 1962 it had 609 students. Anson Jones moved to a new campus in the Second Ward in 1966, and its original campus in Downtown was demolished. [184]

Brock Elementary School served a portion of Downtown until its closing in Summer 2006 and repurposing as an early childhood center; its boundary was transferred to Crockett Elementary. [182] [185] Before the start of the 2009–2010 school year J. Will Jones was consolidated into Blackshear Elementary School, a campus in the Third Ward. [186] [187] During its final year of enrollment J. Will Jones had more students than Blackshear. Many J. Will Jones parents referred to Blackshear as "that prison school" and said that they will not send their children to Blackshear. [188] By Spring 2011 Atherton Elementary School and E.O. Smith were consolidated with a new K-5 campus in the Atherton site. [189] Middle school students in Downtown were rezoned to Gregory-Lincoln. [175] [190]

Private schools

Incarnate Word Academy IWA-004.jpg
Incarnate Word Academy
The former Sacred Heart School FormerSacredHeartSchoolDowntownHouston.JPG
The former Sacred Heart School

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston oversees the Incarnate Word Academy, a Catholic all-girls school founded in 1873 and the only high school located in Downtown until the opening of the new HSPVA campus in 2017. [191] Trinity Lutheran School, a PreK-8 Lutheran School, is located at 800 Houston Avenue, northwest of and in close proximity to Downtown. Its early childhood center is located at 1316 Washington Avenue, near the K-8 center and in proximity to Downtown. [166] [192]

On September 27, 1897 a school in the two-story annex to the Sacred Heart Parish, staffed by Dominican sisters, opened with 28 enrolled students. [193] St. Thomas College (now known as St. Thomas High School) opened in Downtown in 1900. [194] In 1902 the parish bought a building used by St. Thomas and moved it from Franklin Street at Crawford Street to Pierce Street and Fannin Street. In 1905 he parish sought and received approval from the state to start a high school; in January 1907 Saint Agnes Academy, outside of Downtown, opened and high school students were transferred to St. Agnes. In 1911 the former school building, known as the Green House, was demolished and replaced by a church building. In 1922 the existing Sacred Heart School building opened; the parish spent $52,800 ($790320.48 in today's currency) to build the building. [193] St. Thomas moved to its current location, outside of Downtown, in 1940. [194] The Sacred Heart School provided Catholic elementary education for 70 years until its closing in May 1967 after declining enrollment and increased operation costs. As of 2009 the former Sacred Heart building houses the diocese's parish religious education program. [193]

Public libraries

Jesse H. Jones Building JesseJonesBuildingHoustonLibrary0.JPG
Jesse H. Jones Building
Julia Ideson Building HPLIdesonBuilding0.JPG
Julia Ideson Building

Houston Public Library has the Central Library in Houston. It consists of two buildings, including the Jesse H. Jones Building, which contains the bulk of the library facilities, and the Julia Ideson Building, which contains archives, manuscripts, and the Texas and Local History Department. [195]

Houston's first public library facility opened on March 2, 1904. [196] The Ideson building opened in 1926, replacing the previous building. The Jesse H. Jones Building opened in 1976 and received its current name in 1989. [197] The Jones Building closed for renovations on Monday April 3, 2006. [198] It reopened May 31, 2008. [199] After renovations began the Houston Public Library headquarters moved from the Jones Building to the Marston Building in Neartown Houston. [200] [201] [202]

In addition, HPL operates the HPL Express Discovery Green at 1300 McKinney R2, adjacent to Discovery Green Park. [203] [204] HPL Express facilities are library facilities located in existing buildings. [205] The library opened in 2008. [206]

Harris County Public Library operates the Law Library, [207] located on the first floor of Congress Plaza. [208]

See also

Related Research Articles

Bellaire, Texas City in Texas, United States

Bellaire is a city in southwest Harris County, Texas, United States, within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 16,855. It is surrounded by the cities of Houston and West University Place.

West University Place, Texas City in Texas, United States

West University Place, often called West University or West U for short, is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area and southwestern Harris County. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the population of the city was 14,787. It is nicknamed "The Neighborhood City" and is mainly a bedroom community for upper-class families.

River Oaks, Houston human settlement in Houston, Texas, United States of America

River Oaks is a residential community located in the center of Houston, Texas, United States. Located within the 610 Loop and between Downtown and Uptown, the community spans 1,100 acres (450 ha). Established in the 1920s by brothers William and Michael Hogg, the community became a well-publicized national model for community planning. Real estate values in the community range from $1 million to over $20 million. River Oaks was also named the most expensive neighborhood in Houston in 2013. The community is home to River Oaks Country Club, which includes a golf course designed by architect Donald Ross and redesigned in 2015 by Tom Fazio.

