Last updated

Camelus dromedarius on Sinai.jpg
Dromedary in a wadi on the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Camelidae
Genus: Camelus
C. dromedarius
Binomial name
Camelus dromedarius
Dromedary Range.png
      range of the dromedary in 2000
Synonyms [1]
  • C. aegyptiacus Kolenati, 1847
  • C. africanus(Gloger, 1841)
  • C. arabicus Desmoulins, 1823
  • C. dromas Pallas, 1811
  • C. dromosKerr, 1792
  • C. ferusFalk,1786
  • C. lukiusKolenati, 1847
  • C. polytrichusKolenati, 1847
  • C. turcomanichus J. Fischer, 1829
  • C. vulgarisKolenati, 1847

The dromedary (Camelus dromedarius UK: /ˈdrʌmɪdəri,ˈdrɒm-/ or US: /-ˌdɛri/ ; [2] [3] ), also known as the dromedary camel, Arabian camel, [4] or one-humped camel, is a large camel, of the genus Camelus , with one hump on its back.


It is the tallest of the three species of camel; adult males stand 1.8–2.4 m (5 ft 11 in – 7 ft 10 in) at the shoulder, while females are 1.7–1.9 m (5 ft 7 in – 6 ft 3 in) tall. Males typically weigh between 400 and 690 kg (880 and 1,520 lb), and females weigh between 300 and 540 kg (660 and 1,190 lb).

The species' distinctive features include its long, curved neck, narrow chest, a single hump (compared with two on the Bactrian camel and wild Bactrian camel), and long hairs on the throat, shoulders and hump. The coat is generally a shade of brown. The hump, 20 cm (7+78 in) tall or more, is made of fat bound together by fibrous tissue.

Dromedaries are mainly active during daylight hours. They form herds of about 20 individuals, which are led by a dominant male. They feed on foliage and desert vegetation; several adaptations, such as the ability to tolerate losing more than 30% of its total water content, allow it to thrive in its desert habitat. Mating occurs annually and peaks in the rainy season; females bear a single calf after a gestation of 15 months.

The dromedary has not occurred naturally in the wild for nearly 2,000 years. It was probably first domesticated in the Arabian Peninsula about 4,000 years ago, or in Somalia where there are paintings in Laas Geel that figure it from 5,000 to 9,000 years ago. In the wild, the dromedary inhabited arid regions, including the Sahara Desert. The domesticated dromedary is generally found in the semi-arid to arid regions of the Old World, mainly in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and a significant feral population occurs in Australia. Products of the dromedary, including its meat and milk, support several North African tribes; it is also commonly used for riding and as a pack animal.


The common name "dromedary" comes from the Old French dromedaire or the Late Latin dromedarius. These originated from the Greek word dromas, δρομάς (ο, η) ( GEN (γενική) dromados, δρομάδος), meaning "running" or "runner", [5] [6] used in Greek in the combination δρομάς κάμηλος (dromas kamelos), literally "running camel", to refer to the dromedary. [5] [7] The first recorded use in English of the name "dromedary" occurred in the 14th century. [8] The dromedary possibly originated in Arabia or Somalia and is therefore sometimes referred to as the Arabian or East African camel. [9] The word "camel" generally refers either to the dromedary or the congeneric Bactrian; the word came into English via Old Norman, from the Latin word camēlus, from Ancient Greek κάμηλος (kámēlos), [10] ultimately from a Semitic source akin to Hebrew גמל (gamál) and Arabic جمل (jamal). [11]

Taxonomy and classification

Phylogenetic relationships of the dromedary compared to living and recently extinct camels [12]

Lamini (llamas)




Camelus dromedarius (dromedary)

Camelus knoblochi

Camelus ferus (wild Bactrian camel)

Camelus bactrianus (domestic Bactrian camel)

The dromedary shares the genus Camelus with the Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus) and the wild Bactrian camel (C. ferus). The dromedary belongs to the family Camelidae. [1] [13] The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (4th century BC) was the first to describe the species of Camelus. He named two species in his History of Animals ; the one-humped Arabian camel and the two-humped Bactrian camel. [14] [15] The dromedary was given its current binomial name Camelus dromedarius by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 publication Systema Naturae . [16] In 1927, British veterinarian Arnold Leese classified dromedaries by their basic habitats; the hill camels are small, muscular animals and efficient beasts of burden; the larger plains camels could be further divided into the desert type that can bear light burdens and are apt for riding, and the riverine type  slow animals that can bear heavy burdens; and those intermediate between these two types. [17]

In 2007, Peng Cui of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and colleagues carried out a phylogenetic study of the evolutionary relationships between the two tribes of Camelidae; Camelini – consisting of the three Camelus species (the study considered the wild Bactrian camel as a subspecies of the Bactrian camel) – and Lamini, which consists of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), the llama (L. glama) and the vicuña (V. vicugna). The study showed the two tribes had diverged 25 million years ago (early Miocene), earlier than previously estimated from North American fossils.

The dromedary and the Bactrian camel often interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Where the ranges of the species overlap, such as in northern Punjab, Persia, and Afghanistan, the phenotypic differences between them tend to decrease as a result of extensive crossbreeding. The fertility of their hybrid has given rise to speculation that the dromedary and the Bactrian camel should be merged into a single species with two varieties. [17] However, a 1994 analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene showed the species display 10.3% divergence in their sequences. [18]

Genetics and hybrids

The dromedary has 74 diploid chromosomes, the same as other camelids. The autosomes consist of five pairs of small to medium-sized metacentrics and submetacentrics. [19] The X chromosome is the largest in the metacentric and submetacentric group. [20] There are 31 pairs of acrocentrics. [19] The dromedary's karyotype is similar to that of the Bactrian camel. [21]

Camel hybridization began in the first millennium BC. [22] For about a thousand years, Bactrian camels and dromedaries have been successfully bred in regions where they are sympatric to form hybrids with either a long, slightly lopsided hump or two humps – one small and one large. These hybrids are larger and stronger than their parents – they can bear greater loads. [20] [22] A cross between a first generation female hybrid and a male Bactrian camel can also produce a hybrid. Hybrids from other combinations tend to be bad-tempered or runts. [23]


The extinct Protylopus , which occurred in North America during the upper Eocene, is the oldest and the smallest-known camel. [24] During the transition from Pliocene to Pleistocene, several mammals faced extinction. This period marked the successful radiation of the Camelus species, which migrated over the Bering Strait and dispersed widely into Asia, eastern Europe and Africa. [25] [26] By the Pleistocene, ancestors of the dromedary occurred in the Middle East and northern Africa. [27]

The modern dromedary probably evolved in the hotter, arid regions of western Asia from the Bactrian camel, which in turn was closely related to the earliest Old World camels. [26] It was previously believed that this hypothesis was supported by the dromedary foetus having two humps, but modern studies have shown this to be false. [28] A jawbone of a dromedary that dated from 8,200 BC was found in Saudi Arabia on the southern coast of the Red Sea. [9] [29]

In 1975, Richard Bulliet of Columbia University wrote that the dromedary exists in large numbers in areas from which the Bactrian camel has disappeared; the converse is also true to a great extent. He said this substitution could have taken place because of the heavy dependence on the milk, meat and wool of the dromedary by Syrian and Arabian nomads, while the Asiatic people domesticated the Bactrian camel but did not have to depend upon its products. [30]


This camel has thick, double-layered eyelashes and bushy eyebrows. (Algeria) Dromadaire d'Algerie.jpg
This camel has thick, double-layered eyelashes and bushy eyebrows. (Algeria)
The dromedary has a long curved neck, single hump and long hair on the throat, shoulders and hump. Dromadaire4478.jpg
The dromedary has a long curved neck, single hump and long hair on the throat, shoulders and hump.

The dromedary is the tallest of the three camel species. Adult males range in height between 1.8 and 2.4 m (5.9 and 7.9 ft) at the shoulder; [31] [32] females range between 1.7 and 1.9 m (5.6 and 6.2 ft). Males typically weigh between 400 and 690 kg (880 and 1,520 lb); [32] females range between 300 and 540 kg (660 and 1,190 lb). The distinctive features are its long, curved neck, narrow chest and single hump (the Bactrian camel has two), thick, double-layered eyelashes and bushy eyebrows. [20] They have sharp vision and a good sense of smell. [9] The male has a soft palate (dulaa in Arabic) nearly 18 cm (7.1 in) long, which he inflates to produce a deep pink sac. The palate, which is often mistaken for the tongue, dangles from one side of the mouth and is used to attract females during the mating season. [33]

The coat is generally brown but can range from black to nearly white. [20] Leese reported piebald dromedaries in Kordofan and Darfur in Sudan. [34] Piebald coloration in some camels is thought to be caused by the KITW1 allele of the KIT gene, though there is likely at least one other mutation that also causes white spotting. [35] The hair is long and concentrated on the throat, shoulders and the hump. The large eyes are protected by prominent supraorbital ridges; the ears are small and rounded. The hump is at least 20 cm (7.9 in) high. [20] The dromedary has long, powerful legs with two toes on each foot. The feet resemble flat, leathery pads. [36] Like the giraffe, dromedaries move both legs on one side of the body at the same time. [37]

Compared with the Bactrian camel, the dromedary has a lighter build, longer limbs, shorter hairs, a harder palate and an insignificant or absent ethmoidal fissure. [38] Unlike the camelids of the genus Lama, the dromedary has a hump, and in comparison has a longer tail, smaller ears, squarer feet, and a greater height at the shoulder. The dromedary has four teats instead of the two in the Lama species. [20]


