|Drava or Drave|
The Drava in Osijek, Croatia
|Source||North of the Neunerkogel over the Toblacher Feld|
|• location||Toblach, South Tyrol, Italy|
|• elevation||1,450 m (4,760 ft)|
|Mouth||Danube near Osijek|
|Length||710 km (440 mi)|
|Basin size||40,154 km2 (15,504 sq mi)|
|• average||670 m3/s (24,000 cu ft/s)|
|Progression||Danube→ Black Sea|
The Drava or Drave : Drau [ˈdʁaʊ] ; Slovene : Drava [ˈdɾàːʋa] ; Croatian : Drava [drǎːʋa] ; Hungarian : Dráva [ˈdraːvɒ] ; Italian : Drava [ˈdraːva] ) is a river in southern Central Europe. With a length of 710 kilometres (440 mi), 724 kilometres (450 mi) including the Sextner Bach source, it is the fifth or sixth longest tributary of the Danube, after the Tisza, Sava, Prut, Mureș and perhaps Siret. Its source is near the market town of Innichen (San Candido), in the Puster Valley of South Tyrol, Italy. The river flows eastwards through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria into the Styria region of Slovenia. It then turns southeast, passing through Croatia and, after merging with its main tributary Mur, forms most of the border between Croatia and Hungary, before it joins the Danube near Osijek.(German
In ancient times the river was known as Dravus or Draus in Latin, and in Greek as Δράος : द्रवतिdravati 'flow'). The river gives its name to the dravite species of tourmaline.and Δράβος. Medieval attestations of the name include Dravis (c. AD 670), Drauva (in 799), Drauus (in 811), Trauum (in 1091), and Trah (in 1136). The name is pre-Roman and pre-Celtic, but probably of Indo-European origin, from the root *dreu̯- 'flow' (cf. Sanskrit
The Drava (along with one of its tributaries, the Slizza) and the Spöl are the only two rivers originating in Italy that belong to the Danube drainage basin. Its main left tributaries (from the north) are the Isel(contributes 39 m³/s), the Möll (25 m³/s), the Lieser (22 m³/s), the Gurk (30 m³/s) and the Lavant (12 m³/s) in Austria, and the Mur (166 m³/s) near Legrad at the Croatian–Hungarian border. Its main right tributaries (from the south) are the Gail (45 m³/s) in Austria, the Meža (12 m³/s) and Dravinja (11 m³/s) in Slovenia, and the Bednja (? m³/s) in Croatia.
|Country||Length (km)||Catchment area (km²)||Mean flow (m³/s)|
Mean discharge is for the last station in the country mentioned in the source.
The Drava sources are located at the drainage divide between the market town of Innichen and neighbouring Toblach (Dobbiaco) in the west, where the Rienz River rises, a tributary of the Adige (Etsch). At Innichen itself the 16+ km Sextner Bach km long source creek. The river than flows eastwards and after 8 kilometres crosses into East Tyrol in Austria. At Lienz it flows into the Isel , sourced from the glaciers of the Venediger and Glockner Groups. The Isel (average discharge 39 m³/s) is almost three times larger than the Drava (14 m³/s) where they meet and, starting from the source of its tributary Schwarzach under the Rötspitze, the Isel (ca. 64 km) is also longer than the combined Drava and Sextner Bach (ca. 60 km) to that point., originating near the Sextener Rotwand, joins the ~2
The river then flows east into Carinthia at Oberdrauburg. The river separates the Kreuzeck range of the High Tauern in the north and the Gailtal Alps in the south, passes the Sachsenburg narrows and the site of the ancient city of Teurnia, before it reaches the town of Spittal an der Drau. Downstream of Villach, it runs along the northern slopes of the Karawanks to Ferlach and Lavamünd.
The Drava passes into Slovenia at Gorče near Dravograd, from where it runs for 142 kilometres (88 mi) via Vuzenica, Muta, Ruše, and Maribor to Ptuj and the border with Croatia at Ormož. The river then passes Varaždin, Belišće and Osijek in Croatia, and Barcs in Hungary. It is navigable for about 90 kilometres (56 mi) from Čađavica in Croatia to its mouth.
The hydrological parameters of Drava are regularly monitored in Croatia at Botovo, Terezino Polje, Donji Miholjac and Osijek.