Chinatown, Houston Neighborhood of Houston in Harris County, Texas, United States

Chinatown is a community in southwestern Houston, Texas, United States. It is bounded by Redding Road to the east, Beechnut Street to the south, Beltway 8 to the west, and Westpark Drive to the north. It lies within the Southwest Management District. There is a common misconception that the area continuing west of Beltway 8 is still Chinatown. This is not true, however, and is instead the International District, an area also referred to as "Little Saigon".

Neartown Houston district in Houston, Texas, USA

Neartown is an area located in west-central Houston, Texas, United States and is one of the city's major cultural areas. Neartown is a 7.5 square miles (19 km2) area roughly bounded by Interstate 69/U.S. Highway 59 to the south, Allen Parkway to the north, South Shepherd Drive to the west, and Taft to Fairview to Bagby to Highway 59 to Main to the east. Neartown neighborhoods include Cherryhurst, Courtlandt Place, Hyde Park, Montrose, Vermont Commons, East Montrose, Mandell Place and Winlow Place. The Neartown neighborhoods are collectively referred to locally as the better known Montrose.

Wells Fargo Plaza (Houston) skyscraper in Houston, Texas, United States

The Wells Fargo Plaza, formerly the Allied Bank Plaza and First Interstate Bank Plaza, is a skyscraper located at 1000 Louisiana Street in Downtown Houston, Texas in the United States.

Spring Branch, Houston Place

Spring Branch is a district in west-northwest Harris County, Texas, United States, roughly bordered by Tanner Road and Hempstead Road to the north, Beltway 8 to the west, Interstate 10 to the south, and the 610 Loop to the east; it is almost entirely within the City of Houston. Established by the Texas Legislature, the Spring Branch Management District exercises jurisdiction over the area.

Harrisburg, Houston Houston

Harrisburg is a community that is now located within the city of Houston, Texas, United States.

Alief, Houston Place in Texas, United States

Alief is a large suburban community in southwestern Harris County, Texas, United States, mostly within the city limits of Houston. The Alief Community Association defines the boundaries of Alief as, "Westheimer on the north, Sam Houston Tollway on the east, Fort Bend County Line on the west and Interstate 69/U.S. Highway 59 on the south," while the Alief Independent School District boundaries extend as far east as Gessner in some places. Portions of Alief are in Southwest Houston while other portions of Alief are within unincorporated Harris County.

Second Ward, Houston human settlement in Houston, Texas, United States of America

Second Ward is a historical political district ward in the East End community in Houston, Texas. It was one of the four original wards of the city in the nineteenth century. The community known as the Second Ward today is roughly bounded by Buffalo Bayou to the north, Lockwood Avenue to the east, and railroad tracks to the south and west, although the City of Houston's "Super Neighborhood" program includes a section east of Lockwood.

Meyerland, Houston human settlement in Houston, Texas, United States of America

Meyerland is a 6,000-acre (9 sq mi) community in southwest Houston, Texas, outside of the 610 Loop and inside Beltway 8. The neighborhood is named after the Meyer family, who bought and owned 6,000 acres (24 km²) of land in southwest Houston.

Braeswood Place, Houston human settlement in Houston, Texas, United States of America

Braeswood Place is a group of subdivisions in Harris County, Texas, United States. The vast majority of the land is in Houston while a small part is in Southside Place.

Greenspoint, Houston Neighborhood and business district of Greater Houston in Harris County, Texas, United States

Greater Greenspoint, also known as the North Houston District, is a 7-square-mile (18 km2) business district and neighborhood in northern Harris County, Texas, United States, located mostly within the city limits of Houston. Centered around the junction of Interstate 45 and Texas State Highway Beltway 8 near George Bush Intercontinental Airport, the area is a classic example of a planned edge city. The initial 2,000-acre (8.1 km2) retail and office development centered around Greenspoint Mall was a project of the Friendswood Development Company during the 1970s and early 1980s.

First Ward, Houston human settlement in Houston, Texas, United States of America

The First Ward of Houston, which is located inside the 610 Loop, is one of the city's historic wards. It was originally the center of the business district for the city, and was strategically located at the intersection of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou, near an area now known as Allen's Landing. It was one of the original four wards in Houston when it was created in 1840. It was defined as all area within the city limits of Houston north of Congress Street and west of Main Street.