Domestic Dromedary Merzouga.jpg
Body for comparison with skeleton
Dromedary heart Dromedary heart.jpg
Dromedary heart

The cranium of the dromedary consists of a postorbital bar, a tympanic bulla filled with spongiosa, a well-defined sagittal crest, a long facial part and an indented nasal bone. [39] Typically, there are eight sternal and four non-sternal pairs of ribs. [34] The spinal cord is nearly 214 cm (84 in) long; it terminates in the second and third sacral vertebra. [40] The fibula is reduced to a malleolar bone. The dromedary is a digitigrade animal; it walks on its toes, which are known as digits. It lacks the second and fifth digits. [41] The front feet are 19 cm (7.5 in) wide and 18 cm (7.1 in) long; they are larger than the hind feet, which measure 17 cm (6.7 in) wide and 16 cm (6.3 in) long. [36]

A dromedary skull Camelus dromedarius (Dromedary) (48724323241).jpg
A dromedary skull

The dromedary has 22 milk teeth, which are eventually replaced by 34 permanent teeth. The dental formula for permanent dentition is, and for milk dentition. [42] In the juvenile, the lower first molars develop by 12 to 15 months and the permanent lower incisors appear at 4.5 to 6.5 years of age. All teeth are in use by 8 years. [43] The lenses of the eyes contain crystallin, which constitutes 8 to 13% of the protein present there. [44]

The skin is black; the epidermis is 0.038–0.064 mm (0.0015–0.0025 in) thick and the dermis is 2.2–4.7 mm (0.087–0.185 in) thick. [45] The hump is composed of fat bound together by fibrous tissue. [20] There are no glands on the face; males have glands that appear to be modified apocrine sweat glands that secrete pungent, coffee-coloured fluid during the rut, located on either side of the neck midline. The glands generally grow heavier during the rut, and range from 20 to 115 g (0.71 to 4.06 oz). [46] Each cover hair is associated with an arrector pilli muscle, a hair follicle, a ring of sebaceous glands and a sweat gland. [33] [47] Females have cone-shaped, four-chambered mammary glands that are 2.4 cm (0.94 in) long with a base diameter of 1.5 cm (0.59 in). [48] These glands can produce milk with up to 90% water content even if the mother is at risk of dehydration. [20]

Camel kidney (longitudinal cut) Camel kidney (longitudinal cut).- FMVZ USP-30.jpg
Camel kidney (longitudinal cut)

The heart weighs around 5 kg (11 lb); it has two ventricles with the tip curving to the left. The pulse rate is 50 beats per minute. [49] The dromedary is the only mammal with oval red blood corpuscles, which facilitates blood flow during dehydration. [50] The pH of the blood varies from 7.1 to 7.6 (slightly alkaline). The individual's state of hydration and sex and the time of year can influence blood values. [51] The lungs lack lobes. [34] A dehydrated camel has a lower breathing rate. [52] Each kidney has a capacity of 858 cm3 (52.4 cu in), and can produce urine with high chloride concentrations. Like the horse, the dromedary has no gall bladder. The grayish violet, crescent-like spleen weighs less than 500 g (18 oz). [50] The triangular, four-chambered liver weighs 6.5 kg (14 lb); its dimensions are 60 cm × 42 cm × 18 cm (24 in × 17 in × 7 in). [20]

Reproductive system

The ovaries are reddish, circular and flattened. [53] They are enclosed in a conical bursa and have the dimensions 4×2.5×0.5 cm (1.57×0.98×0.20 in) during anestrus. The oviducts are 25–28 cm (9.8–11.0 in) long. The uterus is bicornuate. The vagina is 3–3.5 cm (1.2–1.4 in) long and has well-developed Bartholin's glands. [25] The vulva is 3–5 cm (1.2–2.0 in) deep and has a small clitoris. [42] The placenta is diffuse and epitheliochorial, with a crescent-like chorion. [54]

The penis is covered by a triangular penile sheath that opens backwards; it is about 60 cm (24 in) long. [55] The scrotum is located high in the perineum with the testicles in separate sacs. Testicles are 7–10 cm (2.8–3.9 in) long, 4.5 cm (1.8 in) deep and 5 cm (2.0 in) wide. [20] The right testicle is often smaller than the left. [17] The typical mass of either testicle is less than 140 g (0.31 lb); during the rut the mass increases from 165 to 253 g (0.364 to 0.558 lb). [20] The Cowper's gland is white, almond-shaped and lacks seminal vesicles; the prostate gland is dark yellow, disc-shaped and divided into two lobes. [55] The camel epididymis interstitium revealed several blood vessels harboring special regulatory devices such as the spiral arteries, spiral veins, and throttle arterioles. [56]

Health and diseases

The dromedary generally suffers from fewer diseases than other domestic livestock such as goats and cattle. [57] Temperature fluctuations occur throughout the day in a healthy dromedary – the temperature falls to its minimum at dawn, rises until sunset and falls during the night. [58] Nervous camels may vomit if they are carelessly handled; this does not always indicate a disorder. Rutting males may develop nausea. [17]

The dromedary is prone to trypanosomiasis, a disease caused by a parasite transmitted by the tsetse fly. The main symptoms are recurring fever, anaemia and weakness; the disease is typically fatal for the camel. [59] Brucellosis is another prominent malady. In an observational study, the seroprevalence of this disease was generally low (2 to 5%) in nomadic or moderately free dromedaries, but it was higher (8 to 15%) in denser populations. Brucellosis is caused by different biotypes of Brucella abortus and B. melitensis . [60] Other internal parasites include Fasciola gigantica (trematode), two types of cestode (tapeworm) and various nematodes (roundworms). Among external parasites, Sarcoptes species cause sarcoptic mange. [20] In a 2000 study in Jordan, 83% of the 32 camels studied tested positive for sarcoptic mange. [61] In another study, dromedaries were found to have natural antibodies against the rinderpest and ovine rinderpest viruses. [62]

In 2013, a seroepidemiological study (a study investigating the patterns, causes and effects of a disease on a specific population on the basis of serologic tests) in Egypt was the first to show the dromedary might be a host for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). [63] A 2013–14 study of dromedaries in Saudi Arabia concluded the unusual genetic stability of MERS-CoV coupled with its high seroprevalence in the dromedary makes this camel a highly probable host for the virus. The full genome sequence of MERS-CoV from dromedaries in this study showed a 99.9% match to the genomes of human clade B MERS-CoV. [64] Another study in Saudi Arabia showed the presence of MERS-CoV in 90% of the evaluated dromedaries and suggested that camels could be the animal source of MERS-CoV. [65]

Herd of dromedaries in the Negev, Israel DromedaryGroupIsrael052611.jpg
Herd of dromedaries in the Negev, Israel

Fleas and ticks are common causes of physical irritation. Hyalomma dromedarii is especially adapted to arid conditions, changing its moulting process to complete more or all of its life cycle on a single host if stressed, and having an unusually wide host range. The larvae are not well understood but their questing phase is assumed to occur during the winter, which is also when rain arrives. The nymphs infest the host mostly in January, then the adults May to September. [66] In a study in Egypt, H. dromedarii was dominant in dromedaries, comprising 95.6% of the adult ticks isolated from the camels. In Israel, the number of ticks per camel ranged from 20 to 105. Nine camels in the date palm plantations in Arava Valley were injected with ivermectin, which is not effective against Hyalomma tick infestations.[ clarification needed ] [67] Larvae of the camel nasal fly Cephalopsis titillator can cause possibly fatal brain compression and nervous disorders. Illnesses that can affect dromedary productivity are pyogenic diseases and wound infections caused by Corynebacterium and Streptococcus , pulmonary disorders caused by Pasteurella such as hemorrhagic septicemia and Rickettsia species, camelpox, anthrax, and cutaneous necrosis caused by Streptothrix and deficiency of salt in the diet. [20]


"Lion Attacking a Dromedary," a 19th-century taxidermy diorama by Jules and Edouard Verreaux Lion Attacking a Dromedary full.jpg
"Lion Attacking a Dromedary," a 19th-century taxidermy diorama by Jules and Édouard Verreaux

The dromedary is diurnal (active mainly during daylight); free-ranging herds feed and roam throughout the day, though they rest during the hottest hours around noon. The night is mainly spent resting. Dromedaries form cohesive groups of about 20 individuals, which consist of several females led by a dominant male. Females may also lead in turns. [20] Some males either form bachelor groups or roam alone. [69] Herds may congregate to form associations of hundreds of camels during migrations at the time of natural disasters. The males of the herd prevent female members from interacting with bachelor males by standing or walking between them and sometimes driving the bachelor males away. In Australia, short-term home ranges of feral dromedaries cover 50 to 150 km2 (19 to 58 sq mi); annual home ranges can spread over several thousand square kilometres. [20]

Special behavioral features of the dromedary include snapping at others without biting them and showing displeasure by stamping their feet. They are generally non-aggressive, with the exception of rutting males. They appear to remember their homes; females, in particular, remember the places they first gave birth or suckled their offspring. [20] Males become aggressive in the mating season, and sometimes wrestle. A 1980 study showed androgen levels in males influences their behavior. Between January and April when these levels are high during the rut, they become difficult to manage, blow out the palate from the mouth, vocalize and throw urine over their backs. [70] Camels scratch parts of their bodies with their legs or with their lower incisors. They may also rub against tree bark and roll in the sand. [20]

Free-ranging dromedaries face large predators typical of their regional distribution, which includes wolves, lions [68] and tigers. [36]


