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|Drawa National Park|
|Drawieński Park Narodowy|
Ostrowieckie Lake Park logo with European otter
|Area||113.42 km2 (43.79 sq mi)|
|Governing body||Ministry of the Environment|
Drawa National Park (Polish : Drawieński Park Narodowy) is located in north-western Poland, on the border of Greater Poland, Lubusz and West Pomeranian Voivodeships. The park is a part of the huge Drawsko Forest (Puszcza Drawska), which lies on the vast Drawsko Plain. It takes its name from the River Drawa. It was created in 1990 and initially covered 86.91 km². Later, it was enlarged to 113.42 square kilometres (43.79 sq mi) of which forests account for 96.14 km² (3.68 km² is designated as a strictly protected area), and water bodies cover 9.37 km².
Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish-language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
Greater Poland Voivodeship, also known as Wielkopolska Voivodeship, Wielkopolska Province, or Greater Poland Province, is a voivodeship, or province, in west-central Poland. It was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Poznań, Kalisz, Konin, Piła and Leszno Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The province is named after the region called Greater Poland or Wielkopolska(
Over 80 percent of its area is covered with forests – the great and monumental Drawa Forest stretching from the Drawa Lake District to the Noteć River. It is mostly made up of beech and pine trees.
There are picturesque and deep valleys of the Drawa and Plociczna rivers as well as numerous water channels, lakes and peat-bogs. In some places the height can vary by 30 meters within 500 meters. The highest hill (106 m) is located near the Martew lake, in northern part of the Park. The soil in the park is of poor quality and it mainly consists of sand.
The Drawa is a river and popular aquatic trail in Poland, 192 km long. The surface of its catchment area amounts to 3291 km2. The Drawa begins its course at Krzywe Lake and ends it in Noteć below Krzyż Wielkopolski. The Drawa is a right-bank tributary of Noteć, the second regarding size. Its average gradient is 0,61% and its flow rate 19 m3/s. It is the longest river in Pojezierze Drawskie.
One of main reasons for the creation of the park was the need for to protect valuable areas along the Drawa and Plocziczna rivers. The Drawa creates interesting valleys and hollows and 40 km of the river is within the borders of the park. The river flows at a quite fast pace, which makes it similar to rivers located in mountains. The Drawa kayaking trail is one of the most picturesque in Poland. Lakes include the meromictic lake Czarne (3.7 km²).
There are several interesting species of flora in Drawski National Park, among them 210 species of mushrooms, and oak trees up to 400 years old. The oldest trees are strictly protected in the Radecin Preserve. Trees older than 81 years old cover 40% of the forested area of the park.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are approximately 600 extant species of oaks. The common name "oak" also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae (she-oaks). The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia, Europe, and North Africa. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with approximately 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico has 160 species of which 109 are endemic. The second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains approximately 100 species.
There are 129 species of birds, 40 species of mammals, 7 species of reptiles and 13 species of amphibians. The good quality of water in the lakes and rivers enables various species of fish to flourish.
Birds, also known as Aves or avian dinosaurs, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming.
Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, and three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals. The largest orders are the rodents, bats and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, and the Carnivora.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders, historically combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology.
Roe deer, red deer and wild boar are very common in the national park. The park also hosts high populations of eurasian otter and beaver. Occasionally moose and gray wolf can be found in the park.
The European roe deer, also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a species of deer. The male of the species is sometimes referred to as a roebuck. The roe deer is relatively small, reddish and grey-brown, and well-adapted to cold environments. The species is widespread in Europe, from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia, from Scotland to the Caucasus, and east to northern Iran and Iraq. It is distinct from the somewhat larger Siberian roe deer.
The red deer is one of the largest deer species. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Asia Minor, Iran, parts of western Asia, and central Asia. It also inhabits the Atlas Mountains region between Morocco and Tunisia in northwestern Africa, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red deer have been introduced to other areas, including Australia, New Zealand, United States, Canada, Peru, Uruguay, Chile and Argentina. In many parts of the world, the meat (venison) from red deer is used as a food source.
The wild boar, also known as the wild swine, Eurasian wild pig, or simply wild pig, is a suid native to much of Eurasia, North Africa, and the Greater Sunda Islands. Human intervention has spread its distribution further, making the species one of the widest-ranging mammals in the world, as well as the most widely spread suiform. Its wide range, high numbers, and adaptability mean that it is classed as least concern by the IUCN and it has become an invasive species in part of its introduced range. The animal probably originated in Southeast Asia during the Early Pleistocene, and outcompeted other suid species as it spread throughout the Old World.
The area in the past, when it was located on the border between Poland and Western Pomerania (later Prussia), was regarded as unsuitable for human settlement and only since the 17th century have its forests been cleared for settlement.
The park is crossed by four attractive tourist trails, for both walking and kayaking. There are camping sites and within some distance hotels. The number of visiting tourists has been increasing year on year.
The park has its headquarters in the town of Drawno, in Choszczno County.
Lake Khövsgöl is the largest fresh water lake in Mongolia by volume and second largest by area. It is located near the northern border of Mongolia, about 200 km west of the southern end of Lake Baikal. It is nicknamed the "Younger sister" of those two "sister lakes".
Słowiński National Park is a national park in Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland. It is situated on the Baltic coast, between Łeba and Rowy. The northern boundary of the park consists of 32.5 kilometres (20.2 mi) of coastline.
Kampinos National Park is a National Park in east-central Poland, in Masovian Voivodeship, on the north-west outskirts of Warsaw. It has a sister park agreement with Indiana Dunes National Park, Indiana, United States.