East End, Houston human settlement in Houston, Texas, United States of America

East End Houston, managed by the East End District (EED), is a district in eastern Houston, Texas, United States, located between the eastern edge of downtown to the Port of Houston and South to Hobby Airport. The District is home to Houston's early history and industry and is the site of Harrisburg, the seat of government for the Republic of Texas in 1836. East End Houston consists of many different ethnic groups, including Hispanic, Asian, White, and African American. Latinos make up more than half of the 100,512 residents, The area includes two of Houston's oldest Hispanic neighborhoods, Magnolia Park and Second Ward.

1600 Smith Street skyscraper

1600 Smith Street, is a 51-story, 732-foot (223 m) office tower in Downtown Houston, Texas, United States. It served as the headquarters of Continental Airlines prior to its merger with United Airlines, and at one point also served as the headquarters of ExpressJet Airlines. It is a part of the Cullen Center complex.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Downtown at a Glance: June 2017" (PDF). Downtown District. June 2017. Retrieved 2017-10-19.
  2. "Downtown Houston Block Numbering (HCAD)" (PDF). Downtown District. January 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-09. Retrieved 2017-10-20.
  3. 1 2 3 "Fact Sheet." () Downtown Houston Management District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009.
  4. "Downtown Districts." Downtown Houston. Retrieved on June 11, 2016
  5. 1 2 "Eclectic variety of lively districts comprise downtown Houston." Houston Business Journal . Friday November 17, 2006. Retrieved on March 11, 2010.
  6. HOWARD, LIVINGSTON, RONALD (2010-06-15). "PARROTT, THOMAS F. L." tshaonline.org. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  7. "Protected Landmark Designation Report – Stuart Building" (PDF). City of Houston. 2011-03-21. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Glass, James L. (1994). "The Original Book of Sales of Lots in the Houston Town Company from 1836 Forward" (PDF). The Houston Review. 16: 167–194 via Houston History Magazine.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Kirkland, Kate Sayan (2009). The Hogg Family and Houston: Philanthropy and the Civic Ideal. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN   9780292748460.
  10. Theis, David (2010). "Back to the Future" (PDF). Market Square Park. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Chapman, Betty Trapp (Fall 2010). "A System of Government Where Business Ruled" (PDF). Houston History Magazine. 8: 29–33.
  12. 1 2 3 Sturrock, Sidonie (Spring 2015). "Uncovering the Story of Quality Hill, Houston's First Elite Residential Neighborhood: A Detective on the Case" (PDF). Houston History Magazine. 12–2: 7–12.
  13. George, Cindy (2016-09-04). "Frost Town offers a peek into the past". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Baron, Steven (1994). "Streetcars and the Growth of Houston" (PDF). The Houston Review. 16: 67–100.
  15. Information from Emporis
  16. Bivins, Ralph. "ON DECK/The stadium vote/Stadium gives hope to downtown landowners Archived 2012-06-17 at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Chronicle . Sunday September 29, 1996. A1. Retrieved on August 12, 2010.
  17. 1 2 "Study Area 11 Archived May 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ." City of Houston. Accessed October 21, 2008.
  18. 1 2 3 Barna, Joel Warren. "Filling the Doughnut." Cite 42. Summer/Fall (northern hemisphere) 1998. Published in: Scardino, Barrie and Bruce Webb. Ephemeral City. University of Texas Press, 2003. Google Books Page 73. ISBN   0-292-70187-X, 9780292701878.
  19. 1 2 Bivins, Ralph. "SURVIVAL OF THE NEWEST / OCCUPANCY DOWNTOWN TUMBLING, BUT THREE TOWERS DEFY TREND." Houston Chronicle . Sunday July 27, 2003. Business 1. Retrieved on Nov. 11, 2009.
  20. Bivins, Ralph. "Houston office occupancy increases/Survey: 3.1 million square feet of space absorbed last year." Houston Chronicle . Tuesday Jan. 17, 1989. Retrieved on Aug. 3, 2009.
  21. 1 2 Bivins, Ralph. "Downtown to get 27-story tower / Opening planned for 2002." Houston Chronicle . Thursday Aug. 10, 2000. Business 1. Retrieved on Nov. 12, 2009.
  22. Nichols, Bruce. "The Selling of a City." The Dallas Morning News. June 7, 1987. Retrieved on November 11, 2009.
  23. Concerts – Rendez-Vous Houston From Jarre website
  24. Rutledge, Tanya. "Continental picks Cullen Center as destination for downtown HQ." Houston Business Journal . Friday Jan. 31, 1997. Retrieved on Aug. 23, 2009.
  25. 1 2 Zehr, Leonard. "TrizecHahn nabs U.S. leasing deal Continental Airlines enticed to move head office to downtown Houston from suburbs." The Globe and Mail . September 11, 1997. Report on Business B7. Retrieved from LexisNexis on April 1, 2010.
