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Innenhafen Duisburg Blaue Stunde 2014.jpg
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Location of Duisburg within NRW
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North Rhine-Westphalia location map 01.svg
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Coordinates: 51°26′05″N6°45′45″E / 51.43472°N 6.76250°E / 51.43472; 6.76250 Coordinates: 51°26′05″N6°45′45″E / 51.43472°N 6.76250°E / 51.43472; 6.76250
Country Germany
State North Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. region Düsseldorf
District Urban district
Subdivisions7 boroughs, 46 suburbs
   Lord mayor (2017–25) Sören Link [1] (SPD)
  Governing parties SPD / Greens / Left
   City 232.82 km2 (89.89 sq mi)
31 m (102 ft)
 (2020-12-31) [2]
   City 495,885
  Density2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)
11,316,429 (Rhine-Ruhr)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
Dialling codes 0203
Vehicle registration DU
Website www.duisburg.de

Duisburg (German: [ˈdyːsbʊʁk] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) DOOCE-burk) is a city in the Ruhr metropolitan area of the western German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Lying on the confluence of the Rhine and the Ruhr rivers in the center of the Rhine-Ruhr Region, Duisburg is the 5th largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia and the 15th-largest city in Germany.


In the Middle Ages, it was a city-state and a member of the Hanseatic League, and later became a major centre of iron, steel, and chemicals industries. For this reason, it was heavily bombed in World War II. Today it boasts the world's largest inland port, with 21 docks and 40 kilometres of wharf.


Duisburg is a city in Germany's Rhineland, the fifth-largest (after Cologne, Düsseldorf, Dortmund and Essen) of the nation's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Its 500,000 inhabitants make it Germany's 15th-largest city. Located at the confluence of the Rhine river and its tributary the Ruhr river, it lies in the west of the Ruhr urban area, Germany's largest, of which it is the third-largest city after Dortmund and Essen. The Ruhr itself lies within the larger Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, one of Europe's largest conurbations. The city lies on both sides of the Rhine, with the city centre and most boroughs on the river's right bank, and is the only city of the Rhine-Ruhr region lying on both the Rhine and Ruhr rivers. Duisburg is one of the largest cities in the Meuse-Rhenish (closely related to Dutch) dialect area and the largest in the South Guelderish area (north of the Uerdingen Isogloss).

Duisburg has the world's largest inland port, [3] "Duisburg-Ruhrorter Häfen", in Duisburg-Ruhrort. Germany's third-largest and the Rhine-Ruhr region's main airport, Düsseldorf Airport, lies near the city, in Düsseldorf-Lohausen. With 42,747 students, the University of Duisburg-Essen is Germany's ninth-largest university. It has campuses in Essen and Duisburg, and a university hospital in Essen. Duisburg is a result of numerous incorporations of surrounding towns and smaller cities. The city is renowned for its steel industry. All blast furnaces in the Ruhr are now located in Duisburg. In 2000, 49% of all hot metal and 34.4% of all pig iron in Germany were produced here. It also has a large brewery, König. In the early Middle Ages, it was a royal court of the Franks, first mentioned in writing in 883.


Duisburg is in the Lowland Rhine area at the confluence of the Rhine and Ruhr and near the outskirts of the Bergisches Land. The city spreads along both sides of these rivers.

Adjacent cities

The following cities border Duisburg (clockwise starting from the north-east): Oberhausen, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Ratingen, Düsseldorf, Meerbusch, Krefeld, Moers, Rheinberg, and Dinslaken.


Since 1 January 1975, Duisburg has been divided into seven districts or boroughs ( Stadtbezirke ) from north to south: [4]

Coat of arms of Duisburg at the town hall in Duisburg Duisburger Wappen am Rathaus Duisburg.JPG
Coat of arms of Duisburg at the town hall in Duisburg


Duisburg has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb). [5] On 25 July 2019, Duisburg recorded a temperature of 41.2 °C (106.2 °F), which is the highest temperature to have ever been record in Germany. [6]

Climate data for Duisburg
Average high °C (°F)4
Daily mean °C (°F)2
Average low °C (°F)0
Average precipitation mm (inches)81.3
Source: weather.com [7]



The current Mayor of Duisburg is Sören Link of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), who was elected in 2012 and re-elected in 2017.