Dromedaries are primarily browsers SFEC-2006-10-EGYPT-LUXOR-CAMEL0303.JPG
Dromedaries are primarily browsers

The dromedary's diet consists mostly of foliage, dry grasses and desert vegetation  mostly thorny plants. [71] A study said the typical diet of the dromedary is dwarf shrubs (47.5%), trees (29.9%), grasses (11.2%), other herbs (0.2%) and vines (11%). [72] The dromedary is primarily a browser; forbs and shrubs comprise 70% of its diet in summer and 90% of its diet in winter. The dromedary may also graze on tall, young, succulent grasses. [73]

In the Sahara, 332 plant species have been recorded as food plants of the dromedary. These include Aristida pungens , Acacia tortilis , Panicum turgidum , Launaea arborescens and Balanites aegyptiaca . [36] The dromedary eats Acacia , Atriplex and Salsola when they are available. [73] Feral dromedaries in Australia prefer Trichodesma zeylanicum and Euphorbia tannensis . In India, dromedaries are fed with forage plants such as Vigna aconitifolia , V. mungo , Cyamopsis tetragonolaba , Melilotus parviflora , Eruca sativa , Trifolium species and Brassica campestris . [73] Dromedaries keep their mouths open while chewing thorny food. They use their lips to grasp the food and chew each bite 40 to 50 times. Its long eyelashes, eyebrows, lockable nostrils, caudal opening of the prepuce and a relatively small vulva help the camel avoid injuries, especially while feeding. [71] They graze for 8–12 hours per day and ruminate for an equal amount of time. [20]

Biology of the Dromedary Camel


Footprint in dry sand Dromedary Footprint in Sand.jpg
Footprint in dry sand

The dromedary is specially adapted to its desert habitat; these adaptations are aimed at conserving water and regulating body temperature. The bushy eyebrows and the double row of eyelashes prevent sand and dust from entering the eyes during strong windstorms, and shield them from the sun's glare. [74] The dromedary is able to close its nostrils voluntarily; this assists in water conservation. [68] The dromedary can conserve water by reducing perspiration by fluctuating the body temperature throughout the day from 31 to 41.7 °C (87.8 to 107.1 °F). The kidneys are specialized to minimize water loss through excretion. Groups of camels avoid excess heat from the environment by pressing against each other. The dromedary can tolerate greater than 30% water loss, which is generally impossible for other mammals. In temperatures between 30 and 40 °C (86 and 104 °F), it needs water every 10 to 15 days. In the hottest temperatures, the dromedary takes water every four to seven days. This camel has a quick rate of rehydration and can drink at 10–20 L (2.2–4.4 imp gal) per minute. [20] The dromedary has a rete mirabile, a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other which uses countercurrent blood flow to cool blood flowing to the brain. This effectively controls the temperature of the brain. [75]

The hump stores up to 80 lb (36 kg) of fat, which the camel can break down into energy to meet its needs when resources are scarce; the hump also helps dissipate body heat. [76] When this tissue is metabolized, through fat metabolization, it releases energy while causing water to evaporate from the lungs during respiration (as oxygen is required for the metabolic process): overall, there is a net decrease in water. [77] [78] If the hump is small, the animal can show signs of starvation. In a 2005 study, the mean volume of adipose tissues (in the external part of the hump that have cells to store lipids) is related to the dromedary's unique mechanism of food and water storage. [79] In case of starvation, they can even eat fish and bones, and drink brackish and salty water. [9] The hair is longer on the throat, hump and shoulders. Though the padded hooves effectively support the camel's weight on the ground, [80] they are not suitable for walking on slippery and muddy surfaces. [20]


Mating Desert (6486255967).jpg
Calf suckling Camelcalf-feeding.jpg
Calf suckling

Camels have a slow growth rate and reach sexual maturity slower than sheep or goat. [81] The age of sexual maturity varies geographically and depends on the individual, as does the reproductive period. Both sexes might mature by three to five years of age, though successful breeding could take longer. Camels are described as atypical seasonal breeders; they exhibit spermatogenesis throughout the whole year with a reduction in spermatogenesis during the nonbreeding season compared to that in the breeding season (Zayed et al., 1995). The breeding season in Egypt is during spring; the spring months. [82] Mating occurs once a year, and peaks in the rainy season. The mating season lasts three to five months, but may last a year for older animals. [17] [83]

During the reproductive season, males splash their urine on their tails and nether regions. To attract females they extrude their soft palate – a trait unique to the dromedary. [84] As the male gurgles, copious quantities of saliva turns to foam and covers the mouth. Males threaten each other for dominance over the female by trying to stand taller than the other, making low noises and a series of head movements including lowering, lifting and bending their necks backward. Males try to defeat other males by biting the opponent's legs and taking the head between his jaws. [46] Copulation begins with foreplay; the male smells the female's genitalia and often bites her there or around her hump. [85] The male forces the female to sit, then grasps her with his forelegs. Camelmen often aid the male insert his penis into the female's vulva. [86] The male dromedary's ability to penetrate the female on his own is disputed, though feral populations in Australia reproduce naturally. [17] Copulation takes from 7 to 35 minutes, averaging 11 to 15 minutes. Normally, three to four ejaculations occur. [17] The semen of a Bikaneri dromedary is white and viscous, with a pH of around 7.8. [85]

A single calf is born after a gestation period of 15 months. Calves move freely by the end of their first day. Nursing and maternal care continue for one to two years. In a study to find whether young could exist on milk substitutes, two male, month-old camels were separated from their mothers and were fed on milk substitutes prepared commercially for lambs, and they grew to normal weights for male calves after 30 days. [87] Lactational yield can vary with species, breed, individual, region, diet, management conditions and lactating stage. [88] The largest quantity of milk is produced during the early period of lactation. [17] The lactation period can vary between nine and eighteen months. [89]

Dromedaries are induced ovulators. [90] Oestrus may be cued by the nutritional status of the camel and the length of day. [91] If mating does not occur, the follicle, which grows during oestrus, usually regresses within a few days. [92] In one study, 35 complete oestrous cycles were observed in five nonpregnant females over 15 months. The cycles were about 28 days long; follicles matured in six days, maintained their size for 13 days, and returned to their original size in eight days. [93] In another study, ovulation could be best induced when the follicle reaches a size of 0.9–1.9 cm (0.35–0.75 in). [94] In another study, pregnancy in females could be recognized as early as 40 to 45 days of gestation by the swelling of the left uterine horn, where 99.5% of pregnancies were located. [95]


Its range included hot, arid regions of northern Africa, Ethiopia, the Near East, and western and central Asia. [96] The dromedary typically thrives in areas with a long dry season and a short wet season. [97] They are sensitive to cold and humidity, [42] though some breeds can thrive in humid conditions. [97]

A herd of dromedaries in Baidoa, Somalia 2019 10 15 Socio Economic Development-18 (49126379212).jpg
A herd of dromedaries in Baidoa, Somalia

The dromedary may have been first domesticated in Somalia or the Arabian Peninsula about 4,000 years ago. [98] In the ninth or tenth century BC, the dromedary became popular in the Near East. The Persian invasion of Egypt under Cambyses in 525 BC introduced domesticated camels to the area. The Persian camels were not well-suited to trading or travel over the Sahara; journeys across the desert were made on chariots pulled by horses. [99] [100] The dromedary was introduced into Egypt from south-western Asia (Arabia and Persia). [59] [101] The popularity of dromedaries increased after the Islamic conquest of North Africa. While the invasion was accomplished largely on horseback, new links to the Middle East allowed camels to be imported en masse. These camels were well-suited to long desert journeys and could carry a great deal of cargo, allowing substantial trans-Saharan trade for the first time. [102] [103] In Libya, dromedaries were used for transport and their milk and meat constituted the local diet. [104]

Dromedaries near the base of the Alborz mountain range in Iran Camels in Dasht-e Lar, Alborz mountains, Kamardasht Lar, Tehran province chry shtrh dr khmrdsht lr - panoramio.jpg
Dromedaries near the base of the Alborz mountain range in Iran

Dromedaries were also shipped from south-western Asia to Spain, Italy, Turkey, France, Canary Islands, the Americas and Australia. [17] Dromedaries were introduced into Spain in 1020 AD and to Sicily in 1059 AD. [105] Camels were exported to the Canary Islands in 1405 during the European colonisation of the area, and are still extant there, especially in Lanzarote and to the south of Fuerteventura. [105] Attempts to introduce dromedaries into the Caribbean, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil were made between the 17th and 19th centuries; some were imported to the western United States in the 1850s and some to Namibia in the early 1900s, but presently they exist in small numbers or are absent in these areas. [34]

In 1840, about six camels were shipped from Tenerife to Adelaide, but only one survived the journey to arrive on 12 October that year. The animal, a male called Harry, was owned by the explorer John Ainsworth Horrocks. Harry was ill-tempered but was included in an expedition the following year because he could carry heavy loads. The next major group of camels were imported into Australia in 1860, and between 1860 and 1907 10 to 12 thousand were imported. These were used mainly for riding and transport. [106] [107]

Current distribution of captive animals

In the early 21st century, the domesticated dromedary is found in the semi-arid to arid regions of the Old World. [97]


Africa has more than 80% of the world's total dromedary population; it occurs in almost every desert zone in the northern part of the continent. The Sahel marks the southern extreme of its range, where the annual rainfall is around 550 mm (22 in). The Horn of Africa has nearly 35% of the world's dromedaries; [97] most of the region's stock is in Somalia, followed by Sudan, Eritrea, and Ethiopia (as of the early 2000s). [108] According to the Yearbook of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) for 1984, eastern Africa had about 10 million dromedaries, the largest population of Africa. Western Africa followed with 2.14 million, while northern Africa had nearly 0.76 million. [109] Populations in Africa increased by 16% from 1994 to 2005. [108] [110]