Wielkopolski National Park is a National Park within the Wielkopolska region of west-central Poland, approximately 15 km (9 mi) south of the regional capital, Poznań. It gets its unique nature from post-glacier lakes, surrounded by dense pine forests, characterised by its spectacular location. Together with the protective zone around it, it includes part of the Poznań Lakeland and parts of Poznań’s Warta Gorge.
Pieniny National Park is a protected area located in the heart of Pieniny Mountains in the southernmost part of Poland. Administratively, the Park lies in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship on the border with Slovakia. Its head office is in Krościenko nad Dunajcem.
Wigry National Park is a National Park in Podlaskie Voivodeship in north-eastern Poland. It covers parts of the Masurian Lake District and Augustów Primeval Forest. It is named after lake Wigry, the largest of the Park's many lakes. It is also classed as a Ramsar wetland site, one of 13 such sites in Poland.
Bory Tucholskie National Park is a national park in Poland, created on July 1, 1996. It covers an area of 46.13 square kilometres (17.81 sq mi) of forests, lakes, meadows and peatlands. The park is in the northern part of Poland, in Chojnice County in Pomeranian Voivodeship, in the heart of the Tuchola Forest, the largest woodland in Poland. It is surrounded by a larger protected area called Zaborski Landscape Park. The park forms the core of the Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve, designated by UNESCO in 2010.
Ojców National Park is a national park in Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland, established in 1956. It takes its name from the village of Ojców, where it also has its headquarters. Chopin visited Ojców in 1829.
Roztocze National Park is a national park in Lublin Voivodeship of southeastern Poland. It protects the most valuable natural areas of the middle part of the Roztocze range. Its current size is 84.83 km2 (32.75 sq mi), of which forests occupy 81.02 km², and strictly protected areas 8.06 km². The park has its headquarters in Zwierzyniec.
Świętokrzyski National Park is a National Park in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship in central Poland. It covers the highest ridge of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains – the Łysogory – with its two highest peaks: Łysica at 612 metres (2,008 ft) and Łysa Góra at 595 m (1,952 ft). It also covers the eastern part of the Klonowski Ridge and part of the Pokrzywianski Ridge. The Park has its headquarters in Bodzentyn.
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Karkaraly National Park is a protected reserve and national park in the Karaganda Oblast of Kazakhstan. The park headquarters are in the city of Karkaraly, 244 km east of Karaganda.
Meshchyorsky National Park covers extensive wetlands and pine/birch woodlands in the Meshchera Lowlands on the East European Plain in the northern section of Ryazan Oblast, Russia, about 120 km east of Moscow. The wetland habitat provides for extremely rich biodiversity among the plants and animals. "Meshchersky" (Мещёрский) National Park is not to be confused with "Meshchyora" (Мещёра) National Park, which is just to the north, over the border in Vladimir Oblast. The park protects a section of the Pra River, Lake Beloye, and associated wetlands and forests. About 54% of the park territory is used and managed for agricultural purposes by local communities.
Zaybaybalsky National Park covers the middle section of the eastern shore of Lake Baikal, the west slope of the Barguzin mountains to the east, the Ushkany Islands, and the only large peninsula on the lake Svyatoy Nos. Of the 2,690 km2 (1,040 sq mi) of the park, 38.8 km2 are protected water areas of the lake itself.
Kostomuksha Nature Reserve is a Russian 'zapovednik' of forests, lakes, rivers and wetlands on the border of Russian and Finland. It was created in 1983, along with other protected areas, in part to mitigate the impact of the Karelskiy Okatysh mine outside of the town of Kostomuksha, one of the largest iron ore reserves in Russia, and also to protect the forest from increase commercial logging in the area. A further scientific purpose is the protection of forest reindeer and a type of landlocked salmon. The reserve is part of a transboundary reserve complex with reserves in Finland to the west, and is situated in the Kalevalsky District and Muyezersky District of the Republic of Karelia, about 500 km north of St. Petersburg and 500 km west of Arkhangelsk. The reserve was created in 1993, and covers an area of 47,569 ha (183.66 sq mi).
Khopyor Nature Reserve is a Russian 'zapovednik' that protects a stretch of 50 km along the Khopyor River in the Voronezh Oblast. About 80% of the area is covered by forests, dominated floodplain and upland oak woods, small areas of steppes and meadows. There are about 400 lakes and oxbows. The reserve is situated in the Novokhopyorsky District of Voronezh Oblast.
Volga-Kama Nature Reserve is a Russian 'zapovednik' at the confluence of the Volga River, the Kama River, and the Myosha River. There are two sections to the reserve, one on the left bank terraces of the Volga, at the actual meeting point of the rivers, the other section about 100 km up the Volga on the western outskirts of the city of Kazan. The reserve is situated in the Zelenodolsky Districts and Laishevsky District of Tatarstan. It was formally established in 1960 to protect remaining forest and forest-steppe habitat of the middle Volga region, and has an area of 8,024 ha (30.98 sq mi). A particular focus of scientific study is the effects of the Kuybyshev Reservoir on the local environment. The reservoir was completed in the mid-1950s, and is the largest reservoir in Europe. The Volga-Kama Reserve is part of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.
The Sayan montane conifer forests ecoregion covers the mid-elevation levels of the Sayan Mountains, the high mountain range between the taiga of Siberia, Russia to the north, and the steppes of Mongolia to the south. The slopes of the mountains at the mid-altitudes are covered by Temperate coniferous forest. The ecoregion is in the Palearctic ecozone, with a Cold semi-arid climate. It covers 35,741,835 km2 (13,800,000 sq mi).