Duisburg

Last updated
Duisburg
Duisburg Innenhafen Ludwigturm.jpg
Theater Duisburg01.JPG
Duisburg - Homberger Brucke - panoramio.jpg
Tiger & Turtle 1.jpg
Duisburg StSalvator v NO.JPG
MSV-Arena Panorama.jpg
Flagge der Stadt Duisburg mit Wappen.svg
Flag
DEU Duisburg COA.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Duisburg within NRW
North rhine w DU.svg
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Duisburg
North Rhine-Westphalia location map 01.svg
Red pog.svg
Duisburg
Coordinates: 51°26′6.53″N6°45′45.69″E / 51.4351472°N 6.7626917°E / 51.4351472; 6.7626917 Coordinates: 51°26′6.53″N6°45′45.69″E / 51.4351472°N 6.7626917°E / 51.4351472; 6.7626917
Country Germany
State North Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. region Düsseldorf
District Urban district
Subdivisions7 boroughs, 46 suburbs
Government
   Lord Mayor Sören Link (SPD)
  Governing parties SPD / Greens / Left
Area
  City232.82 km2 (89.89 sq mi)
Elevation
31 m (102 ft)
Population
 (2017-12-31) [1]
  City498,110
  Density2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)
   Metro
11,316,429 (Rhine-Ruhr)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
47001–47279
Dialling codes 0203
Vehicle registration DU
Website www.duisburg.de

Duisburg ( /ˈdjsbɜːrɡ/ , also US: /ˈdjz-, ˈdəs-/ , [2] [3] [4] [5] German: [ˈdyːsbʊɐ̯k] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in the Ruhr metropolitan area of northwestern German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Lying on the confluence of the Rhine and the Ruhr rivers, Duisburg is one of the largest cities in Ruhr and 15th largest city in Germany.

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.

Ruhr Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

The Ruhr is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With a population density of 2,800/km2 and a population of over 5 million (2017), it is the largest urban area in Germany and the third-largest in the European Union. It consists of several large cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to the north. In the southwest it borders the Bergisches Land. It is considered part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region of more than 10 million people, which is among the largest in Europe.

North Rhine-Westphalia State in Germany

North Rhine-Westphalia is a state of Germany.

Contents

In the Middle Ages, it was city-state and a member of the Hanseatic League, and later became a major centre of iron, steel, and chemicals industries. For this reason, it was heavily bombed in World War II. Today it boasts the world's largest inland port, with 21 docks and 40 kilometres of wharf.

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th to the 15th century

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome, Athens, Carthage, and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance. As of 2019, only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Monaco, Singapore, and Vatican City. City states are also sometimes called microstates which however also includes other configurations of very small countries, not to be confused with micronations.

Hanseatic League Trade confederation in Northern Europe

The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coasts of Northern Europe. Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages, and diminished slowly after 1450.

Status

Duisburg is a city in Germany’s Rhineland, the fifth largest of the nation’s most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Its 499,845 (2016) inhabitants rank after Cologne, Düsseldorf, Dortmund and Essen, and make it Germany's 15th largest city. Located at the confluence of the Rhine river and its tributary the Ruhr river, it lies in the west of the Ruhr urban area, Germany's largest, of which it is the third largest city after Dortmund and Essen. The Ruhr itself lies within the larger Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, one of Europe's largest conurbations. The city lies on both sides of the Rhine, with the city centre and most boroughs on the river's right bank, and is the only city of the Rhine-Ruhr region lying on both the Rhine and Ruhr rivers. Duisburg is one of the largest cities in the Meuse-Rhenish (closely related to Dutch) dialect area and the largest in the South Guelderish area (north of the Uerdingen Isogloss).

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Rhineland historic region of Germany

The Rhineland is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

Cologne city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich. With slightly over a million inhabitants within its urban area, Cologne is the largest city on the Rhine and also the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, and of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn. It is the largest city in the Central Franconian and Ripuarian dialect areas.

