Dub, King of Scotland

Last updated
Dub
King of Alba
Reign962967
Predecessor Indulf
Successor Cuilén
Bornc. 928
Died967
Forres
Issue Kenneth III, King of Alba
House Alpin
Father Malcolm I, King of Alba

Dub mac Maíl Coluim (Modern Gaelic: Dubh mac Mhaoil Chaluim), [1] sometimes anglicised as Duff MacMalcolm, [2] called Dén, "the Vehement" [3] and Niger, "the Black" [4] (born c. 928 - died 967) was king of Alba. He was son of Malcolm I and succeeded to the throne when Indulf was killed in 962.

Ildulb mac Causantín, anglicised as Indulf or Indulph, nicknamed An Ionsaighthigh, "the Aggressor" was king of Alba from 954. He was the son of Constantine II; his mother may have been a daughter of Earl Eadulf I of Bernicia, who was an exile in Scotland.

Contents

While later chroniclers such as John of Fordun supplied a great deal of information on Dub's life and reign, including tales of witchcraft and treason, almost all of them are rejected by modern historians. There are very few sources for the reign of Dub, of which the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba and a single entry in the Annals of Ulster are the closest to contemporary.

John of Fordun was a Scottish chronicler. It is generally stated that he was born at Fordoun, Mearns. It is certain that he was a secular priest, and that he composed his history in the latter part of the 14th century; and it is probable that he was a chaplain in St Machar's Cathedral of Aberdeen.

Witchcraft Practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities either alone or in groups

Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups. Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, and thus can be difficult to define with precision, and cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution. Witchcraft often occupies a religious divinatory or medicinal role, and is often present within societies and groups whose cultural framework includes a magical world view.

The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, or Scottish Chronicle, is a short written chronicle of the Kings of Alba, covering the period from the time of Kenneth MacAlpin until the reign of Kenneth II. W.F. Skene called it the Chronicle of the Kings of Scots, and some have called it the Older Scottish Chronicle, but Chronicle of the Kings of Alba is emerging as the standard scholarly name.

The Chronicle records that during Dub's reign bishop Fothach, most likely bishop of St Andrews or of Dunkeld, died. The remaining report is of a battle between Dub and Cuilén, son of king Ildulb. Dub won the battle, fought "upon the ridge of Crup", in which Duchad, abbot of Dunkeld, sometimes supposed to be an ancestor of Crínán of Dunkeld, and Dubdon, the mormaer of Atholl, died.

St Andrews Town in Fife, Scotland

St Andrews is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dundee and 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Edinburgh. St Andrews has a recorded population of 16,800 in 2011, making it Fife's fourth largest settlement and 45th most populous settlement in Scotland.

Crínán of Dunkeld was the hereditary abbot of the monastery of Dunkeld, and perhaps the Mormaer of Atholl. Crínán was progenitor of the House of Dunkeld, the dynasty which would rule Scotland until the later 13th century. He was the son-in-law of one king, and the father of another.

Dubdon of Atholl was Mormaer of Atholl during the reign of King Dub of Scotland. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says that Dubdon was killed along with Abbot Dúnchad of Dunkeld in the battle of dorsum Crup, fought between Dub and Cuilén, in which the former was victorious. Both the fact that Dubdon died in the battle, and that his power base was firmly in the south of the Kingdom of Alba, suggest strongly that he had been the ally of Cuilén and enemy of Dub.

The various accounts differ on what happened afterwards. The Chronicle claims that Dub was driven out of the kingdom. The Latin material interpolated in Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Cronykl states that he was murdered at Forres, and links this to an eclipse of the sun which can be dated to 20 July 966. The Annals of Ulster report only: "Dub mac Maíl Coluim, king of Alba, was killed by the Scots themselves"; the usual way of reporting a death in internal strife, and place the death in 967. It has been suggested that Sueno's Stone, near Forres, may be a monument to Dub, erected by his brother Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim). It is presumed that Dub was killed or driven out by Cuilén, who became king after Dub's death, or by his supporters.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Andrew Wyntoun, known as Andrew of Wyntoun, was a Scottish poet, a canon and prior of Loch Leven on St Serf's Inch and, later, a canon of St. Andrews.

Forres town in Scotland, UK

Forres is a town and former royal burgh situated in the north of Scotland on the Moray coast, approximately 25 miles (40 km) east of Inverness and 12 miles (19 km) west of Elgin. Forres has been a winner of the Scotland in Bloom award on several occasions. There are many geographical and historical attractions nearby such as the River Findhorn, and there are many historical artifacts and monuments within the town itself.

It is related that his body was hidden under the bridge of Kinloss, and the sun did not shine till it was found and buried. An eclipse on 10 July 967 may have originated or confirmed this story. [5]

Kinloss village in the United Kingdom

Kinloss is a village in Moray, Scotland. It is located near the shore of Findhorn Bay, around 3 miles (5 km) from Findhorn and 2.5 miles (4 km) from Forres. Northeast of the village is Kinloss Barracks, formerly RAF Kinloss which opened on 1 April 1939.

Dub left at least one son, Kenneth III (Cináed mac Dub). Although his descendants did not compete successfully for the kingship of Alba after Cináed was killed in 1005, they did hold the mormaerdom of Fife. The MacDuib (or MacDuff) held the mormaerdom, and later earldom, until 1371.

Cináed mac Duib anglicised as Kenneth III, and nicknamed An Donn, "the Chief" or "the Brown", was King of Scots from 997 to 1005. He was the son of Dub. Many of the Scots sources refer to him as Giric son of Kenneth son of Dub, which is taken to be an error. An alternate explanation is that Kenneth had a son, Giric, who ruled jointly with his father

Clan MacDuff

Clan MacDuff or Clan Duff is a Lowland Scottish clan. The clan does not currently have a chief and is therefore considered an Armigerous clan, which is registered with the Lyon Court. The early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the original Earls of Fife, although this title went to the Stewarts of Albany in the late fourteenth century. The title returned to the MacDuff chief when William Duff was made Earl Fife in 1759. His descendant Alexander Duff was made Duke of Fife in 1889.

Notes

  1. Dub mac Maíl Coluim is the Mediaeval Gaelic form. The modern form, Dubh, has the sense of "dark" or "black", especially in reference to hair colour
  2. This form was used in older histories, but is not commonly used today
  3. Duan Albanach , 23 here
  4. Chronicle of the Kings of Alba and related Scoto-Latin texts. Niger is a literal Latin translation of the Gaelic Dub, which may itself have been an epithet rather than a given name: the Duan Albanach refers to him as Dubhoda dén, Dubod the vehement or impetuous
  5. Aeneas James George Mackay (1888). "Duff (d.967)"  . In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography . 16. London: Smith, Elder & Co.

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References

Dub, King of Scotland
 Died: 967
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Indulf
King of Alba
962967
Succeeded by
Cuilén