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Duchy of Masovia
Masovian lands (ziemie)
|Status||Province of Poland |
Fiefdom of the Polish Crown (from 1351)
|Capital|| Płock |
Czersk (from 1262)
Warsaw (from 1413)
|Bolesław the Curly|
|Janusz III (last)|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
• Split off Kuyavia
• Vassalized by the Polish Crown
• Second partition
• Incorporated by Poland
The Duchy of Masovia (Polish : Księstwo Mazowieckie) was a medieval duchy formed when the Polish Kingdom of the Piasts fragmented in 1138. It was located in the historic Masovian region of northeastern Kingdom of Poland. The duchy was re-incorporated into the Jagiellonian Kingdom of Poland by 1526.
Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish-language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.
A duchy is a medieval country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess, a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the king or queen in European tradition. The term is used almost exclusively in Europe, where in the present day there is no sovereign duchy left.
"Kingdom of Poland" was the name of Poland under a series of former monarchial governments, from c. 1000/1025 to 1795:
The Duchy went through various border changes in the coming years, sometimes losing and sometimes gaining territory.
|1138–1275||Duchy of Masovia|
|1275–1294||Duchy of Czersk||Duchy of Płock|
|1294–1310||Duchy of Masovia|
|1310–1313||Duchy of Czersk||Duchy of Masovia|
|1313–1345||Duchy of Warsaw||Duchy of Rawa||Duchy of Płock|
|1345–1349||Duchy of Warsaw-Rawa|
|1349–1351||Duchy of Warsaw||Duchy of Rawa|
|1351–1355||Annexed to Poland|
|1355–1370||Duchy of Warsaw-Rawa|
|1370–1381||Duchy of Masovia|
|1381–1434||Duchy of Warsaw||Duchy of Płock-Rawa|
|1434–1442/59||Duchy of Rawa||Duchy of Płock||Duchy of Bełz|
|1442/59–1462||Duchy of Płock-Rawa|
|1462–1471||Duchy of Masovia|
|1471–1488||Duchy of Czersk||Duchy of Warsaw||Duchy of Płock|
|1488–1495||Duchy of Czersk-Warsaw|
|1495–1526||Duchy of Masovia|
The lands of the Masovians east of the Vistula river had been conquered by the Piast duke Mieszko I of Poland (960–992) and formed a constituent part of his Civitas Schinesghe . The Masovian Diocese of Płock was established in 1075.
The Masovians or Mazovians are a Lechitic tribe or an ethnic group associated with the region of Mazovia. They were referenced by Nestor the Chronicler in the 11th century.
The Vistula, the longest and largest river in Poland, is the 9th-longest river in Europe, at 1,047 kilometres in length. The drainage-basin area of the Vistula is 193,960 km2 (74,890 sq mi), of which 168,868 km2 (65,200 sq mi) lies within Poland. The remainder lies in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. The first documented Polish monarch was Duke Mieszko I. The Piasts' royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir III the Great.
Following the death of Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth in 1138, as specified by his testament, the Masovian province was governed by his second son Bolesław IV the Curly, who, after he had expelled his elder half-brother Władysław II, in 1146 became Grand Prince (High Duke) of Poland. His Masovian realm also comprised the adjacent lands of Kujawy (Kuyavia) on the west bank of the Vistula.
Bolesław III Wrymouth, was a Duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138. He was the only child of Prince Władysław I Herman and his first wife Judith, daughter of Vratislaus II of Bohemia.
Bolesław IV the Curly of the Piast dynasty was Duke of Masovia from 1138 and High Duke of Poland from 1146 until his death.
Vladislaus II the Exile was a High Duke of Poland and Duke of Silesia from 1138 until his expulsion in 1146. He is the progenitor of the Silesian Piasts.
Among the Piast Dukes of Masovia, Bolesław's IV nephew Konrad I was Polish high duke from 1229 to 1232 and again from 1241 to 1243; he was the ruler who in 1226 called the Teutonic Order for help against the pagan Old Prussians threatening the northern borders of his territory. In turn he ceded the Prussian Chełmno Land (Kulmerland) to the knights in 1230; according to the Golden Bull of Rimini (dated 1226), issued by the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II, these lands became the nucleus of the Order State. In 1233 Konrad gave Kujawy to his second son Casimir I, while Masovia passed to the first-born Bolesław I upon his death in 1247, succeeded by the youngest brother Siemowit I the next year.
Duke of Masovia was a title born by the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. In accordance with the last will and testament of Bolesław, upon his death his lands were divided into four to five hereditary provinces distributed among his sons, and a royal province of Kraków reserved for the eldest, who was to be High Duke of all Poland. This was known as the fragmentation of Poland. Subsequent developments lead to further splintering of the duchies.