Duisburg has the world's largest inland port, [6] "Duisburg-Ruhrorter Häfen", in Duisburg-Ruhrort. Germany's third largest and the Rhine-Ruhr region's main airport, Düsseldorf Airport, lies nearby the city, in Düsseldorf-Lohausen. With 42,747 students, the University of Duisburg-Essen is Germany's ninth largest university. It has campuses in Essen and Duisburg, and a university hospital in Essen. Duisburg is a result of numerous incorporations of surrounding towns and smaller cities. The city is renowned for its steel industry. All blast furnaces in the Ruhr are now located in Duisburg. In 2000, 49% of all hot metal and 34.4% of all pig iron in Germany were produced here. It also has a large brewery, König. In the early Middle Ages, it was a royal court of the Franks, first mentioned in writing in 883.

An inland port is a port on an inland waterway, such as a river, lake, or canal, which may or may not be connected to the sea. The term "inland port" is also used to refer to a dry port, which is an inland extension of a seaport, usually connected by rail to the docks. This article covers only ports that are covered by the first definition.

Ruhrort human settlement in Germany

Ruhrort is a district within the German city of Duisburg situated north of the confluence of the Ruhr and the Rhine, in the western part of the Ruhr area. Ruhrort has the largest river harbour in the World, with quays extending nearly 40 kilometres along the river, and it is the principal inland shipping port in Germany.

Düsseldorf Airport International Airport in Germany

Düsseldorf Airport is the international airport of Düsseldorf, the capital of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is about 7 kilometres (4 mi) north of downtown Düsseldorf, and some 20 kilometres (12 mi) south-west of Essen in the Rhine-Ruhr area, Germany's largest metropolitan area.

Geography

Duisburg is in the Lowland Rhine area at the confluence of the Rhine and Ruhr and near the outskirts of the Bergisches Land. The city spreads along both sides of these rivers.

Ruhr (river) river in Germany

The Ruhr is a river in western Germany, a right tributary (east-side) of the Rhine.

Bergisches Land

The Bergisches Land is a low mountain range region within the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, east of Rhine river, south of the Ruhr. The landscape is shaped by woods, meadows, rivers and creeks and contains over 20 artificial lakes. Wuppertal is one of the biggest towns and seen as the region's capital, whereas the southern part nowadays has closer economic and socio-cultural ties to Cologne. Wuppertal and the neighbouring cities of Remscheid, Solingen form the Bergisches Städtedreieck.

Adjacent cities

The following cities border Duisburg (clockwise starting from north-east): Oberhausen, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Ratingen, Düsseldorf, Meerbusch, Krefeld, Moers, Rheinberg, and Dinslaken.

Oberhausen Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Oberhausen is a city on the river Emscher in the Ruhr Area, Germany, located between Duisburg and Essen. The city hosts the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen and its Gasometer Oberhausen is an anchor point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage.

Mülheim Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Mülheim an der Ruhr, also described as "City on the River", is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. It is located in the Ruhr Area between Duisburg, Essen, Oberhausen and Ratingen. It is home to many companies, especially in the food industry, such as the Aldi Süd Company, the Harke Group and the Tengelmann Group.

Ratingen Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Ratingen is a town in the district of Mettmann, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in the northwestern part of Berg - about 12 km northeast of Düsseldorf.

Districts

Since 1 January 1975, Duisburg has been divided into seven districts or boroughs (Stadtbezirk) from the north to the south: [7]

Coat of arms of Duisburg at the town hall in Duisburg Duisburger Wappen am Rathaus Duisburg.JPG
Coat of arms of Duisburg at the town hall in Duisburg

Climate

Duisburg has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb). [8]

Climate data for Duisburg
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)4
(39)
5
(41)
8
(46)
12
(54)
17
(63)
20
(68)
22
(72)
22
(72)
18
(64)
14
(57)
8
(46)
5
(41)
13
(55)
Daily mean °C (°F)2
(36)
3
(37)
5
(41)
8
(46)
13
(55)
16
(61)
17
(63)
17
(63)
14
(57)
11
(52)
6
(43)
3
(37)
10
(49)
Average low °C (°F)0
(32)
0
(32)
2
(36)
5
(41)
9
(48)
12
(54)
13
(55)
13
(55)
11
(52)
8
(46)
3
(37)
1
(34)
6
(44)
Average precipitation mm (inches)81.3
(3.20)
55.9
(2.20)
76.2
(3.00)
68.6
(2.70)
73.7
(2.90)
96.5
(3.80)
88.9
(3.50)
76.2
(3.00)
73.7
(2.90)
71.1
(2.80)
83.8
(3.30)
88.9
(3.50)
934.8
(36.8)
Source: weather.com [9]