Dromedaries in Punjab, Pakistan Uoth.JPG
Dromedaries in Punjab, Pakistan

In Asia, nearly 70% of the population occurs in India and Pakistan. The combined population of the dromedary and the Bactrian camel decreased by around 21% between 1994 and 2004. [111] The dromedary is sympatric with the Bactrian camel in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and central and southwestern Asia. [112] India has a dromedary population of less than one million, with most (0.67 million) in the state of Rajasthan. [108] Populations in Pakistan decreased from 1.1 million in 1994 to 0.8 million in 2005 – a 29% decline. [111] According to the FAO, the dromedary population in six countries of the Persian Gulf was nearly 0.67 million in 2003. In the Persian Gulf region the dromedary is locally classified into breeds including Al-Majahem, Al-Hamrah, Al-Safrah, Al-Zarkah and Al-Shakha, based on coat colour. The UAE has three prominent breeds: Racing camel, Al-Arabiat and Al-Kazmiat. [113]

Feral population

A dromedary in outback Australia, near Silverton, New South Wales, Australia. Feral dromedaries are only found in Australia. 07. Camel Profile, near Silverton, NSW, 07.07.2007.jpg
A dromedary in outback Australia, near Silverton, New South Wales, Australia. Feral dromedaries are only found in Australia.

Feral dromedary populations occur in Australia, where they were introduced in 1840. [114] The total dromedary population in Australia was 500,000 in 2005. Nearly 99% of the populations are feral, and they have annual growth rate of 10%. [108] Most of the Australian feral camels are dromedaries, with only a few Bactrian camels. Most of the dromedaries occur in Western Australia, with smaller populations in the Northern Territory, Western Queensland and northern South Australia. [108]

Feral dromedary populations notwithstanding, the wild dromedary camel as opposed to the now domesticated species has been functionally extinct from the wild for the past 2,000 years. [115]

Relationship with humans

The strength and docility of the dromedary make it popular as a domesticated animal. [17] According to Richard Bulliet, they can be used for a wide variety of purposes: riding, transport, ploughing, and trading and as a source of milk, meat, wool and leather. [30] The main attraction of the dromedary for nomadic desert-dwellers is the wide variety of resources they provide, which are crucial for their survival. It is important for several Bedouin pastoralist tribes of northern Arabia, such as the Ruwallah, the Rashaida, the Bani Sakhr and the Mutayr. [116]

Camel urine and camel milk are used for medicinal purposes. [117]

Riding camels

Dromedaries at Bait al-Faqih Market, Yemen Bait al-Faqih.jpg
Dromedaries at Bait al-Faqih Market, Yemen

Although the role of the camel is diminishing with the advent of technology and modern means of transport, it is still an efficient mode of communication in remote and less-developed areas. The dromedary has been used in warfare since the 6th century BC. [118] It is particularly prized for its capability to outrun horses in the deserts. [119] Record of its use during the time of Alexander the Great indicate that the animal could cover up to 50 miles per day for a week and they could go for up to a month without water. [120] An account by Aurelian also cited that, in her escape to Euphrates, Zenobia used a dromedary to outrun her pursuers after she was defeated at Palmyra. [121]

The dromedary also remains popular for racing, particularly in the Arab world. [17] Riding camels of Arabia, Egypt and the Sahara are locally known as the Dilool, the Hageen, and the Mehara respectively; several local breeds are included within these groups. [34]

The ideal riding camel is strong, slender and long-legged with thin, supple skin. The special adaptations of the dromedary's feet allow it to walk with ease on sandy and rough terrain and on cold surfaces. [122] The camels of the Bejas of Sudan and the Hedareb, Bilen, and the Tigre people of Eritrea [101] and the Anafi camel bred in Sudan are common breeds used as riding camels. [17]

According to Leese, the dromedary walks with four speeds or gaits: walk, jog, fast run and canter. The first is the typical speed of walking, around 4 km/h (2.5 mph). Jog is the most common speed, nearly 8–12 km/h (5.0–7.5 mph) on level ground. He estimated a speed of 14–19 km/h (8.7–11.8 mph) during a fast run, by observing northern African and Arabian dromedaries. He gave no speed range to describe the canter, but implied it was a type of gallop that if induced could exhaust the camel and the rider. Canter could be used only for short periods of time, for example in races. [123]

A camel decorated for a tourist camel ride in the Judean Desert Camel in desert.JPG
A camel decorated for a tourist camel ride in the Judean Desert

The ideal age to start training dromedaries for riding is three years, [46] although they may be stubborn and unruly. [124] At first the camel's head is controlled, and it is later trained to respond to sitting and standing commands, and to allow mounting. [34] At this stage a camel will often try to escape when a trainer tries to mount it. [17] The next stage involves training it to respond to reins. The animal must be given loads gradually and not forced to carry heavy loads before the age of six. [34] Riding camels should not be struck on their necks, rather they should be struck behind the right leg of the rider. [46] Leese described two types of saddles generally used in camel riding: the Arabian markloofa used by single riders and the Indian pakra used when two riders mount the same camel. [34]

Baggage and draught camels

Camel carrying supplies on its back in Eyl, Puntland, Somalia Eylcamel.jpg
Camel carrying supplies on its back in Eyl, Puntland, Somalia

The baggage camel should be robust and heavy. Studies have recommended the camel should have either a small or a large head with a narrow aquiline nose, prominent eyes and large lips. The neck should be medium to long so the head is held high. The chest should be deep and the hump should be well-developed with sufficient space behind it to accommodate the saddle. The hindlegs should be heavy, muscular and sturdy. [125] The dromedary can be trained to carry baggage from the age of five years, but must not be given heavy loads before the age of six. [126] The hawia is a typical baggage saddle from Sudan. [125] The methods of training the baggage camels are similar to those for riding camels. [17]

Draught camels are used for several purposes including ploughing, processing in oil mills and pulling carts. There is no clear description for the ideal draught camel, though its strength, its ability to survive without water and the flatness of its feet could be indicators. [17] It may be used for ploughing in pairs or in groups with buffaloes or bullocks. [34] The draught camel can plough at around 2.5 km/h (1.6 mph), and should not be used for more than six hours a day  four hours in the morning and two in the afternoon. [124] The camel is not easily exhausted unless diseased or undernourished, and has remarkable endurance and hardiness. [26]

Dairy products

Dromedary being milked in Niger Camel milking in Niger.jpg
Dromedary being milked in Niger

Camel milk is a staple food of nomadic tribes living in deserts. It consists of 11.7% solids, 3% protein, 3.6% fat, 0.8% ash, 4.4% lactose and 0.13% acidity (pH 6.5). [127] The quantities of sodium, potassium, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, niacin and vitamin C were relatively higher than the amounts in cow milk. However, the levels of thiamin, riboflavin, folacin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, vitamin A, lysine, and tryptophan were lower than those in cow milk. The molar percentages of the fatty acids in milk fat were 26.7% for palmitic acid, 25.5% oleic acid, 11.4% myristic acid and 11% palmitoleic acid. [127] Camel milk has higher thermal stability compared with cow milk, [128] but it does not compare favourably with sheep milk. [17]

Daily milk yield generally varies from 3.5 to 35 kg (7.7 to 77.2 lb) and from 1.3% to 7.8% of the body weight. [129] Milk yield varies geographically and depends upon the animals' diet and living conditions. [17] At the peak of lactation, a healthy female would typically provide 9 kg (20 lb) milk per day. [26] Leese estimated a lactating female would yield 4 to 9 L (0.88 to 1.98 imp gal) besides the amount ingested by the calf. [34] The Pakistani dromedary, which is considered a better milker and bigger, can yield 9.1–14.1 kg (20–31 lb) when well-fed. [130] Dromedaries in Somalia may be milked between two and four times a day, [89] while those in Afar, Ethiopia, may be milked up to seven times a day. [131]

The acidity of dromedary milk stored at 30 °C (86 °F) increases at a slower rate than that of cow milk. [20] Though the preparation of butter from dromedary milk is difficult, it is produced in small amounts by nomads, optimized at 22.5% fat in the cream. [132] In 2001, the ability of dromedary milk to form curd was studied; coagulation did not show curd formation, and had a pH of 4.4. It was much different from curd produced from cow milk, and had a fragile, heterogeneous composition probably composed of casein flakes. [133] Nevertheless, cheese and other dairy products can be made from camel milk. A study found bovine calf rennet could be used to coagulate dromedary milk. [134] A special factory has been set up in Nouakchott to pasteurise and make cheese from camel milk. [135] Mystical beliefs surround the use of camel milk in some places; for example, it may be used as an aphrodisiac in Ethiopia. [136]


Meat of dromedary served as food CouscousDromadaire (2).JPG
Meat of dromedary served as food