The most recent mayoral election was held on 24 September 2017, and the results were as follows:

CandidatePartyVotes %
Sören Link Social Democratic Party 127,79356.7
Gerhard Meyer Christian Democratic Union 57,81525.7
Erkan Kocalar The Left 13,3065.9
Thomas Wolters Free Democratic Party 12,7765.7
Melanie Händelkes National Democratic Party 7,5193.3
Yasar Durmus Independent 5,4782.4
Valid votes224,68798.7
Invalid votes3,0091.3
Electorate/voter turnout365,64662.3
Source: City of Duisburg

City council

Results of the 2020 city council election. 2020 Duisburg City Council election.svg
Results of the 2020 city council election.

The Duisburg city council (Duisburger Stadtrat) governs the city alongside the Mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 13 September 2020, and the results were as follows:

PartyVotes %+/-Seats+/-
Social Democratic Party (SPD)43,05130.8Decrease2.svg 10.132Decrease2.svg 3
Christian Democratic Union (CDU)29,96621.5Decrease2.svg 3.322Increase2.svg 1
Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)24,72817.7Increase2.svg 10.319Increase2.svg 13
Alternative for Germany (AfD)12,9689.3Increase2.svg 5.710Increase2.svg 7
The Left (Die Linke)7,7145.5Decrease2.svg 1.06±0
Free Democratic Party (FDP)4,3333.1Increase2.svg 0.73Increase2.svg 1
Young Duisburg (JUDU)4,0912.9Increase2.svg 0.83Increase2.svg 1
Human Environment Animal Protection (Tierschutz)2,5991.9New2New
Duisburg Alternative List (DAL)1,7091.2Increase2.svg 0.11±0
Die PARTEI (PARTEI)1,5961.1New1New
We Shape Duisbug (WGD)1,4711.1New1New
Socially Just Independent (SGU)1,3841.0Increase2.svg 0.11±0
Solidarity for Duisburg (SfD)9580.7New1New
Civic Liberals (BL)6080.4New0New
National Democratic Party (NPD)5500.4Decrease2.svg 1.30Decrease2.svg 1
Alliance Duisburg (Allianz)3770.3New0New
Alliance for Duisburg (BfD)2900.2New0New
Independent Gisela Schiffers1410.1New0New
Digital Ecological Social (DOS)830.1New0New
Independent Marliese Lenz570.0New0New
Awakening Duisburg (Aufbruch Du)410.0New0New
Valid votes139,60598.9
Invalid votes1,6181.1
Total141,223100.0102Increase2.svg 18
Electorate/voter turnout360,75039.1Decrease2.svg 1.4
Source: State Returning Officer


Duisburg is covered by two constituencies; Duisburg I and Duisburg II.


The first syllable of the name of the city could go back to the Proto-Indo-European root *dʰeus-, meaning something like "wet area" or "flood plain".[ citation needed ] Duisburg therefore could mean "fortified place in the floodplain". Another interpretation assumes that the name is derived from the Old German "duis" which means "hill".[ citation needed ] Duisburg could mean something like "castle on the hill". Thus, a place on a hill overlooking the Rhine, that could refer to the area of the present Town Hall. Duisburggau (Diuspurgau) was also the name of the medieval Gau (country subdivision) on the Lower Rhine.

A legend recorded by Johannes Aventinus (fl. 1525) holds that Duisburg (along with Deutz, Cologne, Duisdorf in Bonn, and Doesburg in the Netherlands, all on the Rhine's right bank) was built by the namesake Tuisto, mythical progenitor of Germans, ca. 2395 BC. There is nothing to establish any historical basis for such an early founding of Duisburg, which would have made it among the earliest cities in Europe.

Roman period

Latest archaeological studies show that the present-day market-place was already in use in the first century. It has been the major central trading place of the city since the 5th century. The city itself was located at the "Hellweg", an important medieval trade route, and at a ford across the Rhine. The Romans already guarded the ford.

