Duchy of Masovia

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Duchy of Masovia

Księstwo Mazowieckie
1138–1526
Choragiew Mazowsza.svg
Flag
Ksiestwo Mazowieckie COA.svg
Coat of arms
Mazowsze w.png
Masovian lands (ziemie)
StatusProvince of Poland
Fiefdom of the Polish Crown (from 1351)
Capital Płock
Czersk (from 1262)
Warsaw (from 1413)
Religion
Roman Catholic
GovernmentDuchy
Dukes  
 11381173
Bolesław the Curly
 11941247
Konrad I
 12481262
Siemowit I
 15031526
Janusz III (last)
Historical era Middle Ages
1138
 Split off Kuyavia
1233
 Partitioned
1313
 Vassalized by the Polish Crown
1351
 Second partition
1381
 Incorporated by Poland
1526
 
1335
Preceded by
Succeeded by
POL Przemysl II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)
Masovian Voivodeship (1526–1795) POL wojewodztwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg

The Duchy of Masovia (Polish : Księstwo Mazowieckie) was a medieval duchy formed when the Polish Kingdom of the Piasts fragmented in 1138. It was located in the historic Masovian region of northeastern Kingdom of Poland. The duchy was re-incorporated into the Jagiellonian Kingdom of Poland by 1526.

Polish language West Slavic language spoken in Poland

Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Duchy Territory, fief, or domain ruled by, or representing the title of, a duke or duchess

A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. The term is used almost exclusively in Europe, where in the present day there is no sovereign duchy left.

"Kingdom of Poland" was the name of Poland under a series of former monarchial governments, from c. 1000/1025 to 1795:

Contents

History

The lands of the Masovians east of the Vistula river had been conquered by the Piast duke Mieszko I of Poland (960992) and formed a constituent part of his Civitas Schinesghe . The Masovian Diocese of Płock was established in 1075.

The Masovians or Mazovians are a Lechitic tribe or an ethnic group associated with the region of Mazovia. They were referenced by Nestor the Chronicler in the 11th century. Mazovians were pagan before Christianisation. Perhaps they formerly buried the dead toward the North Star. Their main settlements were probably in the area of Płock. Later, the inhabitants of Mazovia used to be called Mazurzy. Today, the term Mazovians is again in use and refers to the contemporary inhabitants of the Mazovian Voivodeship in Poland. Like most Poles, Masovians are Roman Catholics.

Vistula river in Eastern Europe

The Vistula is the longest and largest river in Poland and the 9th longest river in Europe, at 1,047 kilometres in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is 193,960 km2 (74,890 sq mi), of which 168,868 km2 (65,200 sq mi) lies within Poland. The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia.

The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. The first documented Polish monarch was Prince Mieszko I. The Piasts' royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir III the Great.

Fragmentation of Poland in 1138:
Duchy of Masovia of Boleslaw IV TestamentKrzywoustego.png
Fragmentation of Poland in 1138:
  Duchy of Masovia of Bolesław IV

Following the death of Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth in 1138, as specified by his testament, the Masovian province was governed by his second son Bolesław IV the Curly, who, after he had expelled his elder half-brother Władysław II, in 1146 became Grand Prince (High Duke) of Poland. His Masovian realm also comprised the adjacent lands of Kujawy (Kuyavia) on the west bank of the Vistula.

Bolesław III Wrymouth duke of Poland between 1107 and 1138

Bolesław III Wrymouth, was a Duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138. He was the only child of Prince Władysław I Herman and his first wife Judith, daughter of Vratislaus II of Bohemia.

Bolesław IV the Curly High Duke of Poland

Bolesław IV the Curly of the Piast dynasty was Duke of Masovia from 1138 and High Duke of Poland from 1146 until his death.

Władysław II the Exile High Duke of Poland

Vladislaus II the Exile was a High Duke of Poland and Duke of Silesia from 1138 until his expulsion in 1146. He is the progenitor of the Silesian Piasts.

Among the Piast Dukes of Masovia, Bolesław's IV nephew Konrad I was Polish high duke from 1229 to 1232 and again from 1241 to 1243; he was the ruler who in 1226 called the Teutonic Order for help against the pagan Old Prussians threatening the northern borders of his territory. In turn he ceded the Prussian Chełmno Land (Kulmerland) to the knights in 1230; according to the Golden Bull of Rimini (dated 1226), issued by the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II, these lands became the nucleus of the Order State. In 1233 Konrad gave Kujawy to his second son Casimir I, while Masovia passed to the first-born Bolesław I upon his death in 1247, succeeded by the youngest brother Siemowit I the next year.

