|Claudio Domenicali (CEO)|
|55,500 units (2016)|
|Revenue||€ 731 million (2016)|
Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A. (Italian pronunciation: [duˈkaːti] ) is the motorcycle-manufacturing division of Italian company Ducati, headquartered in Bologna, Italy. The company is owned by Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini, through its German parent company Audi, itself owned by the Volkswagen Group.
In 1926 Antonio Cavalieri Ducati and his three sons, Adriano, Marcello, and Bruno Cavalieri Ducati, founded Società Scientifica Radio Brevetti Ducati in Bologna to produce vacuum tubes, condensers and other radio components. In 1935 they had become successful enough to enable construction of a new factory in the Borgo Panigale area of the city. Production was maintained during World War II, despite the Ducati factory being a repeated target of Allied bombing.It was finally destroyed by around 40 Consolidated B-24 Liberators on Thursday October 12, 1944 as part of the United States Air Force's Operation Pancake which involved some 700 aircraft flying from airfields in the Province of Foggia.
Meanwhile, at the small Turinese firm SIATA (Societa Italiana per Applicazioni Tecniche Auto-Aviatorie), Aldo Farinelli began developing a small pushrod engine for mounting on bicycles. Barely a month after the official liberation of Italy in 1944, SIATA announced its intention to sell this engine, called the "Cucciolo" (Italian for "puppy," in reference to the distinctive exhaust sound) to the public. The first Cucciolos were available alone, to be mounted on standard bicycles, by the buyer; however, businessmen soon bought the little engines in quantity, and offered complete motorized-bicycle units for sale.
In 1950, after more than 200,000 Cucciolos had been sold, in collaboration with SIATA, the Ducati firm finally offered its own Cucciolo-based motorcycle. This first Ducati motorcycle was a 48 cc bike weighing 98 pounds (44 kg), with a top speed of 40 mph (64 km/h), and had a 15 mm carburetor (0.59-inch) giving just under 200 mpg‑US (1.2 L/100 km; 240 mpg‑imp). Ducati soon dropped the Cucciolo name in favor of "55M" and "65TL".
When the market moved toward larger motorcycles, Ducati management decided to respond, making an impression at an early-1952 Milan show, introducing their 65TS cycle and Cruiser (a four-stroke motor scooter). Despite being described as the most interesting new machine at the 1952 show, the Cruiser was not a great success, and only a few thousand were made over a two-year period before the model ceased production.
In 1953, management split the company into two separate entities, Ducati Meccanica SpA and Ducati Elettronica, in acknowledgment of its diverging motorcycle and electronics product lines. Dr. Giuseppe Montano took over as head of Ducati Meccanica SpA and the Borgo Panigale factory was modernized with government assistance. By 1954, Ducati Meccanica SpA had increased production to 120 bikes a day.
In the 1960s, Ducati earned its place in motorcycling history by producing the fastest 250 cc road bike then available, the Mach 1. In the 1970s Ducati began producing motorcycles with large-displacement V-twin engines, which Ducati branded as "L-twin" fort their 90° angle, and in 1973, introduced their trademarked desmodromic valve design. In 1985, Cagiva bought Ducati and planned to rebadge Ducati motorcycles with the "Cagiva" name. By the time the purchase was completed, Cagiva kept the "Ducati" name on its motorcycles. Eleven years later, in 1996, Cagiva accepted the offer from Texas Pacific Group and sold a 51% stake in the company for US$325 million; then, in 1998, Texas Pacific Group bought most of the remaining 49% to become the sole owner of Ducati. In 1999, TPG issued an initial public offering of Ducati stock and renamed the company "Ducati Motor Holding SpA". TPG sold over 65% of its shares in Ducati, leaving TPG the majority shareholder. In December 2005, Ducati returned to Italian ownership with the sale of Texas Pacific's stake (minus one share) to Investindustrial Holdings, the investment fund of Carlo and Andrea Bonomi.
In April 2012, Volkswagen Group's Audi subsidiary announced its intention to buy Ducati for €860 million (US$1.2 billion). Volkswagen chairman Ferdinand Piëch, a motorcycle enthusiast, had long coveted Ducati, and had regretted that he passed up an opportunity to buy the company from the Italian government in 1984. Analysts doubted a tiny motorcycle maker would have a meaningful effect on a company the size of Volkswagen, commenting that the acquisition has "a trophy feel to it," and, "is driven by VW's passion for nameplates rather than industrial or financial logic". Italian luxury car brand Lamborghini was strengthened under VW ownership. AUDI AG's Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. subsidiary acquired 100 percent of the shares of Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A. on 19 July 2012 for €747 million (US$909 million).