History

The first syllable of the name of the city could go back to the Proto-Indo-European root *dʰeus-, meaning something like "wet area" or "flood plain".[ citation needed ] Duisburg therefore could mean "fortified place in the floodplain". Another interpretation assumes that the name is derived from the Old German "duis" which means "hill".[ citation needed ] Duisburg could mean something like "castle on the hill". Thus, a place on a hill overlooking the Rhine, that could refer to the area of the present Town Hall. Duisburggau (Diuspurgau) was also the name of the medieval Gau (country subdivision) on the Lower Rhine.

A legend recorded by Johannes Aventinus (fl. 1525) holds that Duisburg, (along with Deutz, Cologne, Duisdorf in Bonn, and Doesburg in the Netherlands, all on the Rhine's right bank) was built by the namesake Tuisto, mythical progenitor of Germans, ca. 2395 BC. There is nothing to establish any historical basis for such an early founding of Duisburg, which would have made it among the earliest cities in Europe.

Roman period

Latest archaeological studies show that the present-day market-place was already in use in the first century. It has been the major central trading place of the city since the 5th century. The city itself was located at the "Hellweg", an important medieval trade route, and at a ford across the Rhine. The Romans already guarded the ford.

Middle Ages

Due to the town's favorable geographic position a palatinate was built and the town was soon granted the royal charter of a free city. Duisburg became a member of the Hanseatic League. Around 1000 the river Rhine moved westward from the city. This put an end to the city's development as a trading town and it soon grew into a quiet rural city.

Mecatorbrunnen ("Mecator fountain") in front of the town hall Duisburg Mercatorbrunnen 1.jpg
Mecatorbrunnen ("Mecator fountain") in front of the town hall

The productions of cartographer Gerardus Mercator and the foundation of a university in 1655 established the city's renown as "Educated Duisburg" ("Duisburgum Doctum").

Industrial revolution

Binnenhafen in 1931 Bundesarchiv Bild 102-12562, Duisburg, Binnenhafen.jpg
Binnenhafen in 1931

The rise of tobacco and textile industries in the 18th century made Duisburg an industrial center. Big industrial companies such as iron and steel producing firms (Thyssen and Krupp) influenced the development of the city within the Prussian Rhine Province. Large housing areas near production sites were being built as workers and their families moved in.

World War II

A major logistical center in the Ruhr and location of chemical, steel and iron industries, Duisburg was a primary target of Allied bombers. As such, it is considered by some historians[ who? ] to be the single most heavily bombed German city by the Allies during World War II, with industrial areas and residential blocks targeted by Allied incendiary bombs.

On the night of 12–13 June 1941, British bombers dropped a total of 445 tons of bombs in and around Duisburg. As part of the Battle of the Ruhr, another British raid of 577 bombers destroyed the old city between 12–13 May 1943 with 1,599 tons of bombs. During the bombing raids, 96,000 people were made homeless with countless lives lost.

In 1944 the city was again badly damaged as a total of 2,000 tons of bombs were dropped on 22 May. On 14 October, the tonnage was repeated with 2,018 tons when Halifax, Lancaster, and Mosquito bombers appeared over Duisburg as part of Operation Hurricane. This daylight raid was followed by a night attack; over 24 hours about 9,000 tons of HE and incendiaries had been dropped on Duisburg. Numerous similar attacks followed until the end of 1944.