The meat of a five-year-old dromedary has a typical composition of 76% water, 22% protein, 1% fat, and 1% ash. [91] The carcass, weighing 141–310 kg (311–683 lb) for a five-year-old dromedary, [91] is composed of nearly 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat. [137] A seven-to-eight-year-old camel can produce a carcass of 125–400 kg (276–882 lb). The meat is bright red to a dark brown or maroon, while the fat is white. It has the taste and texture of beef. [137] A study of the meat of Iranian dromedaries showed its high glycogen content, which makes it taste sweet like horse meat. The carcasses of well-fed camels were found to be covered with a thin layer of good quality fat. [138] In a study of the fatty acid composition of raw meat taken from the hind legs of seven one-to-three years old males, 51.5% of the fatty acids were saturated, 29.9% mono-unsaturated, and 18.6% polyunsaturated. The major fatty acids in the meat were palmitic acid (26.0%), oleic acid (18.9%) and linoleic acid (12.1%). In the hump, palmitic acid was dominant (34.4%), followed by oleic acid (28.2%), myristic acid (10.3%) and stearic acid (10%). [139]

Camel slaughter in Mauritania Camel slaughter.jpg
Camel slaughter in Mauritania

Dromedary slaughter is more difficult than the slaughter of other domestic livestock such as cattle because of the size of the animal and the significant manual work involved. More males than females are slaughtered. [140] Though less affected by mishandling than other livestock, the pre-slaughter handling of the dromedary plays a crucial role in determining the quality of meat obtained; mishandling can often disfigure the hump. [141] The animal is stunned, seated in a crouching position with the head in a caudal position and slaughtered. [140] The dressing percentage  the percentage of the mass of the animal that forms the carcass  is 55–70%, [91] more than the 45–50% of cattle. [17] Camel meat is often eaten by African camel herders, who use it only during severe food scarcity or for rituals. [17] Camel meat is processed into food items such as burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma . [137] Dromedaries can be slaughtered between four and ten years of age. As the animal ages, the meat grows tougher and deteriorates in taste and quality. [17] In Somalian and Djiboutian culture, the dromedary is a staple food and can be found in many recipes and dishes.

A 2005 report issued jointly by the Ministry of Health (Saudi Arabia) and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention details five cases of bubonic plague in humans resulting from the ingestion of raw camel liver. Four of the five patients had severe pharyngitis and submandibular lymphadenitis. Yersinia pestis was isolated from the camel's bone marrow, from the jird (Meriones libycus) and from fleas ( Xenopsylla cheopis ) captured at the camel's corral. [142]

Camel hair, wool and hides

Camels in hot climates generally do not develop long coats. Camel hair is light, and has low thermal conductivity and durability, and is thus suitable for manufacturing warm clothes, blankets, tents, and rugs. [17] Hair of highest quality is typically obtained from juvenile or wild camels. [46] In India, camels are clipped usually in spring and around 1–1.5 kg (2.2–3.3 lb) hair is produced per clipping. In colder regions one clipping can yield as much as 5.4 kg (12 lb). [46] [124] A dromedary can produce 1 kg (2.2 lb) wool per year, whereas a Bactrian camel has an annual yield of nearly 5–12 kg (11–26 lb). [57] Dromedaries under the age of two years have a fine undercoat that tends to fall off and should be cropped by hand. [131] Little information about camel hides has been collected but they are usually of inferior quality and are less preferred for manufacturing leather. [17]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Camel</span> Genus of mammals

A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock, they provide food and textiles. Camels are working animals especially suited to their desert habitat and are a vital means of transport for passengers and cargo. There are three surviving species of camel. The one-humped dromedary makes up 94% of the world's camel population, and the two-humped Bactrian camel makes up 6%. The wild Bactrian camel is a distinct species that is not ancestral to the domestic Bactrian camel, and is now critically endangered, with less than 1,000 individuals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Llama</span> Species of wooly domesticated mammal

The llama is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the pre-Columbian era.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Artiodactyl</span> Order of mammals

Artiodactyls are placental mammals belonging to the order Artiodactyla. Typically, they are ungulates which bear weight equally on two of their five toes: the third and fourth, often in the form of a hoof. The other three toes are either present, absent, vestigial, or pointing posteriorly. By contrast, most perissodactyls bear weight on an odd number of the five toes. Another difference between the two is that many artiodactyls digest plant cellulose in one or more stomach chambers rather than in their intestine as perissodactyls do. The advent of molecular biology, along with new fossil discoveries, found that cetaceans fall within this taxonomic branch, being most closely related to hippopotamuses. Some modern taxonomists thus apply the name Cetartiodactyla to this group, while others opt to include cetaceans within the existing name of Artiodactyla. Some researchers use "even-toed ungulates" to exclude cetaceans and only include terrestrial artiodactyls, making the term paraphyletic in nature.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Camelidae</span> Family of mammals

Camelids are members of the biological family Camelidae, the only currently living family in the suborder Tylopoda. The seven extant members of this group are: dromedary camels, Bactrian camels, wild Bactrian camels, llamas, alpacas, vicuñas, and guanacos. Camelids are even-toed ungulates classified in the order Artiodactyla, along with species including whales, pigs, deer, cattle, and antelopes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bactrian camel</span> Species of mammal of Asia

The Bactrian camel, also known as the Mongolian camel, domestic Bactrian camel or two-humped camel, is a large camel native to the steppes of Central Asia. It has two humps on its back, in contrast to the single-humped dromedary. Its population of 2 million exists mainly in the domesticated form. Their name comes from the ancient historical region of Bactria.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pack animal</span> Individual or type of working animal used by humans

A pack animal, also known as a sumpter animal or beast of burden, is an individual or type of working animal used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the animal's back, in contrast to draft animals which pull loads but do not carry them.

A cama is a hybrid between a male dromedary camel and a female llama, and has been produced via artificial insemination at the Camel Reproduction Centre in Dubai. The first cama was born on January 14, 1998. The aim was to create an animal capable of higher wool production than the llama, with the size and strength of a camel and a cooperative temperament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Australian feral camel</span> Feral camels in Australia, descended from animals imported in 19th century

Australian feral camels are introduced populations of dromedary, or one-humped, camel. Imported as valuable beasts of burden from British India and Afghanistan during the 19th century, many were casually released into the wild after motorised transport negated the use of camels in the early 20th century. This resulted in a fast-growing feral population with numerous ecological, agricultural and social impacts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deoxycytidine diphosphate</span> Chemical compound

Deoxycytidine diphosphate is a nucleoside diphosphate. It is related to the common nucleic acid CTP, or cytidine triphosphate, with the -OH (hydroxyl) group on the 2' carbon on the nucleotide's pentose removed, and with one fewer phosphoryl group than CTP.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Camel milk</span> Milk produced by female camels

Camel milk is milk from female camels. It has supported nomad and pastoral cultures since the domestication of camels millennia ago. Herders may for periods survive solely on the milk when taking the camels on long distances to graze in desert and arid environments, especially in parts of the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. The camel dairy farming industry has grown in Australia and the United States, as an environmentally friendly alternative to cow dairy farming using a species well-adapted to arid regions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chal</span> Fermented camel milk drink of Central Asia

Chal, also shubat or khoormog, is a Turkic and Mongolic beverage of fermented camel milk, sparkling white with a sour flavor, popular in Central Asia — particularly in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. In Kazakhstan the drink is known as shubat, and is a staple summer food. Due to preparation requirements and perishable nature, chal has proved difficult to export. Agaran is collected from the surface of chal.

Margaric acid, or heptadecanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid. Its molecular formula is CH3(CH2)15CO2H. Classified as an odd-chain fatty acid, it occurs as a trace component of the fat and milkfat of ruminants. Salts and esters of margaric acid are called heptadecanoates.

Interspecific pregnancy is the pregnancy involving an embryo or fetus belonging to another species than the carrier. Strictly, it excludes the situation where the fetus is a hybrid of the carrier and another species, thereby excluding the possibility that the carrier is the biological mother of the offspring. Strictly, interspecific pregnancy is also distinguished from endoparasitism, where parasite offspring grow inside the organism of another species, not necessarily in the womb.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hybrid camel</span> Hybrid between a Bactrian camel and dromedary

The hybrid camel is a domestic camelid hybrid between a Bactrian camel and dromedary. It is the offspring of a male Bactrian camel and a female dromedary.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Camel urine</span> Liquid by-product of metabolism in camels

Camel urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in a camel's anatomy. Urine from camels has been used in prophetic medicine for centuries, being a part of ancient Bedouin practices and also Muslim tradition. According to the World Health Organization, the use of camel urine as a medicine lacks scientific evidence. After the spread of MERS-CoV infections, the WHO urged people to refrain from drinking "raw camel milk or camel urine or eating meat that has not been properly cooked".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wild Bactrian camel</span> Species of camel

The wild Bactrian camel is an endangered species of camel endemic to Xinjiang and southwestern Mongolia. It is closely related but not ancestral to the domestic Bactrian camel. Genetic studies have established it as a separate species which diverged from the Bactrian camel about 0.7-1.1 million years ago.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Induced ovulation (animals)</span> Ovulation in response to an external stimulus

Induced ovulation occurs in some animal species that do not ovulate cyclically or spontaneously. Ovulation can be induced by externally-derived stimuli during or before mating, such as sperm, pheromones, or mechanical stimulation during copulation.

Camelus thomasi is an extinct species of camel from the Early-Mid Pleistocene of North Africa. It is known primarily from Tighennif (Ternifine) in Algeria. Fossils from northern Sudan and Israel dated to the Late Pleistocene have been included under C. thomasi, but they are now considered to belong to different species, making C. thomasi a strictly Northwest African species.

features. Some studies have linked it as a possible ancestor to the dromedary, while others suggest it may be more closely related to the Bactrian camel of central Asia. However, a 2018 study revealed such assertions to be lacking any scientific basis, and C. thomasi appears to not be closely related to any living camel.