Since 1926, Ducati has been owned by a number of groups and companies.
From the 1960s to the 1990s, the Spanish company MotoTrans licensed Ducati engines and produced motorcycles that, although they incorporated subtle differences, were clearly Ducati-derived. MotoTrans's most notable machine was the 250 cc 24 Horas (Spanish for "24 hours").
Ducati is best known for high-performance motorcycles characterized by large-capacity four-stroke, 90° V-twin engines,with a desmodromic valve design. Ducati branded his configuration as L-twin because one cylinder is vertical while the other is horizontal, making it look like a letter "L". Ducati's desmodromic valve design is nearing its 50th year of use. Desmodromic valves are closed with a separate, dedicated cam lobe and lifter instead of the conventional valve springs used in most internal combustion engines in consumer vehicles. This allows the cams to have a more radical profile, thus opening and closing the valves more quickly without the risk of valve-float, which causes a loss of power that is likely when using a "passive" closing mechanism under the same conditions.
While most other manufacturers use wet clutches (with the spinning parts bathed in oil)Ducati previously used multiplate dry clutches in many of their motorcycles. The dry clutch eliminates the power loss from oil viscosity drag on the engine, even though the engagement may not be as smooth as the oil-bath versions, but the clutch plates can wear more rapidly. Ducati has converted to wet clutches across their current product lines.
Ducati also extensively uses a trellis frame, although Ducati's MotoGP project broke with this tradition by introducing a revolutionary carbon fibre frame for the Ducati Desmosedici GP9.
The chief designer of most Ducati motorcycles in the 1950s was Fabio Taglioni (1920–2001). His designs ranged from the small single-cylinder machines that were successful in the Italian 'street races' to the large-capacity twins of the 1980s. Ducati introduced the Pantah in 1979; its engine was updated in the 1990s in the Ducati SuperSport (SS) series. All modern Ducati engines are derivatives of the Pantah, which uses a toothed belt to actuate the engine's valves. Taglioni used the Cavallino Rampante (identified with the Ferrari brand) on his Ducati motorbikes. Taglioni chose this emblem of courage and daring as a sign of respect and admiration for Francesco Baracca, a heroic World War I fighter pilot who died during an air raid in 1918.
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In 1973, Ducati commemorated its 1972 win at the Imola 200 with the production model green frame Ducati 750 SuperSport.
Ducati also targeted the offroad market with the two-stroke Regolarità 125, building 3,486 models from 1975 to 1979, but the bike was not successful.
In 1975, the company introduced the 860 GT, designed by noted car stylist Giorgetto Giugiaro. Its angular lines were unique, but raised handlebars made for an uncomfortable seating position at high speeds and also caused steering issues.The 860GT's angular styling was a sales disaster, and it was hurriedly re-designed for the 1976 season with a more rounded fuel tank.
In 1975 Ducati offered hand-built production racers, the 'square case' 750SS and later 900SS models, built in limited numbers. Sales of the 900SS proved so strong, and sales of the 860GT/GTE/GTS so weak, that production of the 900SS was ramped up, and it became Ducati's #1 selling model.
Ducati's liquid-cooled, multi-valve 90° V-twins, made from 1985 on, are known as Desmoquattro ("desmodromic valve four"). These include the 851, 916 and 996, 999 and a few predecessors and derivatives.
The Ducati Paso was introduced in 1986 with the Paso 750, followed in 1989 with the Paso 906. The final version came in 1991 with the 907IE (Iniezione Elettronica), now without the name "Paso". The design was from the hand of Massimo Tamburini, who also designed the Ducati 916 and MV Agusta F4. The Paso was a typical "you love it, you hate it" bike. However, at that time it looked like that all-enclosed bodywork would be the future for all motorcycles. The Paso design was copied for the Moto Morini Dart 400 and Cagiva Freccia 125. Together with Tamburini's Bimota DB1, they were enormously influential in terms of styling.
In 1993, Miguel Angel Galluzzi introduced the Ducati Monster,a naked bike with exposed trellis and engine. Today the Monster accounts for almost half of the company's worldwide sales. The Monster has undergone the most changes of any motorcycle that Ducati has ever produced.
In 1993, Pierre Terblanche, Massimo Bordi and Claudio Domenicali designed the Ducati Supermono. A 550 cc single-cylinder lightweight "Catalog Racer". Only 67 were built between 1993 and 1997.