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Duisburg in April 1945. The US 17th Airborne Division, acting as regular infantry and not in a parachute role, met only scattered resistance in the vicinity and captured the city on 12 April 1945. [10]

On 8 May 1945 the ADSEC Engineer Group A, led by Col. Helmer Swenholt, commanding officer of the 332nd Engineer General Service Regiment, constructed a railway bridge between Duisburg and Rheinhausen across the Rhine. It was 860 meters long, and constructed in six days, fifteen hours and twenty minutes, a record time. It was named the "Victory Bridge". [11]

Post-World War II period

Shrinking Duisburg: Abandoned buildings in the borough of Beeck Duisburg-Beeck 05.02.2013 09.JPG
Shrinking Duisburg: Abandoned buildings in the borough of Beeck

A total of 299 bombing raids had almost completely destroyed the historic cityscape. 80% of all residential buildings had been destroyed or partly damaged. Almost the whole of the city had to be rebuilt, and most historic landmarks had been lost.

Beginning in the mid-1960s, the decline of Duisburg's steel and mining industry caused a significant loss of residents. While in 1975 approximately 590,000 people were living in Duisburg, the number has shrunk to 518,000 in 1985.

Duisburg celebrated its 1100th anniversary in 1983. The city's population recovered a little in the following years, up to 537,000 in 1992. It declined to 488,000 in 2011. On 19 July 2004, it was hit by a tornado. The municipal theater and parts of the city center were damaged. The city hosted the 7th World Games in 2005. In 2010, 21 people died because of a mass panic at the Love Parade; over 500 people were injured.

Demographics

In 2010, Duisburg had a population of 489,600, a slight decrease since 2006.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
17142,983    
18105,195+74.2%
187130,533+487.7%
190092,729+203.7%
1910229,483+147.5%
1919244,302+6.5%
1925272,252+11.4%
1933440,419+61.8%
1939434,646−1.3%
1950410,783−5.5%
1961502,993+22.4%
1970454,839−9.6%
1987525,378+15.5%
2011488,468−7.0%
2017498,110+2.0%
source: [12]

Population structure of non-German residents [13]

RankNationalityPopulation (31.03.2018) [14]
1Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 34,135
2Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 10,542
3Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 8,509
4Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 8,223
5Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 5,594
6Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 3,706
7Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 2,399
8Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 2,370
9Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,862
10Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 1,862
11Flag of North Macedonia.svg  Macedonia 1,473
12Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1,452
13Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 1,435
14Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 1,432
15Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1,255
16Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 1,208
17Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 973

Circa 2010 there were 568 citizens of the PRC in Duisburg, while circa 2018 there were about 1,136. [15]

Inside the Merkez-Moschee Bildungsdiskurs DITIB-Merkez-Moschee.jpg
Inside the Merkez-Moschee

Turkish community

Duisburg is home to 85,000 people of Turkish origin. [16] Other estimates suggest that the Turkish population is as large as 100,000 [17] [18] [19] The new Merkez Mosque, one of the largest Muslim places of worship in Western Europe, was built with help by the way of contribution of 3.2 million euro from the EU and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. [20] Asiye Nur Fettahoğlu, a Turkish-German actress, was born in Duisburg on November 12, 1980.

Transport

Watershed of the Rhine Rhine river 3.PNG
Watershed of the Rhine

Duisburg Port

Duisburg Inner Harbour [21] is the largest inland port in the world. [22] It is officially regarded as a "seaport" because seagoing river vessels go to ports in Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Numerous docks are mostly located at the mouth of the Ruhr where it joins the Rhine.

Each year more than 40 million tonnes of various goods are handled with more than 20,000 ships calling at the port. The public harbor facilities stretch across an area of 7.4 square kilometres (2.9 sq mi). There are 21 docks covering an area of 1.8 km2 (0.7 sq mi) and 40 kilometres (25 miles) of wharf. The area of the Logport Logistic Center Duisburg stretches across an area of 2.65 km2 (1.02 sq mi). With 2.5 million TEU it is also the largest inland container port based on 2011 figures. [23] A number of companies run their own private docks and 114 million tonnes of goods yearly (2010) are handled in Duisburg in total.

Roads

Duisburg is served by several autobahns, with 3 east–west routes and 2 north–south routes. A3 forms a bypass east of the city and mostly serves through traffic. A59 runs parallel to A3 and serves the city from north to south with 14 interchanges, much more than most other cities in the Ruhr area. The A40 and A42 are two east–west routes that serve central and northern Duisburg. Autobahn A40 also serves major through traffic from the Netherlands to Berlin and points east. A short spur, A524 serves southern Duisburg. Most Autobahns have six lanes or are upgraded to six lanes (A59).