  1. 1 2 Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 646. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  2. "dromedary". The Chambers Dictionary (Ninth ed.). Chambers. 2003. ISBN   0-550-10105-5.
  3. "Definition of dromedary | Dictionary.com". www.dictionary.com. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  4. "Arabian Camel (Dromedary) | National Geographic". Animals. 2011. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  5. 1 2 δρομάς . Liddell, Henry George ; Scott, Robert ; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  6. "Dromedary". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020.
  7. Harper, Douglas. "dromedary". Online Etymology Dictionary . Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  8. Heller, L.; Humez, A.; Dror, M. (1984). The Private Lives of Words (1st ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 58–9. ISBN   978-0-7102-0006-8.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Nowak, R.M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. Vol. 2 (6th ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1078–81. ISBN   978-0-8018-5789-8.
  10. "Camel". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020.
  11. "Camel". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary . Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  12. Yuan, Junxia; Hu, Jiaming; Liu, Wenhui; Chen, Shungang; Zhang, Fengli; Wang, Siren; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Linying; Xiao, Bo; Li, Fuqiang; Hofreiter, Michael; Lai, Xulong; Westbury, Michael V.; Sheng, Guilian (May 2024). "Camelus knoblochi genome reveals the complex evolutionary history of Old World camels". Current Biology. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2024.04.050. PMID   38754423.
  13. Groves, C.; Grubb, P. (2011). Ungulate Taxonomy. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 32. ISBN   978-1-4214-0093-8.
  14. de Buffon, C. (1791). Natural History, General and Particular. Vol. 6. London, UK: Alexander Strahan. p. 121. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  15. Smith, W.; Anthon, C. (1870). A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed.). New York, US: Harper and Brothers Publishers. p. 204.
  16. Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturæ Per Regna Tria Naturae (10th  ed.). Stockholm, Sweden: Laurentius Salvius. p. 65. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Mukasa-Mugerwa, E. (1981). The Camel (Camelus dromedarius): A Bibliographical Review (PDF). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa. pp. 1–147. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  18. Stanley, H.F.; Kadwell, M.; Wheeler, J.C. (1994). "Molecular evolution of the family Camelidae: a mitochondrial DNA study". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 256 (1345): 1–6. Bibcode:1994RSPSB.256....1S. doi:10.1098/rspb.1994.0041. PMID   8008753. S2CID   40857282.
  19. 1 2 Benirschke, K.; Hsu, T.C. (1974). An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. Vol. 8. New York, US: Springer. pp. 153–6. ISBN   978-1-4615-6432-4.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Kohler-Rollefson, I.U. (1991). "Camelus dromedarius" (PDF). Mammalian Species (375): 1–8. doi:10.2307/3504297. JSTOR   3504297. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2012. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  21. Taylor, K.M.; Hungerford, D.A.; Snyder, R.L.; Ulmer, F.A.Jr. (1968). "Uniformity of karyotypes in the Camelidae". Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 7 (1): 8–15. doi:10.1159/000129967. PMID   5659175.
  22. 1 2 Potts, D.T. (2004). "Camel hybridization and the role of Camelus bactrianus in the ancient Near East". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 47 (2): 143–65. doi:10.1163/1568520041262314.
  23. Kolpakow, V.N. (1935). "Über Kamelkreuzungen" [About camel crossings]. Berliner und Münchner Tierärztliche Wochenschrift (in German). 51: 617–22.
  24. Mikesell, M.W. (1955). "Notes on the dispersal of the dromedary". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 11 (3): 231–45. doi:10.1086/soutjanth.11.3.3629022. JSTOR   3629022. S2CID   131677653.
  25. 1 2 Novoa, C. (1970). "Reproduction in Camelidae". Reproduction. 22 (1): 3–20. doi: 10.1530/jrf.0.0220003 . PMID   4911974.
  26. 1 2 3 4 Williamson, G.; Payne, W.J.A. (1978). An Introduction to Animal Husbandry in the Tropics (3rd ed.). London, UK: Longman. p. 485. ISBN   978-0-582-46813-9.
  27. Prothero, D.; Schoch, R.M. (2002). Horns, Tusks, and Flippers : The Evolution of Hoofed Mammals. Baltimore, US: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 53–4. ISBN   978-0-8018-7135-1.
  28. Kinne, J; Wani, NA; Wernery, U; Peters, J; Knospe, C (October 2010). "Is there a two-humped stage in the embryonic development of the dromedary?". Anatomia Histologia Embryologia. 39 (5): 479–480. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0264.2010.01011.x. PMID   20608925 . Retrieved 14 June 2024.
  29. Grigson, C.; Gowlett, J.A.J.; Zarins, J. (1989). "The camel in Arabia—a direct radiocarbon date, calibrated to about 7000 BC". Journal of Archaeological Science. 16 (4): 355–62. Bibcode:1989JArSc..16..355G. doi:10.1016/0305-4403(89)90011-3.
  30. 1 2 Bulliet, R.W. (1975). The Camel and the Wheel . New York, US: Columbia University Press. pp.  28–259. ISBN   978-0-231-07235-9. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  31. Arab News, 2018, Check out the world's tallest camel
  32. 1 2 Guinness World Records, Largest species of camel
  33. 1 2 Lee, D.G.; Schmidt-Nielsen, K. (1962). "The skin, sweat glands and hair follicles of the camel (Camelus dromedarius)". The Anatomical Record. 143 (1): 71–7. doi:10.1002/ar.1091430107. S2CID   85873711.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Leese, A.S. (1927). A Treatise on the One-Humped Camel in Health and in Disease. Lincolnshire, UK: Haynes and Son.
  35. Holl, Heather; Isaza, Ramiro; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Ahmed, Ayeda; Almathen, Faisal; Youcef, Cherifi; Gaouar, Semir; Antczak, Douglas; Brooks, Samantha (2017). "A Frameshift Mutation in KIT is Associated with White Spotting in the Arabian Camel". Genes. 8 (3): 102. doi: 10.3390/genes8030102 . PMC   5368706 . PMID   28282952.
  36. 1 2 3 4 Gauthier-Pilters, H.; Dagg, A.I. (1981). The Camel, Its Evolution, Ecology, Behavior, and Relationship to Man . Chicago, US: University of Chicago Press. ISBN   978-0-226-28453-8.
  37. Rafferty, J.P., ed. (2011). Grazers (1st ed.). New York, US: Britannica Educational Pub. p.  181. ISBN   978-1-615-30336-6.
  38. Lesbre, F.X. (1903). "Recherches anatomiques sur les camélidés" [Anatomical research on camels]. Archives du Musée d'Histoire Naturelle de Lyon (in French). 8: 1–195.
  39. Sandhu, P.S.; Dhingra, L.D. (1986). "Cranial capacity of Indian camel. Short communication". Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 56: 870–2. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  40. Hifny, A.K.; Mansour, A.A.; Moneim, M.E.A. (1985). "Some anatomical studies of the spinal cord in camel". Assiut Veterinary Medicine Journal. 15: 11–20. doi:10.21608/avmj.1985.190226. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022.
  41. Simpson, C.D. (1984). "Artiodactyls". In Anderson, S.; Jones Jr., J.K.) (eds.). Orders and families of recent mammals of the world. New York, US: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 563–87.
  42. 1 2 3 Wilson, R.T. (1988). The Camel (2nd ed.). London, UK: Longman. pp. 1–223. ISBN   978-0-582-77512-1.
  43. Rabagliati, D.S. (1924). The Dentition of the Camel. Cairo, Egypt: Egypt Ministry of Agriculture. pp. 1–32.
  44. Garland, D.; Rao, P.V.; Del Corso, A.; Mura, U.; Zigler Jr., J.S. (1991). "zeta-Crystallin is a major protein in the lens of Camelus dromedarius". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 285 (1): 134–6. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(91)90339-K. PMID   1990971.
  45. Ghobrial, L.I. (1970). "A comparative study of the integument of the camel, Dorcas gazelle and jerboa in relation to desert life". Journal of Zoology. 160 (4): 509–21. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1970.tb03094.x.
  46. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Singh, U.B.; Bharadwaj, M.B. (1978). "Anatomical, histological and histochemical observations and changes in the poll glands of the camel (Camelus dromedarius)". Cells Tissues Organs. 102 (1): 74–83. doi:10.1159/000145621.
  47. Dowling, D.F.; Nay, T. (1962). "Hair follicles and the sweat glands of the camel (Camelus dromedarius)". Nature . 195 (4841): 578–80. Bibcode:1962Natur.195..578D. doi:10.1038/195578a0. S2CID   4248325.
  48. Saleh, M.S.; Mobarak, A.M.; Fouad, S.M. (1971). "Radiological, anatomical and histological studies of the mammary gland of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)". Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A. 18 (4): 347–52. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0442.1971.tb00587.x. PMID   4998115.
  49. Hegazi, A.H. (1954). "The liver of the camel as revealed by macroscopic and microscopic examinations". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 15 (56): 444–6. PMID   13171506.
  50. 1 2 Hegazi, A.H. (1953). "The spleen of the camel compared with other domesticated animals and its microscopic examination". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 122 (912): 182–4. PMID   13044660.