In 1994, the company introduced the Ducati 916 model designed by Massimo Tamburini,a water-cooled version that allowed for higher output levels and a striking new bodywork that had aggressive lines, an underseat exhaust, and a single-sided swingarm. Ducati has since ceased production of the 916, supplanting it (and its progeny, the 748, 996 and 998) with the 749 and 999.
In 2006, the retro-styled Ducati PaulSmart 1000 LE was released, which shared styling cues with the 1973 750 SuperSport (itself a production replica of Paul Smart's 1972 race winning 750 Imola Desmo), as one of a SportClassic series representing the 750 GT, 750 Sport, and 750 SuperSport Ducati motorcycles.
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Ducati has produced several styles of motorcycle engines, including varying the number of cylinders, type of valve actuation and fuel delivery. Ducati is best known for its 90° V-twin engine, used on nearly all Ducatis since the 1970s. Ducati brands its engine as "L-twin", emphasizing the 90° V angle, to create product differentiation from competing V-twin motorcycles. Ducati has also made other engine types, mostly before the 1970s, with one, two, three, or four cylinders; operated by pull rod valves and push rod valves; single, double and triple overhead camshafts; two-stroke and even at one stage manufactured small diesel engines, many of which were used to power boats, generators, garden machinery and emergency pumps (for example, for fire fighting). The engines were the IS series from 7 to 22 hp (5.2 to 16.4 kW) air-cooled and the larger twin DM series water- and air-cooled. The engines have been found in all parts of the globe. Wisconsin Diesel even assembled and "badge engineered" the engines in the USA. They have also produced outboard motors for marine use. Currently, Ducati makes no other engines except for its motorcycles.
On current Ducati motors, except for the Desmosedici and 1199 Panigale, the valves are actuated by a standard valve cam shaft which is rotated by a timing belt driven by the motor directly. The teeth on the belt keep the camshaft drive pulleys indexed. On older Ducati motors, prior to 1986, drive was by solid shaft that transferred to the camshaft through bevel-cut gears. This method of valve actuation was used on many of Ducati's older single-cylinder motorcycles — the shaft tube is visible on the outside of the cylinder.
Ducati is also famous for using the desmodromic valve system championed by engineer and designer Fabio Taglioni, though the firm has also used engines that use valve springs to close their valves. In the early days, Ducati reserved the desmodromic valve heads for its higher performance bikes and its race bikes. These valves do not suffer from valve float at high engine speeds, thus a desmodromic engine is capable of far higher revolutions than a similarly configured engine with traditional spring-valve heads.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Ducati produced a wide range of small two-stroke bikes, mainly sub-100 cc capacities. Large quantities of some models were exported to the United States.
Ducati has produced the following motorcycle engine types:
A key part of Ducati's marketing strategy since the 1990s has been fostering a distinct community identity in connection with branding efforts including online communities and local, regional and national Ducati enthusiast clubs. There are more than 400 Ducati clubs worldwide and 20,000 registered users of the Ducati Owners Club web site and 17,000 subscribers to the racing web site.Enthusiasts and riders are informally referred to in the motorcycling community as Ducatista (singular) or Ducatisti (plural).
In North America there are several Ducati enthusiasts organizations with varying degrees of factory sponsorship, such as the Bay Area Desmo Owners Club (BADOC) located in and around the city of San Francisco, CA. Ducati Riders of Illinois (DRILL) located in Chicago, IL. DESMO, the Ducati Enthusiast Sport Motorcycle Organization, is a North American group affiliated with the factory Desmo Owners Club.Some groups are focused on vintage Ducatis while several are based primarily or entirely on email discussion lists or web forums.
Ducati has a wide range of accessories, lifestyle products and co-branded merchandise bearing their logos and designs. The company has a licensing agreement with Tumi Inc., launching a collection of eight co-branded luggage pieces in 2006, sold through both of the brands' retail outlets.
Ducati's history with motorsport began with speed records on Cucciolo motorized bicycle factory racers in 1951, followed in 1954 with bringing in Fabio Taglioni to found a road-racing program with the 100 Gran Sport. As of 2009 [update] , Ducati was still pursuing the "win on Sunday, sell on Monday" business model and spending 10% of company revenues, €40 million, on its racing business.
Ducati rejoined Grand Prix motorcycle racing in 2003, after a 30-year absence.On 23 September 2007, Casey Stoner clinched his and Ducati's first Grand Prix World Championship.