  26. Sarnoff, Nancy. "Cullen Center snags new leases." Houston Business Journal . Wednesday Feb. 18, 2004. Retrieved on Nov. 11, 2009.
  27. Barna, Joel Warren. "Filling the Doughnut." Cite 42. Summer/Fall (northern hemisphere) 1998. Published in: Scardino, Barrie and Bruce Webb. Epheremal City. University of Texas Press, 2003. Google Books Page 72. ISBN   0-292-70187-X, 9780292701878.
  28. Kudela & Weinheimer. "Award Winning Landscape Architecture Firm Creates 'High-Rise Oasis' in Downtown Houston". Press Release. PR Newswire. Retrieved July 14, 2009.
  29. Microsoft Word – General Release.doc
  30. "Cotswold". Archived from the original on 2007-12-25. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
  31. "Downtown Houston Development/Project List" (). Greater Houston Partnership. Retrieved on April 23, 2010.
  32. "Phoenicia Downtown Ribbon Cutting" . Retrieved June 16, 2012.[ permanent dead link ]
  33. Shilcutt, Katharine. "Lebanese Queso and More at the Fabulous New Phoenicia Downtown." Houston Press . Thursday November 17, 2011. Retrieved on November 19, 2011.
  34. "1500 Louisiana St". CrediFi. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  35. Architecture of Enron Center South – Houston, Texas, United States of America
  36. Microsoft Word – 02-FactSheet .doc
  37. "Why downtown?" (PDF). www.downtownhouston.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  38. "1Q 2016 Market Report: Houston Office Market" (PDF). Cresa. 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-25. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
  39. Sarnoff, Nancy (2016-11-22). "Report: Houston has some of the priciest office space in U.S." Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
  40. Feser, Katherine (2015-11-19). "Louisiana Street is Houston's most expensive, report says". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
  41. "Office." () Uptown Houston . Retrieved on Jan. 18, 2009.
  42. "Contact Us Archived 2008-12-22 at the Wayback Machine ." Dynegy . Retrieved on December 10, 2008.
  43. "Locations Archived January 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." KBR . Retrieved on January 13, 2009.
  44. "Locations & Office Hours Archived 2008-12-21 at the Wayback Machine ." KBR Heritage Federal Credit Union. Retrieved on December 10, 2008.
  45. "Shell Wind Energy offices Archived 2008-12-27 at the Wayback Machine ." Royal Dutch Shell . Retrieved on January 14, 2009.
  46. "Request for a Grant from Shell [ permanent dead link ]." Royal Dutch Shell . Retrieved on January 14, 2009.
  47. "Privacy Policy Archived 2011-01-29 at the Wayback Machine ." Royal Dutch Shell . Retrieved on January 14, 2009.
  48. "Baker Botts hires corporate partner." Austin Business Journal . Wednesday January 21, 2004. Retrieved on August 25, 2010.
  49. "Houston, Texas Archived August 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ." Baker Botts. Retrieved on August 25, 2010. "One Shell Plaza 910 Louisiana Street | Houston | Texas..."
  50. "Corporate: Driving Directions." Total Petrochemicals USA. Retrieved on April 5, 2010.
  51. "Contact Gas & Power Archived 2008-11-20 at the Wayback Machine ." Total S.A. Retrieved on January 25, 2009.
  52. "Contact Information." CenterPoint Energy. Retrieved on January 14, 2009.
  53. "CenterPoint Energy Tower." Berger Iron Works. Retrieved on January 14, 2009.
  54. Selden, Jonathan. "Law firms in Austin help Houston offices." Austin Business Journal . Thursday September 22, 2005. Retrieved on May 5, 2010. "At Vinson & Elkins LLP, the Austin office is accommodating evacuated attorneys from the Houston headquarters as well as some clients, says Don Wood, administrative partner."
  55. "Houston." Vinson & Elkins. Retrieved on May 5, 2010.
  56. "Contact Us." Waste Management, Inc . Retrieved on January 14, 2009.
  57. "Corporate." El Paso Corporation . Retrieved on January 16, 2009.
  58. "Welcome to Plains All American Pipeline!" Plains All American Pipeline. Retrieved on December 8, 2009.
  59. "Contact Us Archived 2009-11-25 at the Wayback Machine ." Enterprise GP Holdings. Retrieved on December 8, 2009.
  60. "Contact Us Directory Archived 2010-02-09 at the Wayback Machine ." EOG Resources. Retrieved on December 8, 2009.
  61. "Headquarters Location Archived 2012-03-01 at the Wayback Machine ." Continental Airlines . Retrieved on Dec. 7, 2008.
  62. "Air Transportation ." Opportunity Houston. Retrieved on December 10, 2008.
  63. "Expressjet.com Terms, Conditions, And Notices." ExpressJet Airlines. June 8, 2003. Retrieved on May 19, 2009.
  64. "Company History 1991 to 2000 Archived 2012-03-01 at the Wayback Machine ." Continental Airlines . Retrieved on Feb. 11, 2009.
  65. Boisseau, Charles. "Airline confirms relocation/Continental moving offices downtown." Houston Chronicle . Wednesday September 3, 1997. Business 1. Retrieved on August 23, 2009.