Apart from the autobahns, no Bundesstraßen serve the city directly. B8 runs through the city, but uses A59's alignment. B288 runs in the extreme south of the city, and serves traffic to and from Krefeld. Several bridges span the Rhine, most prominently the A40 and A42 bridges, but also the L287 suspension bridge and the L237 arch bridge, a three-lane bridge with 2 lanes per peak direction with dynamic lane usage.

Public transport

Duisburg Hbf is served by the InterCityExpress and InterCity long-distance network of the Deutsche Bahn, in addition lines S 1 and S 2 of the S-Bahn line connect Duisburg with other cities of the Rhine-Ruhr area.

The Duisburg Stadtbahn, the Duisburg tramway network, and a bus system, all operated by the Duisburger Verkehrsgesellschaft provide local services. Stadtbahn line U79, the so-called D-Bahn, is a connection to the neighbouring city of Düsseldorf and is operated jointly with the Rheinbahn of Düsseldorf. All S-Bahn, Stadtbahn and bus lines operate under the umbrella of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr

Media

There are several newspapers reporting on local events and politics, including the "Westdeutsche Allgemeine" (WAZ), the "Neue Ruhr Zeitung" (NRZ) and the "Rheinische Post" (RP). The local radio station "Radio Duisburg" was the first local radio broadcaster in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It started broadcasting in 1990. There is a local television station ("STUDIO 47"), which was the first local station to broadcast in North Rhine-Westphalia. It started broadcasting in 2006. In its Duisburg studios the WDR produces a local programme for the city of Duisburg and the Lower Rhine region north of Düsseldorf. WDR is part of the German television and radio network ARD.

Culture

Duisburg hosts a comprehensive range of cultural facilities and events. A highlight is the annual "Duisburger Akzente", [24] a festival focusing on modern social, political and cultural topics.

Besides Düsseldorf Duisburg is a residence of the Deutsche Oper am Rhein, one of the major opera houses in Germany. The Duisburg Philharmonic Orchestra is one of Germany's orchestras with an international reputation.

Thanks to its history as a harbor city and a trade and industrial center Duisburg offers a variety of architectural places of interest, such as the German Inland Waterways Museum. The spectrum goes from old churches such as "St Johann Baptist" in Duisburg-Hamborn, which was built in 900, to modern age buildings like Micro-Electronic-Centrum in Duisburg-Neudorf, built in 1995. Another subject of interest is the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord [25] an abandoned industrial complex open to the public and an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage. The city center locates the Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum, [26] the municipal theatre [27] and the shopping street known as "fountain mile".

The city also contains two botanical gardens, the Botanischer Garten Duisburg-Hamborn and the Botanischer Garten Kaiserberg, as well as a number of municipal parks.

On 24 July 2010, 21 people were killed and hundreds injured in the city during the Love Parade disaster. [28] The Love Parade was an electronic dance music festival and technoparade.


Sport

ClubSportLeagueVenue
MSV Duisburg Football 2. Bundesliga MSV Arena
EV Duisburg Ice hockey Regionalliga West (4th District League) Scania Arena
MSV-Duisburg Women's football Women's Bundesliga PCC-Stadion
Duisburg Dockers Baseball, American football Landesliga II (2nd District League)Schwelgernstadion
Amateur SC Duisburg Water polo Deutsche Wasserball-Liga (1st Water Polo League)Schwimmstadion and club pool
Club Raffelberg Hockey Regionalliga West (3rd Hockey League)Kalkweg

Duisburg is involved in many kinds of sports. Nevertheless, most important for its inhabitants is the local football club MSV Duisburg. Recently, with the new MSV Arena the city received a brand new sports stadium for various kinds of sports such as football and American football. During the summer months of 2005 the World Games took place in Duisburg. During the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Duisburg was the stage for preparation of the Portuguese team and the residence of the Italian football team, who won the cup in the final match against France. Duisburg is also known for its Rhein-Ruhr-Marathon, its rowing and canoeing regattas and the world championships that take place there regularly. Other popular sports are icehockey, baseball, American football, water polo and hockey.