When Ducati re-joined MotoGP in 2003, MotoGP had changed its rules to allow four-stroke 990 cc engines to race. At the time Ducati was the fastest bike. In 2007, MotoGP reduced the engine size to 800 cc (49 cu in), and Ducati continued to be the fastest with a bike that was markedly quicker than its rivals as was displayed by Casey Stoner on tracks with long straights.
For 2009, Ducati Marlboro Team campaigned their Desmosedici GP9 with former World Champions Casey Stoner and Nicky Hayden.Ducati also supplied customer bikes to Pramac Racing, with Mika Kallio and Niccolò Canepa riding for the team in 2009.
Nine-time world champion Valentino Rossi rode for Ducati Corse for the 2011 and 2012 seasons.Rossi returned to the Yamaha team for the 2013 season.
For 2013, Ducati Team raced with Nicky Hayden and the Italian rider Andrea Dovizioso. In 2014 Cal Crutchlow teamed up with Dovizioso for the season, and he left at the end of the year.
In 2015, Ducati Team, under the control of the new race team director Gigi Dall'Igna and the new Desmosedici GP15, raced with two Italian riders: Andrea Dovizioso and Andrea Iannone. Dovizioso and Iannone returned for another season in 2016 with Michele Pirro as official tester. As well as this, Casey Stoner also tested Ducati machinery during the season.In 2017 and 2018, Ducati Team rider Andrea Dovizioso raced with his new teammate Jorge Lorenzo, who joined the Ducati team from Yamaha Factory Racing with a two seasons contract. In 2019, Danilo Petrucci joined Dovizioso at the factory team.
|2007||Casey Stoner||Ducati Desmosedici GP7|
The company has won 14 riders world championships and 17 manufacturers world championships, competing since the series' inception in 1988. At the end of 2015, Ducati has amassed 318 wins, more than any other manufacturer involved in the championship.
|1990||Raymond Roche||Ducati 851|
|1991||Doug Polen||Ducati 888|
|1992||Doug Polen||Ducati 888|
|1994||Carl Fogarty||Ducati 916|
|1995||Carl Fogarty||Ducati 916|
|1996||Troy Corser||Ducati 916|
|1998||Carl Fogarty||Ducati 916|
|1999||Carl Fogarty||Ducati 996|
|2001||Troy Bayliss||Ducati 996R F01|
|2003||Neil Hodgson||Ducati 999 F03|
|2004||James Toseland||Ducati 999 F04|
|2006||Troy Bayliss||Ducati 999 F06|
|2008||Troy Bayliss||Ducati 1098 F08|
|2011||Carlos Checa||Ducati 1098 R|
|1997||Paolo Casoli||Ducati 748|
|2007||Niccolò Canepa||Ducati 1098S|
|2008||Brendan Roberts||Ducati 1098R|
|2009||Xavier Siméon||Ducati 1098R|
|2011||Davide Giugliano||Ducati 1098R|
|2014||Leandro Mercado||Ducati 1199 Panigale R|
|2017||Michael Ruben Rinaldi||Ducati Panigale R|
Ducati has also won the manufacturers' championship for years 2008–2009, 2011 and 2016.
Ducati has won the British Superbike Championship twelve times.
|1995||Steve Hislop||Ducati 916|
|1999||Troy Bayliss||Ducati 996|
|2000||Neil Hodgson||Ducati 996|
|2001||John Reynolds||Ducati 996|
|2002||Steve Hislop||Ducati 998 RS|
|2003||Shane Byrne||Ducati 998 F02|
|2005||Gregorio Lavilla||Ducati 999 F04|
|2008||Shane Byrne||Ducati 1098 RS|
|2016||Shane Byrne||Ducati Panigale R|
|2017||Shane Byrne||Ducati Panigale R|
|2019||Scott Redding||Ducati Panigale V4 R|
|2020||Josh Brookes||Ducati Panigale V4 R|
In the AMA Superbike Championship, Ducati has had its share of success, with Doug Polen winning the title in 1993 and Troy Corser the following year in 1994. Ducati has entered a bike in every AMA Superbike season since 1986, but withdrew from the series after the 2006 season.