  66. Bivins, Ralph. "Hotels see high occupancy, rates Archived 2012-06-17 at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Chronicle . Friday September 26, 1997. Business 1. Retrieved on August 23, 2009.
  67. Dawson, Jennifer. "Continental renews lease, decides to stay downtown." Houston Business Journal . Friday September 19, 2008. Retrieved on November 11, 2009.
  68. Moreno, Jenalia. "CEO aims for smooth landing in United-Continental merge." Houston Chronicle . Sunday September 25, 2011. 2. Retrieved on October 10, 2011.
  69. 1 2 Sarnoff, Nancy. "Historic downtown Chase building sold." Houston Chronicle . February 12, 2010. Retrieved on February 24, 2010.
  70. "Houston Office & Refining Operations." LyondellBasell. Retrieved on February 5, 2010.
  71. "Contact Hess Archived February 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Hess Corporation . Retrieved on February 9, 2009.
  72. "Central Houston Inc". Business Development. Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  73. "contact us business headquarters." ExxonMobil . Retrieved on January 26, 2009.
  74. "Houston." Qatar Airways'. Retrieved on February 9, 2009.
  75. Fact Sheet June 2007 Archived July 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Pavilions . Retrieved on January 13, 2009.
  76. "Retail Leasing [ permanent dead link ]." Houston Pavilions . Retrieved on January 13, 2009.
  77. "Spearhead Pipeline Expansion Project Open Season Is Now Closed Archived February 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Enbridge. Retrieved on December 8, 2009.
  78. "Offices." KPMG. Retrieved on December 17, 2009.
  79. "Contact Information Archived December 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Mayer Brown. Retrieved on December 17, 2009.
  80. "Company News; Enron Plans to Sell Its Headquarters in Houston." The New York Times . Thursday August 21, 2003. Retrieved on October 20, 2009.
  81. Colley, Jenna. "Federated to cut jobs at Foley's distribution center." Houston Business Journal . Friday April 14, 2006. Retrieved on October 20, 2009.
  82. "0000950129-97-001088.txt : 19970320" (Archive). Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved on April 14, 2014. "Houston Industries Incorporated and Houston Lighting & Power Company Houston Industries Plaza 1111 Louisiana, 47th Floor Houston, TX 77002-5231"
  83. "Office Location." Halliburton . Retrieved on Jan. 13, 2009.
  84. Sarnoff, Nancy. "Downtown up, Westchase down as Halliburton postpones project." Houston Business Journal . Friday Dec. 21, 2009. Retrieved on Nov. 11, 2009.
  85. Clanton, Brett. "Halliburton to consolidate in 2 locations." Houston Chronicle . April 3, 2009. Retrieved on April 3, 2009.
  86. City of Houston, Council District Maps, District H Archived June 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine ." City of Houston. Retrieved on November 5, 2011.
  87. City of Houston, Council District Maps, District I Archived September 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine ." City of Houston. Retrieved on November 5, 2011.
  88. "City Council." City of Houston. Retrieved on October 25, 2015.
  89. "Beat Map Archived October 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Police Department. Retrieved on April 5, 2010.
  90. "Ceremony held for renaming of HPD headquarters in honor of retired officer." Retrieved on October 25, 2015.
  91. 1 2 "Fire Stations." City of Houston. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
  92. 1 2 "Fire Station 8 Archived 2010-05-27 at the Wayback Machine ." City of Houston. Retrieved on May 8, 2010.
  93. "Fire Station 3 Archived 2010-05-29 at the Wayback Machine ." City of Houston. Retrieved on May 8, 2010.
  94. "Fire Station 5 Archived May 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ." City of Houston. Retrieved on May 8, 2010.
  95. "Fire Station 2 Archived May 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ." City of Houston. Retrieved on May 8, 2010.
  96. "Contact Us Archived February 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Downtown Management District. Retrieved on April 7, 2009.
  97. "Maps: All Precincts Archived January 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Harris County Precinct 3. Retrieved on November 22, 2008.
  98. "Harris County Precinct One > Home". hcp1.net. Archived from the original on 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  99. "Harris County Commissioner Precinct 2". www.hcp2.com. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  100. "Courthouse Annexes Archived 2010-04-22 at the Wayback Machine ." Harris County Precinct Two. Retrieved on May 23, 2010.