  51. Barakat, M.Z.; Abdel-Fattah, M. (1971). "Seasonal and sexual variations of certain constituents of normal camel blood". Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A. 18 (2): 174–8. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0442.1971.tb00852.x. PMID   4995838.
  52. Schmidt-Nielsen, K.; Crawford, E.C.Jr.; Newsome, A.E.; Rawson, K.S.; Hammel, H.T. (1967). "Metabolic rate of camels: effect of body temperature and dehydration". American Journal of Physiology. 212 (2): 341–6. doi: 10.1152/ajplegacy.1967.212.2.341 . PMID   6018015.
  53. Arthur, G.H.; A/Rahim, A.T.; Al Hindi, A.S. (1985). "Reproduction and genital diseases of the camel". British Veterinary Journal. 141 (6): 650–9. doi:10.1016/0007-1935(85)90014-4. PMID   4063788.
  54. Morton, W.R.M. (1961). "Observations on the full-term foetal membranes of three members of the Camelidae (Camelus dromedarius L., Camelus bactrianus L., and Lama glama L.)". Journal of Anatomy. 95 (2): 200–9. PMC   1244464 . PMID   13772976.
  55. 1 2 Mobarak, A.M.; ElWishy, A.B.; Samira, M.F. (1972). "The penis and prepuce of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)". Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A. 19 (9): 787–95. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0442.1972.tb00532.x. PMID   4629466.
  56. Hussein and Abdel-maksoud, Manal and Fatma (2020). "Structural Investigation of Epididymal Microvasculature and Its Relation to Telocytes and Immune Cells in Camel". Microscopy and Microanalysis. 26 (5): 1024–1034. Bibcode:2020MiMic..26.1024H. doi:10.1017/S1431927620001786. PMID   32665042. S2CID   220527872.
  57. 1 2 Leupold, J. (1968). "Camel-an important domestic animal of the subtropics". Blue Book for the Veterinary Profession. 15: 1–6.
  58. Leese, A.S. (1918). "Tips" on camels for veterinary surgeons on active service (PDF). London, UK: Bailliere, Tindall And Cox. pp. 1–56. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  59. 1 2 Currason, G. (1947). "Le chameau et ses maladies" [The camel and its diseases]. Paris: Vigotfreres (in French): 188–237.
  60. Abbas, B.; Agab, H. (2002). "A review of camel brucellosis". Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 55 (1): 47–56. doi:10.1016/S0167-5877(02)00055-7. PMID   12324206.
  61. Al-Rawashdeh, O.F.; Al-Ani, F.K.; Sharrif, L.A.; Al-Qudah, K.M.; Al-Hami, Y.; Frank, N. (2000). "A survey of camel (Camelus dromedarius) diseases in Jordan". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 31 (3): 335–8. doi:10.1638/1042-7260(2000)031[0335:ASOCCD]2.0.CO;2. ISSN   1042-7260. PMID   11237140. S2CID   24597310.
  62. Roger, F.; Yesus, M. G.; Libeau, G.; Diallo, A.; Yigezu, L.M.; Yilma, T. (2001). "Detection of antibodies of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses (Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) during a new epizootic disease in Ethiopian camels (Camelus dromedarius)" (PDF). Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire. 152 (3): 265–8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  63. Perera, R.; Wang, P.; Gomaa, M.; El-Shesheny, R.; Kandeil, A.; Bagato, O.; Siu, L.; Shehata, M.; Kayed, A.; Moatasim, Y.; Li, M.; Poon, L.; Guan, Y.; Webby, R.; Ali, M.; Peiris, J.; Kayali, G. (2013). "Seroepidemiology for MERS coronavirus using microneutralisation and pseudoparticle virus neutralisation assays reveal a high prevalence of antibody in dromedary camels in Egypt, June 2013". Eurosurveillance . 18 (36): 20574. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2013.18.36.20574 . PMID   24079378.
  64. Hemida, M. G.; Chu, D.K.W.; Poon, L.L.M.; Perera, R.A.P.M.; Alhammadi, M.A.; Ng, H.Y.; Siu, L.Y.; Guan, Y.; Alnaeem, A.; Peiris, M. (2014). "MERS coronavirus in dromedary camel herd, Saudi Arabia". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (7): 1231–4. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140571. PMC   4073860 . PMID   24964193.
  65. Hemida, M.; Perera, R.; Wang, P.; Alhammadi, M.; Siu, L.; Li, M.; Poon, L.; Saif, L.; Alnaeem, A.; Peiris, M. (2013). "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus seroprevalence in domestic livestock in Saudi Arabia, 2010 to 2013". Eurosurveillance . 18 (50): 20659. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2013.18.50.20659 . PMID   24342517.
  66. Leal, Brenda; Zamora, Emily; Fuentes, Austin; Thomas, Donald B.; Dearth, Robert K. (22 June 2020). Reddy, Gadi VP (ed.). "Questing by Tick Larvae (Acari: Ixodidae): A Review of the Influences That Affect Off-Host Survival". Annals of the Entomological Society of America . 113 (6). Entomological Society of America (OUP): 425–438. doi:10.1093/aesa/saaa013. ISSN   0013-8746. PMC   7677832 . PMID   33244354.
  67. Straten, M.; Jongejan, F. (1993). "Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sinai, Egypt with a note on the acaricidal efficacy of ivermectin". Experimental and Applied Acarology. 17 (8): 605–16. doi:10.1007/BF00053490. PMID   7628237. S2CID   43598032.
  68. 1 2 3 Chambers, Delaney (29 January 2017). "150-year-old Diorama Surprises Scientists With Human Remains". news.nationalgeographic.com. National Geographic. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  69. Klingel, H. (1985). "Social organization of the camel (Camelus dromedarius)". Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft. 78: 210.
  70. Yagil, R.; Etzion, Z. (1 January 1980). "Hormonal and behavioral patterns in the male camel (Camelus dromedarius)". Reproduction. 58 (1): 61–5. doi: 10.1530/jrf.0.0580061 . PMID   7359491.
  71. 1 2 Sambraus, H.H. (June 1994). "Biological function of morphologic peculiarities of the dromedary". Tierarztliche Praxis. 22 (3): 291–3. PMID   8048041.
  72. Field, C.R. (1979). Ecology and management of camels, sheep and goats in northern Kenya. Mimeo, Nairobi, UNEP/MAB/IPAL. United Nations Environmental Programme/Man and Biosphere -Integrated Project in Arid Lands. pp. 1–18.
  73. 1 2 3 Newman, D.M.R. (1979). "The feeds and feeding habits of Old and New World camels" (PDF). The Camelid. 1: 250–92. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  74. King, S.A. (2007). Animal Dreaming: The Spiritual and Symbolic Language of the Australasian Animals (Revised and expanded ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Blue Angel Gallery. pp. 78–9. ISBN   978-0-9803983-0-4.
  75. Zguigal, H.; Ghoshal, N.G. (1991). "Gross and histologic study of the rostral epidural rete mirabile and the cavernous sinus in one-humped camels". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 52 (7): 1173–7. PMID   1892276.
  76. MacFarlane, W.V. (1977). "Survival in an arid land". Australian Natural History. 19: 18–23.
  77. Vann Jones, Kerstin. "What secrets lie within the camel's hump?". Sweden: Lund University. Archived from the original on 23 May 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2008.
  78. Rastogi, S. C. (1971). Essentials Of Animal Physiology. New Age International. pp. 180–181. ISBN   9788122412796.
  79. Chilliard, Y.; Bengoumi, M.; Delavaud, C.; Faulconnier, Y.; Faye, B. (2005). "Body lipids and adaptation of camel to food and water shortage: new data on adipocyte size and plasma leptin". In Faye, B.; Esenov, P. (eds.). Desertification Combat and Food Safety: the Added Value of Camel Producers, Ashgabad, Turkmenistan. NATO Science Series (I): Life and Behavioural Sciences. Vol. 362. IOS Press. pp. 135–45. ISBN   978-1-58603-473-3.
  80. "Arabian (Dromedary) Camel (Camelus dromedarius)". National Geographic. 10 May 2011. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  81. Chatty, D. (1972). "Structural forces of pastoral nomadism, with special reference to camel pastoral nomadism". Institute of Social Studies (The Hague) Occasional Papers (16): 1–96.
  82. Abdel-maksoud, Fatma (2019). "Seasonal Variation of the Intraepithelial Gland in Camel Epididymis with Special Reference to Autophagosome". Microscopy and Microanalysis. 25 (4): 1052–1060. Bibcode:2019MiMic..25.1052A. doi:10.1017/S1431927619014557. PMID   31210121. S2CID   190514348.
  83. Abdel Rahim, S.E. (1997). "Studies on the age of puberty of male camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia". Veterinary Journal. 154 (1): 79–83. doi:10.1016/s1090-0233(05)80011-5. PMID   9265856.
  84. H., Pilters; T., Krumbach; W.G., Kükenthal (1956). "Das verhalten der Tylopoden". Handbuch der Zoologie. 8 (10): 1–24.
  85. 1 2 Khan, A.A.; Kohli, I.S. (1973). "A note on the sexual behavior of male camel (Camelus dromedarius)". The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 43 (12): 1092–4. PMID   4806534.
  86. Hartley, B.J. (1979). "The dromedary of the Horn of Africa". Paper Presented at Workshop on Camels. Stockholm: International Foundation for Science: 77–97.
  87. Elias, E.; Cohen, D.; Steimetz, E. (1986). "A preliminary note on the use of milk substitutes in the early weaning of dromedary camels". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 85 (1): 117–9. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(86)90471-8. PMID   2876805.
  88. Klintegerg, R.; Dina, D. (1979). "Proposal for a rural development training project and study concerned with camel utilization in arid lands in Ethiopia". Addis Abab (Mimeographed): 1–11.