|1993||Doug Polen||Ducati 888|
|1994||Troy Corser||Ducati 888|
Ducati had an important place in early Superbike racing history in the United States and vice versa: In 1977, Cycle magazine editors Cook Neilson and Phil Schilling took a Ducati 750SS to first place at Daytona in the second-ever season of AMA Superbike racing. "Neilson retired from racing at the end of the year, but the bike he and Schilling built — nicknamed Old Blue for its blue livery — became a legend," says Richard Backus from Motorcycle Classics: "How big a legend? Big enough for Ducati to team with Italian specialty builder NCR to craft a limited-edition update, New Blue, based on the 2007 Sport 1000S, and big enough to inspire the crew at the Barber Vintage Motorsports Museum (see Barber Motorsports Park), arguably one of the most important motorcycle museums in the world, to commission Ducati specialist Rich Lambrechts to craft a bolt-by-bolt replica for its collection. The finished bike's name? Deja Blue."
|1999||Steve Martin||Ducati 996RS|
|2019||Mike Jones||Ducati 1289 Panigale R Final Edition|
Ducati's first ever world title was the 1978 TT Formula 1 World Championship, achieved thanks to Mike Hailwood's victory at the Isle of Man TT. Between 1981 and 1984 Tony Rutter won four TT Formula 2 World Championships riding Ducati bikes.
|1978||F1||Mike Hailwood||Ducati NCR 900 SS TT1|
|1981||F2||Tony Rutter||Ducati 600 TT2|
|1982||F2||Tony Rutter||Ducati 600 TT2|
|1983||F2||Tony Rutter||Ducati 600 TT2|
|1984||F2||Tony Rutter||Ducati 600 TT2|
Effective July 19, 2012, the Audi Group acquired 100 percent of the voting rights in the motorcycle manufacturer Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A., Bologna (Italy) via Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A., Sant'Agata Bolognese (Italy), a subsidiary of AUDI AG for a purchase price of EUR 747 million.
There's an old saying in the auto world: Win on Sunday, sell on Monday
Hayden's Ducati move, which will see the 27-year-old line-up alongside 2007 world champion Casey Stoner, has been considered a done deal for months.
"It's very, very quick!" Stoner said during his private test at the same Losail circuit on Monday.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ducati .|
|Standard / Naked||M400||400|
|Desmosedici RR||Panigale V4|
|Touring / Sport touring||ST2||ST3|
|Dual-sport / Off-road||Multistrada 1100||Multistrada 1200|
A desmodromic valve is a reciprocating engine poppet valve that is positively closed by a cam and leverage system, rather than by a more conventional spring.
The Ducati Monster is a muscle bike designed by Miguel Angel Galluzzi and produced by Ducati in Bologna, Italy, since 1993. It is a naked bike, characterized by an exposed engine and frame. The trellis frame in the Ducati Monster is an integral part of the motorcycle's design allowing for both aesthetic appeal and for structural efficiency. In 2005, Monster sales accounted for over half of Ducati's worldwide sales. Ducati motorcycles use 90° V-twin engines, which they call L-twins, with desmodromic valves, and tubular steel trellis frame, designed by Fabio Taglioni (1920–2001).
The Ducati 916 is a fully faired sport bike made by Ducati from 1994 to 1998. Featuring a 916 cc (56 cu in) fuel injected, 4-valve, desmo, liquid-cooled, 90° V-twin engine in a trellis frame with a single-sided swingarm and USD forks, the 916 is frequently cited as one of the most beautiful motorcycles ever.
The Ducati Desmosedici is a four-stroke V4 engine racing motorcycle made by Ducati for MotoGP racing. The series nomenclature is GP with the two-digit year appended, such as Desmosedici GP10 for 2010. In 2006 Ducati made a short production run of 1,500 street-legal variants, the Desmosedici RR.
The Ducati 888 was a motorcycle manufactured by Ducati as an upgrade to the Ducati 851. The earlier 851 had introduced liquid cooling, computerized fuel injection and four-valve heads to the company's two cylinder motors. In 1991 Ducati increased the capacity of the 851 to 888 cc to create the 888. Both engines featured the Desmoquattro valvetrain concept in which a four valve per cylinder motor was given desmodromic valve actuation, with cams both opening and closing the valves. Ducati's desmodromic system reduces the frictional penalty from conventional valve springs.
The Ducati 750 Imola Desmo is a racing motorcycle built by Ducati that won the 1972 Imola 200 race in the hands of Paul Smart. This win helped define Ducati's approach to racing.
The Ducati singles were single cylinder motorcycles, made by Ducati from 1950 to 1974. Chief Engineer Fabio Taglioni developed a desmodromic valve system in these years, a system that opens and closes the valves using the camshaft, without the need for valve springs. This valve system has become a trademark feature of Ducati motorcycles.
The Ducati Desmoquattro are water-cooled, four-valve engines from Ducati. They have been produced since 1985 in capacities from 748 to 1,198 cc.