  101. "Harris County Courts". www.ccl.hctx.net. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  102. "Harris County District Courts". www.justex.net. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  103. "Jury Service". www.hcdistrictclerk.com. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  104. The 1200 Jail Archived February 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Harris County, Texas . Accessed September 12, 2008.
  105. "The 1307 Jail Archived 2008-10-03 at the Wayback Machine ." Harris County, Texas . Accessed September 12, 2008.
  106. "The 701 Jail Archived 2008-09-18 at the Wayback Machine ." Harris County, Texas . Accessed September 12, 2008.
  107. Representatives, George Hewitt - Texas House of. "Texas House of Representatives". www.house.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  108. Representatives, George Hewitt - Texas House of. "Texas House of Representatives". www.house.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  109. "The Texas State Senate: District 13". www.senate.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on August 3, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  110. "Kegans (HM) Archived September 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ." Texas Department of Criminal Justice . Accessed September 12, 2008.
  111. Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Turner Publishing Company, 2004. 51. ISBN   1-56311-964-1, ISBN   978-1-56311-964-4.
  112. "SOUTH TEXAS (XM) Archived 2008-08-21 at the Wayback Machine ." Texas Department of Criminal Justice . Accessed September 12, 2008.
  113. "TJB | 1st COA | Contact Us". www.txcourts.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  114. "TJB | 14th COA | Contact Us". www.txcourts.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  115. nationalatlas.gov website Archived October 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  116. "Representative Sheila Jackson Lee". Representative Sheila Jackson Lee. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  117. "Post Office Location – HOUSTON." United States Postal Service . Retrieved on December 4, 2008.
  118. Hernandez, Pat. "Downtown Houston Post Office Closes." Houston Public Media. May 15, 2015. Retrieved on October 30, 2016.
  119. "Downtown post office, designed by Astrodome architects, sets closing date". CultureMap Houston. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  120. reporter, miya shay, eyewitness news, (2014-12-17). "What will closure of downtown post office mean?". ABC13 Houston. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  121. "Get Your Stamps There While You Still Can Downtown Barbara Jordan Post Office on Franklin St. Will Close Forever on May 15th." Swamplot. May 6, 2015. Retrieved on October 30, 2016.
  122. "1500 Hadley St. Replacement for Houston’s Shuttering Downtown Post Office Is Actually Somewhat Close to Downtown." Swamplot. Retrieved on October 30, 2016.
  123. "Best Post Office – 2010 U.S. Post Office on Franklin Street." Houston Press . Retrieved on December 12, 2010.
  124. Najaro, Ileana (2016-10-06). "Events draw attention as former post office undergoes transformation". Houston Chronicle . Retrieved 2016-12-31.
  125. Weisman, Laura. "Nine Houston post offices marked for closure (with poll)." Houston Chronicle . July 26, 2011. Retrieved on July 26, 2011.
  126. "Mickey Leland Federal Building Archived 2009-05-09 at the Wayback Machine ." U.S. General Services Administration . Retrieved on April 16, 2009.
  127. "FR Doc E9-24240." Federal Register at U.S. Government Printing Office. October 8, 2009. Volume 74, Number 194. Retrieved on March 31, 2010.
  128. "FDC Houston." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on January 1, 2010.
  129. "Houston Archived 2008-11-23 at the Wayback Machine ." Consulate-General of the United Kingdom . Retrieved on December 7, 2008.
  130. "Contact Us." Consulate-General of Japan in Houston . Retrieved on December 7, 2008.
  131. "Visa Desk." Consulate General of Switzerland in Houston . September 5, 2004.
  132. "Essence of Switzerland Archived 2008-09-14 at the Wayback Machine ." Paul Scherrer Institute . Retrieved on December 7, 2008.
  133. "Location." Consulate General of Switzerland in Houston . October 23, 2002.
  134. Hodge, Shelby. "MIXERS, ELIXIRS AND IMAX SUMMER SOCIALS / Party animals drink with the dinosaurs." Houston Chronicle . Star 3. June 22, 2006. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  135. "'New' Market Square Park to be unveiled".
  136. Shauk, Zain (11 Sep 2010). "Remembering 9/11 Victim's legacy grows at Lauren's Garden in Houston". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  137. "Features." Discovery Green Park . Retrieved on January 27, 2009.
  138. Kaplan, David (2013-05-03). "Discovery Green keeps giving city a fresh image". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2017-10-23.
  139. "History of Discovery Green". Discovery Green Conservancy. Retrieved 2017-10-23.