Konrad I of Masovia, from the Polish Piast dynasty, was the sixth Duke of Masovia and Kujawy from 1194 until his death as well as High Duke of Poland from 1229 to 1232 and again from 1241 to 1243.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly the Teutonic Order, is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1192 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
While Siemowit's son Duke Konrad II (1264–1294) moved his residence to Czersk he and his brother Bolesław II entered into a long-term conflict over the Polish seniorate with their Kujawy relatives and the Silesian Piasts, which estranged them from the Piast monarchy. When the kingdom was finally restored in 1295 by the coronation of Duke Przemysł II of Greater Poland, the Duchy of Masovia remained independent.
Konrad II of Czersk, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Masovia during 1264-1275 jointly with his brother, since 1275 sole ruler over Czersk and Duke of Sandomierz during 1289.
Czersk is a settlement in the administrative district of Gmina Góra Kalwaria, within Piaseczno County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland. It lies approximately 2 kilometres (1 mi) south-east of Góra Kalwaria, 19 km (12 mi) south-east of Piaseczno, and 33 km (21 mi) south-east of Warsaw. The village also lies on the Czersk Lake, which is an oxbow lake of the Vistula.
Bolesław II of Masovia or Bolesław II of Płock, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Masovia during 1262-1275 jointly with his brother, since 1275 sole ruler over Płock, since 1294 ruler over all Masovia and Duke of Kraków and Sandomierz during 1288-1289. In 1310 he gave to his sons the districts of Warsaw and Czersk.
Upon the death of Duke Boleslaus II in 1313, Masovia was divided among his sons:
Siemowit II of Rawa, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Warsaw and Liw during 1310-1313, after a new division with his brothers since 1313 ruler over Rawa Mazowiecka, Sochaczew, Zakroczym, Gostynin, Ciechanów and Wizna, regent of Płock during 1336–1340.
Rawa Mazowiecka is a town in central Poland, with 17,561 inhabitants (2016). It lies in the Łódź Voivodeship and is the capital of the Rawa County.
Trojden I, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Czersk since 1310, ruler over Warsaw and Liw since 1313, regent of Płock during 1336–1340.
As neither Siemowit II nor Bolesław III of Płock left any heirs, Trojden's son Duke Siemowit III (1341–1381) was able to re-unite most of the Masovian lands under his rule; in 1351 he and his brother Casimir became vassals of the Polish kings, while the Bishopric of Płock had always been part of the Polish Archdiocese of Gniezno. Upon Siemowit's III death in 1381 however, Masovia was again partitioned between his sons:
Since the Polish-Lithuanian Union of 1385, Masovia was localized between the joined Jagiellonian states. The Dukes of Masovia also ruled the Duchy of Belz until 1462.
After the establishment of the Rawa and Płock Voivodeships, in 1495 the last surviving son of Boleslaus IV, Duke Konrad III Rudy, once again united the remaining Masovian lands under his rule. However, the male line of the Masovian Piasts became extinct upon the death of his son Duke Janusz III in 1526, whereafter the duchy as a reverted fief became the Masovian Voivodeship of the Polish Crown.
Parts of the southern region of neighboring East Prussia received settlers and Protestant religious refugees who became known as the Mazurs. By the 18th century the portion of East Prussia in which they settled was sometimes referred to as Masuria (Masuren), and inhabited by a Protestant population of Germans and Poles.
Bolesław the Pious was a Duke of Greater Poland during 1239–1247, Duke of Kalisz during 1247–1249, Duke of Gniezno during 1249–1250, Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz during 1253–1257, Duke of whole Greater Poland and Poznań during 1257–1273, in 1261 ruler over Ląd, regent of the Duchies of Mazovia, Płock and Czersk during 1262–1264, ruler over Bydgoszcz during 1268–1273, Duke of Inowrocław during 1271–1273, and Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz from 1273 until his death.
Bolesław-Jerzy II was a ruler of the Polish Piast dynasty who ruled the originally Ruthenian principality of Galicia. After his death started the Galicia–Volhynia Wars over succession of Galicia and Volhynia.
Siemowit IV, also known as Siemowit IV the Younger, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast from the Masovian branch, from 1373/74 Duke of Rawa, and after the division of the paternal inheritance between him and his brother in 1381, ruler over Rawa, Płock, Sochaczew, Gostynin, Płońsk and Wizna, since 1386 hereditary Polish vassal, since 1388 ruler over Belz, during 1382–1401 he lost Wizna and during 1384–1399 and 1407–1411 he lost Zawkrze, during 1384–1399 he lost Płońsk, taken by the Teutonic Order.