Currently, there are 22 hydroelectric power plants on the Drava. The power plants are listed beginning at the headwaters:
|Dam||Nameplate capacity (MW)||Annual generation (Mio. kwh)|
|Amlach power station||60||219|
The Drava River is one of the most exploited rivers in the world in terms of hydropower, with almost 100% of its water potential energy being exploited.As the region of the river is a place of exceptional biodiversity, this raises several ecological concerns, together with other forms of exploitation such as use of river deposits.
Austria is a small, predominantly mountainous country in Central Europe, approximately between Germany, Italy and Hungary. It has a total area of 83,879 km2 (32,385 mi2), about twice the size of Switzerland.
The Inn is a river in Switzerland, Austria and Bavaria. It is a right tributary of the Danube and is 518 kilometres (322 mi) long. The highest point of its drainage basin is the summit of Piz Bernina, at 4,049 metres (13,284 ft). The Engadine, the valley of the En, is the only Swiss valley whose waters end up in the Black Sea.
The Mur or Mura is a river in Central Europe rising in the Hohe Tauern national park of the Central Eastern Alps in Austria with its source being 1,898 m (6,227 ft) above sea level. It is a tributary of the Drava and subsequently the Danube.
Dravograd is a small town in northern Slovenia, close to the border with Austria. It is the seat of the Municipality of Dravograd. It lies on the Drava River at the confluence with the Meža and the Mislinja. It is part of the traditional Slovenian provinces of Carinthia and the larger Carinthia Statistical Region.
Črneče is a village on the right bank of the Drava River in the Municipality of Dravograd in the Carinthia region in northern Slovenia.
The Meža (Slovene) or Mieß (German) is a river in the Austrian state of Carinthia and in Slovenia, a right tributary of the Drava. It is 43 kilometers (27 mi) long, of which 42 kilometers (26 mi) are in Slovenia. Its catchment area is 551.7 square kilometers (213.0 sq mi), of which 543 square kilometers (210 sq mi) in Slovenia.
The Sava is a river in Central and Southeast Europe, a right tributary of the Danube. It flows through Slovenia, Croatia and along its border with Bosnia and Herzegovina, and finally through Serbia, feeding into the Danube in its capital, Belgrade. The Sava forms the main northern limit of the Balkan Peninsula, and the southern edge of the Pannonian Plain.
The Dravinja is the largest tributary of the Drava River in Slovenia. It is 73 kilometres (45 mi) long. Its source is on the Pohorje Massif southwest of Mount Rogla about 1,150 m above sea level. The river passes Zreče, the town of Slovenske Konjice, the ruins of the fort at Zbelovo, Poljčane, Makole, Štatenberg Castle, Majšperk, and Videm pri Ptuju, where it merges with the Drava. Its main tributary is the river Polskava.
Styria, also Slovenian Styria or Lower Styria, is a traditional region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former Duchy of Styria. The population of Styria in its historical boundaries amounts to around 705,000 inhabitants, or 34.5% of the population of Slovenia. The largest city is Maribor.
The huchen or Danube salmon is a large species of freshwater fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. It is the type species of its genus.
Gail is the name of a river in southern Austria, the largest right tributary of the Drava.
The Puster Valley is one of the largest longitudinal valleys in the Alps that runs in an east-west direction between Lienz in East Tyrol, Austria and Mühlbach near Brixen in South Tyrol, Italy. The South Tyrolean municipalities of the Puster Valley constitute the Puster Valley district.
Reißeck is a municipality in the district of Spittal an der Drau in Carinthia, Austria.
The Lavant is a river in the Austrian state of Carinthia, a left tributary of the Drava. It lends its name to the Lavanttal valley as well as to the Lavanttal Alps.
The Sava Bohinjka is a headwater of the Sava River in northwestern Slovenia. At 41 kilometres (25 mi) in length, it is the shorter of the two headwaters that become the Sava River in Radovljica, the other being the 45 km (28 mi)-long Sava Dolinka.
The Ledava is a river of Styria, Austria and of Goričko, Prekmurje, northeastern Slovenia.
The Pesnica is a river in Styria, southeastern Austria and in Styria, northeastern Slovenia.
The Möll is a river in northwestern Carinthia in Austria, a left tributary of the Drava.
Amlach power station is a diversionary-run-of-the-river hydroelectricity power generating station on the Drava river in Austria. The power station is operated by Tiroler Wasserkraft (TIWAG) on river water flowing between Tassenbach, Strassen, Tyrol and Amlach, near Lienz.
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