Middle Ages

Due to the town's favorable geographic position a palatinate was built and the town was soon granted the royal charter of a free city. Duisburg became a member of the Hanseatic League. Around 1000 the river Rhine moved westward from the city. This put an end to the city's development as a trading town and it soon grew into a quiet rural city.

Mercatorbrunnen ("Mercator fountain") in front of the town hall Duisburg Mercatorbrunnen 1.jpg
Mercatorbrunnen ("Mercator fountain") in front of the town hall

The productions of cartographer Gerardus Mercator and the foundation of a university in 1655 established the city's renown as "Educated Duisburg" ("Duisburgum Doctum").

Industrial revolution

Binnenhafen in 1931 Bundesarchiv Bild 102-12562, Duisburg, Binnenhafen.jpg
Binnenhafen in 1931

The rise of tobacco and textile industries in the 18th century made Duisburg an industrial center. Big industrial companies such as iron and steel producing firms (Thyssen and Krupp) influenced the development of the city within the Prussian Rhine Province. Large housing areas near production sites were being built as workers and their families moved in.

World War II

A major logistical center in the Ruhr and location of chemical, steel and iron industries, Duisburg was a primary target of Allied bombers. As such, it is considered by some historians[ who? ] to be the single most heavily bombed German city by the Allies during World War II, with industrial areas and residential blocks targeted by Allied incendiary bombs.

On the night of 12–13 June 1941, British bombers dropped a total of 445 tons of bombs in and around Duisburg. As part of the Battle of the Ruhr, another British raid of 577 bombers destroyed the old city between 12 and 13 May 1943 with 1,599 tons of bombs. During the bombing raids, 96,000 people were made homeless with countless lives lost.

In 1944 the city was again badly damaged as a total of 2,000 tons of bombs were dropped on 22 May. On 14 October, the tonnage was repeated with 2,018 tons when Halifax, Lancaster, and Mosquito bombers appeared over Duisburg as part of Operation Hurricane. This daylight raid was followed by a night attack; over 24 hours about 9,000 tons of HE and incendiaries had been dropped on Duisburg. Numerous similar attacks followed until the end of 1944.

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Duisburg in April 1945. The US 17th Airborne Division, acting as regular infantry and not in a parachute role, met only scattered resistance in the vicinity and captured the city on 12 April 1945. [8]

On 8 May 1945 the ADSEC Engineer Group A, led by Col. Helmer Swenholt, commanding officer of the 332nd Engineer General Service Regiment, constructed a railway bridge between Duisburg and Rheinhausen across the Rhine. It was 860 meters long, and constructed in six days, fifteen hours and twenty minutes, a record time. It was named the "Victory Bridge". [9]

Post-World War II period

Shrinking Duisburg: Abandoned buildings in the borough of Beeck Duisburg-Beeck 05.02.2013 09.JPG
Shrinking Duisburg: Abandoned buildings in the borough of Beeck

A total of 299 bombing raids had almost completely destroyed the historic cityscape. 80% of all residential buildings had been destroyed or partly damaged. Almost the whole of the city had to be rebuilt, and most historic landmarks had been lost.

Beginning in the mid-1960s, the decline of Duisburg's steel and mining industry caused a significant loss of residents. While in 1975 approximately 590,000 people were living in Duisburg, the number had shrunk to 518,000 in 1985.

Duisburg celebrated its 1100th anniversary in 1983. The city's population recovered a little in the following years, up to 537,000 in 1992. It declined to 488,000 in 2011. On 19 July 2004, it was hit by a tornado. The municipal theater and parts of the city center were damaged. The city hosted the 7th World Games in 2005. In 2010, 21 people died because of a mass panic at the Love Parade; over 500 people were injured.


In 2010, Duisburg had a population of 489,600, a slight decrease since 2006.