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Duisburg is twinned with: [29] [30]

Related Research Articles

Essen Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Essen is the central and second largest city of the Ruhr, the largest urban area in Germany. Its population of 583,393 makes it the ninth largest city of Germany, as well as the fourth largest city of the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. On the Ruhr and Emscher rivers, Essen geographically is part of the Rhineland and the larger Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region. The Ruhrdeutsch regiolect spoken in the region has strong influences of both Low German (Westphalian) and Low Franconian.

Mettmann (district) District in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Mettmann is a Kreis (district) in the middle of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Neighboring are the Ennepe-Ruhr and the district-free cities Wuppertal, Solingen, Düsseldorf, Duisburg, Mülheim, Essen. It is the most densely populated rural district in Germany; it borders Düsseldorf Airport in the northwestern district borders, on the city limits of Ratingen, and is also near Cologne Bonn Airport. It was named after Mettmann, its district seat.

Rhine-Ruhr Urban area in Germany

The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with over 10 million inhabitants. It is of polycentric nature. It covers an area of 7,268 square kilometres (2,806 sq mi) and lies entirely within the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region spreads from Dortmund-Bochum-Essen-Duisburg in the north, to the urban areas of the cities of Mönchengladbach, Düsseldorf, Wuppertal, Leverkusen, Cologne, and Bonn in the south. The location of the Rhine-Ruhr at the heart of the European blue banana makes it well connected to other major European cities and metropolitan areas like the Randstad, the Flemish Diamond and the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region.

Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr public transport association in Germany

The Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr, abbreviated VRR, is the public transport association covering the area of the Rhine-Ruhr conurbation in Germany. It was founded on 1 January 1980, and is Europe’s largest body of such kind, covering an area of some 5,000 km² with more than seven million inhabitants, spanning as far as Dorsten in the north, Dortmund in the east, Langenfeld in the south, and Mönchengladbach and the Dutch border in the west.

Düsseldorf Hauptbahnhof Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn station

Düsseldorf Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station of Düsseldorf, the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

Kettwig Essen

Kettwig is the southernmost borough of the city of Essen in western Germany and, until 1975, was a town in its own right. Kettwig is situated next to the Ruhr river, at a median height of 53 metres above sea level. It is the most recently incorporated borough of Essen and also the largest in area, at 15.3 km². It belongs to the city district Stadtbezirk IX Werden/Kettwig/Bredeney and has 17,760 inhabitants as of June 2006.

Gauliga Niederrhein

The Gauliga Niederrhein was the highest football league in the northern part of the Prussian Rhine Province from 1933 to 1945. Shortly after the formation of the league, the Nazis reorganised the administrative regions in Germany, and the GaueEssen and Düsseldorf replaced the Prussian province in the Lower Rhein region.

The actual boundaries of the Ruhr vary slightly depending on the source, but a good working definition is to define the Lippe and Ruhr as its northern and southern boundaries respectively, the Rhine as its western boundary, and the town of Hamm as the eastern limit.

NRW-Express Regional railway line in North Rhine-Westphalia

The NRW-Express is a Regional-Express service in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), running from Aachen via Cologne, Düsseldorf, Essen and Dortmund to Hamm as line RE 1. The line is operated by DB Regio NRW.

Rhein-Weser-Express

The Rhein-Weser-Express is a Regional-Express service route in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, connecting some of the most important cities in Westphalia with the Ruhr. Cologne, Neuss, Düsseldorf and Duisburg lie on the Rhine while Minden lies on the Weser.

Rhein-Haard-Express

The Rhein-Haard-Express is a Regional-Express service in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), running from Münster via Recklinghausen, Gelsenkirchen, Essen and Duisburg to Düsseldorf.

Rhein-Emscher-Express

The Rhein-Emscher-Express is a Regional-Express service in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), running from Düsseldorf via Duisburg, Gelsenkirchen and Dortmund to Hamm. It connects with the rest of the regional rail network of NRW in Düsseldorf, Duisburg, Oberhausen, Wanne-Eickel, Dortmund and Hamm. In addition, it connects in Düsseldorf, Duisburg, Oberhausen, Dortmund and Hamm with long-distance services.

Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn

The Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn is an umbrella system of all of the Stadtbahn lines included in the integrated public transport network of Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr (VRR) which covers the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area in western Germany. It does not include the independent Cologne Stadtbahn and Bonn Stadtbahn systems.

Duisburg Stadtbahn

The Duisburg Stadtbahn is a light rail network forming part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn system. It is the centrepiece of the public transport system in Duisburg, a city in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Duisburg, Germany.

References

  1. "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden Nordrhein-Westfalens am 31. Dezember 2017" (in German). Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW . Retrieved 2018-09-21.
  2. "Duisburg". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  3. "Duisburg". Collins English Dictionary . HarperCollins . Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  4. "Duisburg" (US) and "Duisburg". Oxford Dictionaries . Oxford University Press . Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  5. "Duisburg". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  6. Cioc, Mark (17 November 2009). "The Rhine: An Eco-Biography, 18152000". University of Washington Press. Retrieved 11 December 2016 via Google Books.
  7. "Population statistics". Statistisches Landesamt NRW. Archived from the original on 2008-02-09.
  8. "Duisburg, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  9. "Weather Information for Duisburg". Archived from the original on 2012-10-23.
  10. Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946 (revised ed., 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 97.
  11. Peacock, Jim; Peacock, Tom. "Duisberg". Geocities. Yahoo. Archived from the original on 2009-10-24. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  12. Link
  13. "Ausländer_2006-2007_Kreise.xls" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  14. "Duisburger Quartalszahlen" (PDF). Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  15. Oltermann, Philip (2018-08-01). "Germany's 'China City': how Duisburg became Xi Jinping's gateway to Europe". The Guardian . Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  16. "50 Jahre Deutsch-Türkisches Anwerbeabkommen | 50 jähriges Jubiläum zum Anwerbeabkommen der Türkei und der BRD" (in German). 50jahre.wir-sind-du.de. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  17. DÜNYA. "TGRT Haber &raquo Haberler &raquo Dünya &raquo Almanya'nın en büyük camisine yoğun ilgi". Tgrthaber.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-30. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  18. ""Das ist Volkesstimme" – Thilo Sarrazin in Duisburg » xtranews - das Newsportal aus Duisburg » antonia-colloni, Duisburg, feindbild-islamkritik, hartmut-krauss-feindbild-islamkritik, Heinz Pletziger, heinz-gess, Horst Wackerbarth, Integration, islam-kritik-besprechungen, islamkritik-feindbild, Karl Janssen, kritiknetz-suddeutsche-hartmut-krauss, Lehmbruck Museum, Migration, raimund-stecker, sarrazin-duisburg, sarrazin-juden, sarrazin-zitate, Thilo Sarrazin". Xtranews.de. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  19. "Türk Edebiyatı Avrupa'da". On5yirmi5.com. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  20. Quantara.de retrieved July 25, 2008
  21. sprengerbleilevens. "Führende Logistikdrehscheibe in Zentraleuropa - Duisburger Hafen AG" . Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  22. "Port of Duisburg" . Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  23. Top 100 Container Ports 2012 Archived 2013-06-04 at the Wayback Machine
  24. GmbH, Duisburg Marketing. "38. Duisburger Akzente 2017 - Theater, Bildende Kunst & Literatur" . Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  25. "Duisburg-Nord Landscape Park". Landschaftspark.de. 2009-04-23. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  26. Cynapsis Kommunikationsagentur GmbH in Münster. "Cynapsis - Die Kommunikations-Agentur in Münster". Lehmbruck.cynapsis.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  27. "Theater Duisburg - Startseite" . Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  28. Connolly, Kate (25 July 2010). "Love Parade stampede in Germany kills at least 18 - latimes.com". latimes.com. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Cities Twinned with Duisburg". www.duisburg.de. Archived from the original on 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). © 2009 Twins2010.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-28.External link in |publisher= (help)
  31. Portsmouth City Council. Twinning Archived 2011-09-26 at the UK Government Web Archive . Retrieved 22 August 2007.
  32. Brian Daugherty. "Portsmouth Duisburg Group". www.ruhrdistrict.com. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
  33. "Duisburger Portsmouthfreunde". Portsmouthfreunde.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07.

Bibliography