Alexandra was the youngest daughter of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his second wife, Uliana of Tver. Though Alexandra's exact date of birth is not known, it is thought that she was born in the late 1360s or early 1370s. In 1387, she married Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia, and bore him thirteen children.
Gaudemunda Sophia of Lithuania was the daughter of Traidenis, Grand Duke of Lithuania. In 1279 she married Duke of Masovia Bolesław II of the Piast dynasty. He was the son of Ziemowit I, Prince of Masovia, and Pereyaslava, daughter of Daniel of Galicia of the Rurik dynasty.
Siemowit III of Masovia was a prince of Masovia and a co-regent of the lands of Warsaw, Czersk, Rawa, Gostynin and other parts of Masovia.
Konrad III the Red, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast in the Masovian branch. He was a duke of Czersk, Liw, Warsaw, Nur, Łomża, Ciechanów, Różan, Zakroczym and Wyszogród during 1454-1471 jointly with his brothers, Duke of Płock, Wizna, Płońsk and Zawkrze during 1462-1471, and after the division of the paternal domains in 1471, sole ruler over Czersk and Liw, over Wyszogród during 1474-1489 and again in 1495, over Zakroczym since 1484, over Nur since 1488 and over Warsaw since 1489.
Seniorate Province, also known as the Senioral Province, Duchy of Kraków, Duchy of Cracow, Principality of Cracow, Principality of Kraków, was the superior among the five provinces established in 1138 according to the Testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth. It existed during the period of fragmentation of Poland until 1320, centered at Kraków in Lesser Poland. The Seniorate Province was supposed to be ruled by the rotating head of the royal Piast dynasty, a principality that he held as overlord of the other Polish dukes.
The Duchy of Sieradz was one of the territories created during the period of the fragmentation of Poland. It was originally part of the central Seniorate Province, but became separated upon the death of High Duke Władysław III Spindleshanks in 1231, ruled by the rivaling Masovian branch of the Piast dynasty.
Casimir I of Kuyavia, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Kujawy since 1233, ruler over Ląd during 1239-1261, ruler over Wyszogród since 1242, Duke of Sieradz during 1247-1261, Duke of Łęczyca since 1247 and Duke of Dobrzyń since 1248.
Duchy of Belz or principality of Belz was a duchy, formed in the late 12th century in Kievan Rus. During its history the duchy was a constituent part of some other political entities such as the Kingdom of Rus, the Kingdom of Hungary, Duchy of Masovia when eventually in the late 14th century was incorporated into Poland becoming later the Bełz Voivodeship.
Siemowit V of Rawa, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast from the Masovian branch. He was a Duke of Rawa Mazowiecka, Płock, Sochaczew, Gostynin, Płońsk, Wizna and Belz during 1426-1434 jointly with his brothers, and after the division of the paternal inheritance between him and his brothers in 1434, sole ruler over Rawa Mazowiecka, Gostynin and Sochaczew.
Casimir II of Belz, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast from the Masovian branch. He was a Duke of Płock, Rawa Mazowiecka, Gostynin, Sochaczew, Belz, Płońsk, Zawkrze and Wizna during 1426–1434 jointly with his brothers, and after the division of the paternal inheritance between him and his brothers in 1434, sole ruler over Belz.
Trojden II of Płock, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast from the Masovian branch. He was a Duke of Płock, Rawa Mazowiecka, Gostynin, Sochaczew and Belz during 1426-1427 jointly with his brothers.
Władysław I of Płock, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast from the Masovian branch. He was a Duke of Płock, Rawa Mazowiecka, Gostynin, Sochaczew, Belz, Płońsk, Zawkrze and Wizna during 1426-1434 jointly with his brothers, after the division of the paternal inheritance between him and his brothers in 1434, sole ruler over Płock, Płońsk, Wizna and Zawkrze; in 1442 he reunited all their patrimony.
Władysław II of Płock, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast from the Masovian branch. He was a Duke of Płock, Rawa Mazowiecka, Belz, Płońsk, Zawkrze and Wizna during 1455-1461/62 jointly with his brother, since 1459 ruler over Gostynin.
Casimir I of Warsaw, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Czersk during 1341-1349 jointly with his brother, since 1345 ruler over Rawa Mazowiecka jointly with his brother, since 1349 sole ruler over Warsaw, since 1351 sole ruler over Sochaczew, Polish vassal since 1351.
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