Historical population
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions. source: [10] [ circular reference ]

Population structure of non-German residents: [11]

RankNationalityPopulation (31 March 2019) [12]
1Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 33,768
2Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 12,143
3Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 9,323
4Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 8,853
5Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 5,423
6Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 3,805
7Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 2,488
8Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 2,381
9Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 2,044
10Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,944
11Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia 1,489
12Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 1,445
13Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 1,427
14Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1,272
15Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1,237
16Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 1,191
17Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 1,178
18Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 996

Turkish community

Duisburg is home to 85,000 people of Turkish origin. [13] Other estimates suggest that the Turkish population is as large as 100,000. [14] [15] [16] The new Merkez Mosque, one of the largest Muslim places of worship in Western Europe, was built with help by the way of contribution of 3.2 million euro from the EU and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. [17] Asiye Nur Fettahoğlu, a Turkish-German actress, was born in Duisburg on 12 November 1980.[ citation needed ]


Watershed of the Rhine Rhine river 3.PNG
Watershed of the Rhine

Duisburg Port

Duisburg-Ruhrorter Häfen [18] is the largest inland port in the world. [19] It is officially regarded as a "seaport" because seagoing river vessels go to ports in Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Numerous docks are mostly located at the mouth of the Ruhr where it joins the Rhine.

Each year more than 40 million tonnes of various goods are handled with more than 20,000 ships calling at the port. The public harbor facilities stretch across an area of 7.4 square kilometres (2.9 sq mi). There are 21 docks covering an area of 1.8 km2 (0.7 sq mi) and 40 kilometres (25 miles) of wharf. The area of the Logport Logistic Center Duisburg stretches across an area of 2.65 km2 (1.02 sq mi). With 2.5 million TEU it is also the largest inland container port, based on 2011 figures. [20] A number of companies run their own private docks and 114 million tonnes of goods yearly (2010) are handled in Duisburg in total.


Duisburg is served by several autobahns, with 3 east–west routes and 2 north–south routes. A3 forms a bypass east of the city and mostly serves through traffic. A59 runs parallel to A3 and serves the city from north to south with 14 interchanges, much more than most other cities in the Ruhr area. The A40 and A42 are two east–west routes that serve central and northern Duisburg. Autobahn A40 also serves major through traffic from the Netherlands to Berlin and points east. A short spur, A524 serves southern Duisburg. Most Autobahns have six lanes or are upgraded to six lanes (A59).

Apart from the autobahns, no Bundesstraßen serve the city directly. B8 runs through the city, but uses A59's alignment. B288 runs in the extreme south of the city, and serves traffic to and from Krefeld. Several bridges span the Rhine, most prominently the A40 and A42 bridges, but also the L287 suspension bridge and the L237 arch bridge, a three-lane bridge with 2 lanes per peak direction with dynamic lane usage.

Public transport

Duisburg Hauptbahnhof is served by the InterCityExpress and InterCity long-distance network of the Deutsche Bahn, in addition line S1 of the S-Bahn line connects Duisburg with other cities of the Rhine-Ruhr area.

The Duisburg Stadtbahn, the Duisburg tramway network, and a bus system, all operated by the Duisburger Verkehrsgesellschaft, provide local services. Stadtbahn line U79, the so-called "D-Bahn" ("D-Line"), connects to the neighbouring city of Düsseldorf and is operated jointly with the Rheinbahn of Düsseldorf. All S-Bahn, Stadtbahn, and bus lines operate under the umbrella of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr.


There are several newspapers reporting on local events and politics, including the Westdeutsche Allgemeine (WAZ), the Neue Ruhr Zeitung (NRZ) and the Rheinische Post (RP). The local radio station "Radio Duisburg" was the first local radio broadcaster in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It started broadcasting in 1990. There is a local television station ("STUDIO 47"), which was the first local station to broadcast in North Rhine-Westphalia. It started broadcasting in 2006. In its Duisburg studios the WDR produces a local programme for the city of Duisburg and the Lower Rhine region north of Düsseldorf. WDR is part of the German television and radio network ARD.


Duisburg hosts a comprehensive range of cultural facilities and events. A highlight is the annual "Duisburger Akzente", [21] a festival focusing on modern social, political and cultural topics.

Besides Düsseldorf Duisburg is a residence of the Deutsche Oper am Rhein, one of the major opera houses in Germany. The Duisburg Philharmonic Orchestra is one of Germany's orchestras with an international reputation.