  89. 1 2 Bremaud, O. (1969). "Notes on camel production in the Northern districts of the Republic of Kenya". Maisons-Alfort, IEMVT (Institut d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux). ILCA: 1–105.
  90. Chen, B.X.; Yuen, Z.X.; Pan, G.W. (1985). "Semen-induced ovulation in the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus)". J. Reprod. Fertil. 74 (2): 335–339. doi: 10.1530/jrf.0.0740335 . PMID   3900379.
  91. 1 2 3 4 Shalash, M.R.; Nawito, M. (1965). "Some reproductive aspects in the female camel". World Rev. Anim. Prod. 4: 103–8.
  92. Skidmore, J. A. (July–September 2005). "Reproduction in dromedary camels: an update" (PDF). Animal Reproduction. 2 (3): 161–71. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  93. Musa, B.; Abusineina, M. (16 December 1978). "The oestrous cycle of the camel (Camelus dromedarius)". Veterinary Record. 103 (25): 556–7. doi:10.1136/vr.103.25.556. PMID   570318. S2CID   29630264.
  94. Skidmore, J. A.; Billah, M.; Allen, W. R. (1 March 1996). "The ovarian follicular wave pattern and induction of ovulation in the mated and non-mated one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)". Reproduction. 106 (2): 185–92. doi: 10.1530/jrf.0.1060185 . PMID   8699400.
  95. ElWishy, A. B. (March 1988). "A study of the genital organs of the female dromedary (Camelus dromedarius)". Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. 82 (2): 587–93. doi: 10.1530/jrf.0.0820587 . PMID   3361493.
  96. Wardeh, M. F. (2004). "Classification of the dromedary camels". Camel Science. 1: 1–7. CiteSeerX .
  97. 1 2 3 4 Wilson, R.T.; Bourzat, D. (1987). "Research on the dromedary in Africa" (PDF). Scientific and Technical Review. 6 (2): 383–9. PMID   32370330. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 June 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  98. Richard, Suzanne (2003). Near Eastern Archaeology: A Reader. Eisenbrauns. p. 120. ISBN   9781575060835.
  99. Bromiley, G. W. (1979). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Volume One: AD. W.B. Eerdmans. ISBN   978-0-8028-3781-3.
  100. Gellner, A. M. K. (1994). Nomads and the Outside World (2nd ed.). University of Wisconsin Press. p.  108. ISBN   978-0-299-14284-1.
  101. 1 2 Epstein, H. (1971). "History and origin of the African camel". The Origin of the Domestic Animals in Africa. African Publishing Corporation: 558–64.
  102. Harris, N. (2003). Atlas of the World's Deserts. Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 223. ISBN   978-0-203-49166-9.
  103. Kaegi, W. E. (2010). Muslim Expansion and Byzantine Collapse in North Africa (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-19677-2.
  104. Lawless, R. I.; Findlay, A. M. (1984). North Africa: Contemporary Politics and Economic Development (1 ed.). Croom Helm. p. 128. ISBN   978-0-7099-1609-3.
  105. 1 2 Schulz, U.; Tupac-Yupanqui, I.; Martínez, A.; Méndez, S.; Delgado, J. V.; Gómez, M.; Dunner, S.; Cañón, J. (2010). "The Canarian camel: a traditional dromedary population". Diversity. 2 (4): 561–71. doi: 10.3390/d2040561 . ISSN   1424-2818.
  106. "Afghan Cameleers in Australia". Australian Government. Archived from the original on 5 August 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  107. "The Introduction of camels into Australia". Burkes & Wills Web (Digital Research Archive). The Burke & Wills Historical Society. Archived from the original on 29 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  108. 1 2 3 4 5 Rosati, A.; Tewolde, A.; Mosconi, C. (2007). Animal Production and Animal Science Worldwide. Wageningen (The Netherlands): Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 168–9. ISBN   9789086860340.
  109. Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations (1984). Food and Agriculture Organization Production Yearbook. Rome: United Nations.
  110. Sghaier, M. (2004). "Camel production systems in Africa" (PDF). ICAR Technical Series: 22–33. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  111. 1 2 Köhler-Rollefson, I. (2005). "The camel in Rajasthan: Agricultural biodiversity under threat" (PDF). Saving the Camel and Peoples' Livelihoods. 6: 14–26. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  112. Geer, A. (2008). Animals in Stone : Indian Mammals Sculptured Through Time. Brill. pp. 144–9. ISBN   978-90-04-16819-0. ISSN   0169-9377.
  113. Kadim, I.T.; Maghoub, O. (2004). "Camelid genetic resources. A report on three Arabian Gulf Countries" (PDF). ICAR Technical Series: 81–92. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  114. Roth, H. H.; Merz, G. (1996). Wildlife Resources : A Global Account of Economic Use. Springer. pp. 272–7. ISBN   978-3-540-61357-2.
  115. Naumann, Robert. "Camelus dromedarius (dromedary)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  116. Sweet, L.E. (1965). "Camel raiding of North Arabian Bedouin: a mechanism of ecological adaptation". American Anthropologist . 67 (5): 1132–50. doi:10.1525/aa.1965.67.5.02a00030.
  117. "Ablutions (Wudu) What is said about the urine of camels, sheep and other animals and about their folds". Sunnah.com. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  118. "Herodotus, The Histories, Book 1, chapter 80". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  119. Hilliam, Paul (2004). Islamic Weapons, Warfare, and Armies: Muslim Military Operations Against the Crusaders. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 33. ISBN   0-8239-4215-5.
  120. Archer, Christon I. (2002). World History of Warfare. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 157. ISBN   0-8032-4423-1.
  121. Whiston, William (2008). The Complete Works of Flavius Josephus. Green Forest, AR: New Leaf Publishing Group. pp. 663–664. ISBN   978-0-89051-549-5.
  122. Bligh, J.; Cloudsley-Thompson, J.L.; Macdonald, A.G. (1976). Environmental Physiology of Animals. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications. pp. 142–5. ISBN   978-0-632-00416-4.
  123. Gillespie, L.A. (1962). "Riding camels of the Sudan". Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry. 3 (1): 37–42.
  124. 1 2 3 Nanda, P.N. (1957). "Camel and their management". Indian Council of Agricultural Research Review Series (16): 1–17.
  125. 1 2 Acland, P.B.E. (1932). "Notes on the camel in the eastern Sudan". Sudan Notes and Records. 15 (1): 119–49. JSTOR   41716025.
  126. Matharu, B.S. (1966). "Camel care". Indian Farming. 16: 19–22.
  127. 1 2 Sawaya, W.N.; Khalil, J.K.; Al-Shalhat, A.; Al-Mohammad, H. (1984). "Chemical composition and nutritional quality of camel milk". Journal of Food Science. 49 (3): 744–7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb13200.x.
  128. Farah, Z.; Atkins, D. (1992). "Heat coagulation of camel milk". Journal of Dairy Research. 59 (2): 229. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1017/S002202990003048X. S2CID   33408154.
  129. Knoess, K. H. (1980). "Milk production of the dromedary". Provisional Report, International Foundation for Science (6): 201–14. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  130. Yasin, S.A.; Wahid, A. (1957). "Pakistan camels. A preliminary survey". Agriculture Pakistan. 8: 289–97.
  131. 1 2 Knoess, K.H. (1977). "The camel as a meat and milk animal". World Animal Review. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  132. Brezovečki, Andreja (2015). "Camel milk and milk products". Mljekarstvo (PDF). 65: 81–90. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  133. Attia, H.; Kherouatou, N.; Dhouib, A. (2001). "Dromedary milk lactic acid fermentation: microbiological and rheological characteristics". Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 26 (5): 263–70. doi: 10.1038/sj.jim.7000111 . PMID   11494100. S2CID   21484536.
  134. Ramet, J.P. (1987). "Saudi Arabia: use of bovine calf rennet to coagulate raw camel milk". World Animal Review (FAO). 61: 11–16.
  135. Bonnet, P. (1998). Dromadaires et chameaux, animaux laitiers: actes du colloque[Dromedaries and Camels, Milking Animals] (in French). CIRAD. p. 195. ISBN   978-2-87614-307-4.
  136. Rao, M.B.; Gupta, R.C.; Dastur, N.N. (1970). "Camels' milk and milk products". Indian Journal of Daily Science. 23 (2): 71–8.
  137. 1 2 3 Kadim, I.T.; Mahgoub, O.; Purchas, R.W. (2008). "A review of the growth, and of the carcass and meat quality characteristics of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)". Meat Science. 80 (3): 555–69. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.02.010. PMID   22063567.
  138. Khatami, K. (1970). Camel meat: A new promising approach to the solution of meat and protein in the arid and semi-arid countries of the world. Tehran: Ministry of Agriculture, Tehran. pp. 1–4.
  139. Rawdah, T. N.; El-Faer, M. Z.; Koreish, S. A. (1994). "Fatty acid composition of the meat and fat of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)". Meat Science. 37 (1): 149–55. doi:10.1016/0309-1740(94)90151-1. PMID   22059419.
  140. 1 2 Kadim, I.T. (2013). Camel Meat and Meat Products. Oxfordshire, UK: CABI. pp. 54–72. ISBN   978-1-78064-101-0.
  141. Cortesi, M.L. (1994). "Slaughterhouses and humane treatment". Revue Scientifique et Technique. 13 (1): 171–93. doi: 10.20506/rst.13.1.759 . PMID   8173095.
  142. Saeed, A.A.B.; Al-Hamdan, N.A.; Fontaine, R.E. (2005). "Plague from eating raw camel liver". Emerging Infectious Diseases . 11 (9): 1456–7. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050081. PMC   3310619 . PMID   16229781.