Duke of Masovia Wikimedia list article

Duke of Masovia was a title born by the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. In accordance with the last will and testament of Bolesław, upon his death his lands were divided into four to five hereditary provinces distributed among his sons, and a royal province of Kraków reserved for the eldest, who was to be High Duke of all Poland. This was known as the fragmentation of Poland. Subsequent developments lead to further splintering of the duchies.

Konrad I of Masovia High Duke of Poland

Konrad I of Masovia, from the Polish Piast dynasty, was the sixth Duke of Masovia and Kujawy from 1194 until his death as well as High Duke of Poland from 1229 to 1232 and again from 1241 to 1243.

Teutonic Order Medieval military order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly the Teutonic Order, is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

While Siemowit's son Duke Konrad II (12641294) moved his residence to Czersk he and his brother Bolesław II entered into a long-term conflict over the Polish seniorate with their Kujawy relatives and the Silesian Piasts, which estranged them from the Piast monarchy. When the kingdom was finally restored in 1295 by the coronation of Duke Przemysł II of Greater Poland, the Duchy of Masovia remained independent.

Konrad II of Masovia POlish duke

Konrad II of Czersk, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Masovia during 1264-1275 jointly with his brother, since 1275 sole ruler over Czersk and Duke of Sandomierz during 1289.

Czersk, Masovian Voivodeship Settlement in Masovian, Poland

Czersk is a settlement in the administrative district of Gmina Góra Kalwaria, within Piaseczno County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland. It lies approximately 2 kilometres (1 mi) south-east of Góra Kalwaria, 19 km (12 mi) south-east of Piaseczno, and 33 km (21 mi) south-east of Warsaw. The village also lies on the Czersk Lake, which is an oxbow lake of the Vistula.

Bolesław II of Masovia or Bolesław II of Płock, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Masovia during 1262-1275 jointly with his brother, since 1275 sole ruler over Płock, since 1294 ruler over all Masovia and Duke of Kraków and Sandomierz during 1288-1289. In 1310 he gave to his sons the districts of Warsaw and Czersk.

1313 partition:
Duchy of Plock under Wenceslaus
Duchy of Rawa under Siemowit II
Duchy of Czersk under Trojden I Mazowsze1313.png
1313 partition:
  Duchy of Płock under Wenceslaus
  Duchy of Rawa under Siemowit II
  Duchy of Czersk under Trojden I

Upon the death of Duke Boleslaus II in 1313, Masovia was divided among his sons:

Siemowit II of Masovia Polish duke

Siemowit II of Rawa, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Warsaw and Liw during 1310-1313, after a new division with his brothers since 1313 ruler over Rawa Mazowiecka, Sochaczew, Zakroczym, Gostynin, Ciechanów and Wizna, regent of Płock during 1336–1340.

Rawa Mazowiecka Place in Łódź, Poland

Rawa Mazowiecka is a town in central Poland, with 17,561 inhabitants (2016). It lies in the Łódź Voivodeship and is the capital of the Rawa County.

Trojden I, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Czersk since 1310, ruler over Warsaw and Liw since 1313, regent of Płock during 1336–1340.

As neither Siemowit II nor Bolesław III of Płock left any heirs, Trojden's son Duke Siemowit III (13411381) was able to re-unite most of the Masovian lands under his rule; in 1351 he and his brother Casimir became vassals of the Polish kings, while the Bishopric of Płock had always been part of the Polish Archdiocese of Gniezno. Upon Siemowit's III death in 1381 however, Masovia was again partitioned between his sons:

Since the Polish-Lithuanian Union of 1385, Masovia was localized between the joined Jagiellonian states. The Dukes of Masovia also ruled the Duchy of Belz until 1462.

After the establishment of the Rawa and Płock Voivodeships, in 1495 the last surviving son of Boleslaus IV, Duke Konrad III Rudy, once again united the remaining Masovian lands under his rule. However, the male line of the Masovian Piasts became extinct upon the death of his son Duke Janusz III in 1526, whereafter the duchy as a reverted fief became the Masovian Voivodeship of the Polish Crown.

Parts of the southern region of neighboring East Prussia received settlers and Protestant religious refugees who became known as the Mazurs. By the 18th century the portion of East Prussia in which they settled was sometimes referred to as Masuria (Masuren), and inhabited by a Protestant population of Germans and Poles.

See also

Related Research Articles

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References