Due to its history as a harbor city and a trade and industrial center, Duisburg offers a variety of architectural places of interest, such as the German Inland Waterways Museum. Buildings vary from old churches such as "St Johann Baptist" in Duisburg-Hamborn, which was built in 900, to modern age buildings such as Micro-Electronic-Centrum in Duisburg-Neudorf, built in 1995. Another subject of interest is the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord [22] an abandoned industrial complex open to the public and an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage. The city center contains the Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum, [23] the municipal theatre [24] and the shopping street known as "fountain mile".

The city also contains two botanical gardens, the Botanischer Garten Duisburg-Hamborn and the Botanischer Garten Kaiserberg, as well as a number of municipal parks.

On 24 July 2010, 21 people were killed and hundreds injured in the city during the Love Parade disaster. [25] The Love Parade was an electronic dance music festival and technoparade.


MSV Duisburg Football 3. Liga MSV-Arena
Rhein Fire American Football European League of Football (ELF) MSV-Arena
Füchse Duisburg Ice hockey Oberliga (3rd District League) PreZero Rheinlandhalle
MSV-Duisburg Women's football Women's Bundesliga MSV-Arena
Duisburg DockersBaseball, American football Landesliga II (2nd District League)Schwelgernstadion
Amateur SC Duisburg Water polo Deutsche Wasserball-Liga (1st Water Polo League)Schwimmstadion and club pool
Club Raffelberg Hockey Regionalliga West (3rd Hockey League)Kalkweg

Duisburg is involved in many kinds of sports. Nevertheless, most important for its inhabitants is the local football club MSV Duisburg. Recently, with the new MSV Arena the city received a brand new sports stadium for various kinds of sports such as football and American football. During the summer months of 2005 the World Games took place in Duisburg. During the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Duisburg was the stage for preparation of the Portuguese team and the residence of the Italian football team, who won the cup in the final match against France. Duisburg is also known for its Rhein-Ruhr-Marathon, its rowing and canoeing regattas and the world championships that take place there regularly. Other popular sports are ice hockey, baseball, American football, water polo, and field hockey.

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

Duisburg is twinned with: [26]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Rhine-Westphalia</span> State in Germany

North Rhine-Westphalia, commonly shortened to NRW, is a state (Land) in Western Germany. With more than 17.9 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state of Germany. Apart from the city-states, it is also the most densely populated state in Germany. Covering an area of 34,084 square kilometres (13,160 sq mi), it is the fourth-largest German state by size.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ruhr</span> Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

The Ruhr, also referred to as the Ruhr area, sometimes Ruhr district, Ruhr region, or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With a population density of 2,800/km2 and a population of over 5 million (2017), it is the largest urban area in Germany. It consists of several large cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to the north. In the southwest it borders the Bergisches Land. It is considered part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region of more than 10 million people, which is among the largest in Europe, behind only London and Paris.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dortmund</span> City in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Dortmund is the third-largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne and Düsseldorf, and the eighth-largest city of Germany, with a population of 588,250 inhabitants as of 2021. It is the largest city of the Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area with some 5.1 million inhabitants, as well as the largest city of Westphalia. On the Emscher and Ruhr rivers, it lies in the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region and is considered the administrative, commercial, and cultural center of the eastern Ruhr. Dortmund is the second-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Essen</span> City in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Essen is the central and, after Dortmund, second-largest city of the Ruhr, the largest urban area in Germany. Its population of 582,415 makes it the fourth-largest city of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, Düsseldorf and Dortmund, as well as the ninth-largest city of Germany. Essen lies in the larger Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region and is part of the cultural area Rhineland. Because of its central location in the Ruhr, Essen is often regarded as the Ruhr's "secret capital". Two rivers flow through the city: in the north, the Emscher, the Ruhr area's central river, and in the south, the Ruhr River, which is dammed in Essen to form the Lake Baldeney (Baldeneysee) and Lake Kettwig reservoirs. The central and northern boroughs of Essen historically belong to the Low German (Westphalian) language area, and the south of the city to the Low Franconian (Bergish) area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rhine-Ruhr</span> Urban area in Germany