  140. "Main Street Square". www.downtownhouston.org. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  141. "Root Memorial Square". www.downtownhouston.org. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  142. "Quebedeaux Park." Harris County. Retrieved on January 3, 2009.
  143. "Quebedeaux Park" Layout. Harris County. Retrieved on January 3, 2009.
  144. "Work begins on Tellepsen Family YMCA Archived 2012-06-17 at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Chronicle . January 14, 2009. Retrieved on September 21, 2009.
  145. Dooley, Tara. "It's been fun to stay at the Y Archived 2012-06-17 at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Chronicle . August 22, 2008. Retrieved on September 21, 2009.
  146. Shilcutt, Katharine. "Rest(aurants) in Peace: Notable Closings of 2012." Houston Press . Monday December 10, 2012. 3. Retrieved on March 27, 2013.
  147. Hlavaty, Craig (2018-09-24). "New Houston mural honors downtown's 'Produce Row' roots". Houston Chronicle . Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  148. "The New Avenida". www.houstonconventiondistrict.com. Archived from the original on 2015-08-21. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  149. "806 Main St". CrediFI. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  150. "Spindletop Restaurant Houston". www.hyatt.com. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  151. "Houston Chronicle announces relocation and renovation". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  152. 1 2 Garza, Abrahán. "Spaced City The Houston Press Moves to New Digs, From Downtown to Midtown." Houston Press . October 25, 2013. p. 1 (Archive). Retrieved on October 25, 2013.
  153. "About Us" Archived April 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Houston Press. Retrieved on August 7, 2009.
  154. Garza, Abrahán. "Old Houston Photos Mashed with Modern Houston, Part 2." Houston Press. Monday May 7, 2012. 1. Retrieved on May 7, 2012.
  155. 1 2 3 4 Hassell, Greg. "PUBLISH OR PERISH/Small magazines born every year with big dreams." Houston Chronicle . Monday January 28, 1991. Business 1. Retrieved on October 14, 2012.
  156. Pope, Tara Parker. "Last issue for Downtown." Houston Chronicle. Saturday January 19, 1991. A35. Retrieved on October 14, 2012.
  157. Staff. "People in business." Houston Chronicle. Sunday November 10, 1991. Business 8. Retrieved on October 14, 2012.
  158. "Houston group buys neighborhood magazines from New Mexico owner. (Media ink; Creneau Media Group Inc.)" Houston Business Journal . August 12, 1994. Retrieved on October 14, 2012.
  159. "Contact Us". ROOT SPORTS. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  160. "Rail Map & Schedule Archived 2008-12-17 at the Wayback Machine ." Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas . Retrieved on December 10, 2008.
  161. "Central Business District/Downtown Archived 2008-12-02 at the Wayback Machine ." Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas . Retrieved on December 10, 2008.
  162. Patel, Purva. "Free downtown bus rides coming in spring." Houston Chronicle . Monday October 10, 2011. Retrieved on October 17, 2011.
  163. "Six in the City". City of Houston. 2017.
  164. "Texas Higher Ed Enrollments". www.thecb.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  165. Home page. South Texas College of Law . Retrieved on December 10, 2008.
  166. 1 2 "Education/Schools." Downtown Houston. Retrieved on April 7, 2009.
  167. "Land Use & Development Map Archived December 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ." Midtown Houston . Retrieved on April 4, 2009.
  168. "Contact Us." Young Scholars Academy for Excellence. Retrieved on December 2, 2009.
  169. "About YSAFE". Young Scholars Academy for Excellence. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
  170. Laura. "Houston ISD breaks ground on new campus for arts high school." Houston Chronicle. 14 December 21014
  171. Selvakumar, Ariya (2019-02-11). "Kinder HSPVA Grand Opening Downtown". The Buzz Magazines. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
  172. "Bruce Elementary Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on July 23, 2017.
  173. "Crockett Elementary Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on July 23, 2017.
  174. "Gregory-Lincoln Elementary Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on July 23, 2017.
  175. 1 2 "Gregory Lincoln Middle Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on July 23, 2017.
  176. "Marshall Middle Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on July 23, 2017.
  177. "Northside High Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on July 23, 2017.
  178. "Heights High Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on July 23, 2017.