The Ducati 851 is a 90° V-twin fully faired sport bike with liquid cooling and four valve heads. It was produced by Ducati between 1987 and 1992, when it was succeeded by the Ducati 888.
The Ducati SuperSport and SS are a series of air-cooled four stroke desmodromic 2-valve 90° V-twin motorcycles made by Ducati since 1988. A limited edition SuperSport called the SuperLight was sold in 1992. The name harked back to the round case 1973 Ducati 750 Super Sport, and the 1975 square case 750 and 900 Super Sport. The appellation 'SS' was applied only to the later belt drive (Pantah) based models.
Ducati Corse is the racing team division of Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A. that deals with the firm's involvement in motorcycle racing. It is directed by Claudio Domenicali and is based in Borgo Panigale, Bologna.
The Ducati 848 is a sport bike with a 849 cc (51.8 cu in) 90° V-twin engine manufactured by Ducati. It was announced on November 6, 2007 for the 2008 model year, replacing the 749, although the 848 model name was already listed on the compatible parts table for the 1098 fuel tank, giving away the secret a few months early. The 848 makes a tested 86 kW (115.6 hp) at 10,000 rpm and 84.1 N⋅m (62 lb⋅ft) at 8,250 rpm. With a manufacturer claimed dry weight of 168 kg (370 lb), the 848 undercuts its larger displacement sibling, the 1198, by 5 kg (11 lb).
The 125 Bronco was a tubular steel/full-duplex-framed, base model motorcycle made by Ducati from 1960 to 1966, produced mainly for American distributor Berliner Motor Corporation. It was the second to last example, before the Ducati 125 Cadet/4, of Ducati pushrod technology which began in 1952 with the pressed-frame Ducati 98 models, which themselves had followed the Cucciolo T3, pull-rod and pushrod design singles.
Berliner Motor Corporation was the US distributor from the 1950s through the 1980s for several European motorcycle marques, including Ducati, J-Be, Matchless, Moto Guzzi, Norton, Sachs and Zündapp, as well as selling Metzeler tires. Berliner Motor was highly influential as the voice of the huge American market to the motorcycle companies they bought bikes from, and their suggestions, and sometimes forceful demands, guided many decisions in Europe as to which bikes to develop, produce, or discontinue.
Joe Berliner [...] a man endowed with great decision-making power in Borgo Panigale
The Ducati ST series is a set of Italian sport touring motorcycles manufactured by Ducati from 1997 through 2007. In order of release, the series comprised five distinct models: the ST2, ST4, ST4S, ST3, and ST3S. Intended to compete with other sport-tourers such as the Honda VFR, the ST Ducatis had a full fairing, a large dual seat and a relaxed riding position for both rider and pillion. The ST bikes had a centre-stand, and could be fitted with optional matching luggage.
The Ducati Multistrada 1200 is a motorcycle made by Ducati since 2010 The engine is a retuned version of the Testastretta from the 1198 superbike, now called the Testastretta 11° for its 11° valve overlap. All models include throttle by wire, selectable engine mapping and traction control adjustable through eight levels, called DTC.
The Ducati Scrambler was the brand name for a series of single cylinder scrambler motorcycles made by Ducati for the American market from 1962 until 1974. Its creation is attributed to the American Berliner Motor Corporation. Models were produced in 250 cc through 450 cc displacements. The 450 variant was sold as the "Jupiter" in the United States.
Ducati Bipantah was a prototype 90° V4 four-stroke motorcycle engine made by Ducati in 1981. It was designed by Pierluigi Mengoli under the supervision of Fabio Taglioni. It had four cylinders and made coupling two Ducati Pantah V-twin engines. It remained a prototype, although it had good results during dyno-tests. The project ended in late 1982, when then-owners VM Motori decided not to build the bike for which the motor was intended for.
The Ducati Superquadro engine is a 90° V-twin four-stroke motorcycle engine made by Ducati since 2011. It has Ducati's signature desmodromic valve system, with four valves per cylinder and gear/chain driven double overhead camshafts. It has been made in four displacements ranging from 898 to 1,285 cc, with power as high as 145 kW (194 hp) in the largest version.
The Ducati Panigale V4 is a sport bike with a 1,103 cc (67.3 cu in) desmodromic 90° V4 engine introduced by Ducati in 2018 as the successor to the V-twin engined 1299. A smaller engine displacement version complies with the Superbike category competition regulations which state "Over 750 cc up to 1000 cc" for three and four cylinder 4-stroke engines.