The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is the largest metropolitan region in Germany, with over ten million inhabitants. A polycentric conurbation with several major urban concentrations, the region covers an area of 7,268 square kilometres (2,806 sq mi), entirely within the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region spreads from the Ruhr area (Dortmund-Essen-Duisburg-Bochum) in the north to the urban areas of the cities of Mönchengladbach, Düsseldorf, Wuppertal, Leverkusen, Cologne, and Bonn in the south. The location of the Rhine-Ruhr at the heart of the European Blue Banana makes it well connected to other major European cities and metropolitan areas such as the Randstad, the Flemish Diamond and the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr</span> Transit district in the Rhein-Ruhr area, Germany

The Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr, abbreviated VRR, is a public transport association (Verkehrsverbund) in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It covers most of the Ruhr area, as well as neighbouring parts of the Lower Rhine region, including Düsseldorf and thus large parts of the Rhine-Ruhr conurbation. It was founded on 1 January 1980, and is Europe’s largest body of such kind, covering an area of some 5,000 km2 (1,900 sq mi) with more than 7.8 million inhabitants, spanning as far as Dorsten in the north, Dortmund in the east, Langenfeld in the south, and Mönchengladbach and the Dutch border in the west.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ruhrort</span>

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kettwig</span>

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of the Ruhr</span> Aspect of history

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Duisburg-Großenbaum station

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Duisburg-Buchholz station

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The Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn is an umbrella system of all of the Stadtbahn lines included in the integrated public transport network of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr (VRR), which covers the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area in western Germany. It does not include the Cologne and Bonn Stadtbahn systems, which are integrated in the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Sieg (VRS).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duisburg Stadtbahn</span>

The Duisburg Stadtbahn is a light rail network forming part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn system. It is the centrepiece of the public transport system in Duisburg, a city in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Duisburg, Germany.


  1. Oberbürgermeisterwahl Stadt Duisburg 24.09.2017, accessed 20 June 2021.
  2. "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden Nordrhein-Westfalens am 31. Dezember 2020" (in German). Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW . Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  3. Cioc, Mark (17 November 2009). The Rhine: An Eco-Biography, 18152000. University of Washington Press. ISBN   9780295989785 . Retrieved 11 December 2016 via Google Books.
  4. "Population statistics". Statistisches Landesamt NRW. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008.
  5. "Duisburg, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  6. "DWD-Stationen Duisburg-Baerl und Tönisvorst jetzt Spitzenreiter mit 41,2 Grad Celsius". www.dwd.de (in German). 17 December 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  7. "Weather Information for Duisburg". Archived from the original on 23 October 2012.
  8. Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946 (revised ed., 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 97.
  9. Peacock, Jim; Peacock, Tom. "Duisberg". Geocities. Yahoo. Archived from the original on 24 October 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  10. Link
  11. "Ausländer_2006-2007_Kreise.xls" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  12. "Duisburger Quartalszahlen" (PDF). Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  13. "50 Jahre Deutsch-Türkisches Anwerbeabkommen | 50 jähriges Jubiläum zum Anwerbeabkommen der Türkei und der BRD". 50jahre.wir-sind-du.de (in German). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  14. "TGRT Haber &raquo Haberler &raquo Dünya &raquo Almanya'nın en büyük camisine yoğun ilgi". Tgrthaber.com. Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  15. ""Das ist Volkesstimme" – Thilo Sarrazin in Duisburg". Xtranews.de. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  16. "Türk Edebiyatı Avrupa'da". On5yirmi5.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  17. Quantara.de retrieved 25 July 2008
  18. "Führende Logistikdrehscheibe in Zentraleuropa – Duisburger Hafen AG" . Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  19. "Port of Duisburg" . Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  20. Top 100 Container Ports 2012 Archived 4 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  21. GmbH, Duisburg Marketing. "38. Duisburger Akzente 2017 – Theater, Bildende Kunst & Literatur" . Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  22. "Duisburg-Nord Landscape Park". Landschaftspark.de. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  23. "Cynapsis – Die Kommunikations-Agentur in Münster". Lehmbruck.cynapsis.com. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  24. "Theater Duisburg – Startseite" . Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  25. Connolly, Kate (25 July 2010). "Love Parade stampede in Germany kills at least 18 - latimes.com". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  26. "Städtepartnerschaften". duisburg.de (in German). Duisburg. Retrieved 12 February 2021.


Commons-logo.svg Media related to Duisburg at Wikimedia Commons

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Duisburg travel guide from Wikivoyage