  179. "AGENDA Board of Education Meeting March 13, 2014." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on March 15, 2014. "Current Attendance Boundaries" New 03/06/04 Attachment F-2 March 2014 p. 31/119. and "Proposed Attendance Boundaries" New 03/06/04 Attachment F-2 March 2014 p. 32/119.
  180. 1 2 Gonzales, J.R. "Sam Houston High School (old)." Houston Chronicle . March 30, 2010. Retrieved on November 22, 2011.
  181. "History Archived 2012-11-04 at the Wayback Machine ." Sam Houston Math, Science & Technology Center. Retrieved on November 22, 2011.
  182. 1 2 3 "School Histories: the Stories Behind the Names Archived July 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Independent School District . Retrieved on September 24, 2008.
  183. "A. Jones Elementary Attendance Zone Archived February 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on August 21, 2009.
  184. Gonzales, J.R. (2013-01-19). "The colorful history of Anson Jones Elementary". Houston Chronicle . Retrieved 2016-12-06.
  185. "Brock Elementary Attendance Zone." Houston Independent School District. April 13, 2002. Retrieved on August 21, 2009.
  186. "Board of Education Votes on School Consolidations Archived June 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Independent School District . October 9, 2008.
  187. Mellon, Ericka. "Tears and fears at HISD board meeting – UPDATED Archived 2009-05-19 at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Chronicle . October 9, 2008.
  188. Downing, Margaret. "Backlash Upon Backlash at HISD." Houston Press . December 2, 2008. 1.
  189. "Board Approves School Closings and Consolidations Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Independent School District . November 14, 2008.
  190. "E. O. Smith Middle Attendance Zone Archived February 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Independent School District . Retrieved on April 7, 2009.
  191. "Contact Incarnate Word Academy [ permanent dead link ]." Incarnate Word Academy . Retrieved on April 5, 2009.
  192. "Enrolling Archived 2008-12-20 at the Wayback Machine ." Trinity Lutheran School. Retrieved on April 7, 2009.
  193. 1 2 3 "History of the Co-Cathedral Archived 2008-07-24 at the Wayback Machine ." Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston . Retrieved on April 5, 2009.
  194. 1 2 "About St. Thomas." St. Thomas High School . Retrieved on April 5, 2009.
  195. "Central Library Julia Ideson Building Texas Room and Archives Archived February 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Public Library . Retrieved on January 27, 2009.
  196. Chapman, Betty T. "Story of public libraries took long time to write in Houston." Houston Business Journal . June 2, 2000. Retrieved on January 27, 2009.
  197. Houston Public Library from the Handbook of Texas Online
  198. "It's Worth the Wait Exciting New Renovation for the Central Library Archived April 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Public Library. February 23, 2006. Retrieved on January 27, 2009.
  199. "Central Library Grand Re-Opening Celebration May 31 & June1, 2008 Archived July 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Public Library . Retrieved on January 27, 2009.
  200. "IT'S WORTH THE WAIT Exciting New Renovation for the Central Library Archived 2008-10-15 at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Public Library. Thursday February 23, 2006. Retrieved on June 30, 2010.
  201. Map of Neartown Archived 2018-10-05 at the Wayback Machine . Neartown Association. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
  202. "GSD District Locations." City of Houston. Retrieved on June 30, 2010. "No. 117. Location Code MAR. Address 820 Marston. Location Name Marston Building. Zip Code 77019. Key Map 492M. Sq. Ft 22,000.
  203. "HPL Express Discovery Green Archived 2008-08-02 at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Public Library . Accessed July 12, 2008.
  204. Snyder, Mike. "Houston's new park combines green space, amenities." Houston Chronicle . April 5, 2008. Retrieved on January 27, 2009.
  205. "HPL Express Archived March 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Houston Public Library . Accessed July 12, 2008.
  206. "Take to the air for short trips from Tucson Archived February 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ." Arizona Daily Star . June 19, 2008. Retrieved on January 27, 2009.
  207. "Law Library." Harris County Public Library. Retrieved on January 31, 2016. "Location: 1019 Congress, 1st Floor Houston, TX 77002"
  208. "Contact Us." Harris County Law Library. Retrieved on January 31, 2016. "The Harris County Law Library is located on the first floor of Congress Plaza at the corner of Congress and Fannin Streets in downtown Houston." and "Address: 1019 Congress, 1st floor, Houston, Texas 77002"

Further reading

Coordinates: 29°45′25″N95°21′43″W / 29.757°N 95.362°W / 29.757; -95.362