|Duke Xiao of Qin (秦孝公)|
|Issue|| King Huiwen of Qin |
Ji, Lord Yan
|Father||Duke Xian of Qin|
Duke Xiao of Qin (Chinese :秦孝公; pinyin :Qín Xiào Gōng, 381–338 BC), given name Quliang (Chinese :渠梁; pinyin :Qúliáng), was the ruler of the Qin state from 361 to 338 BC during the Warring States period of Chinese history. Duke Xiao is best known for employing the Legalist statesman Shang Yang from the State of Wey (衛), and authorizing him to conduct a series of ground breaking political, military and economic reforms in Qin. Although the reforms were controversial and drew violent opposition from many Qin politicians, Duke Xiao supported Shang Yang fully and the reforms did help to transform Qin into a dominant superpower among the Seven Warring States.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
Qin was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty. Traditionally dated to 897 B.C., it took its origin in a reconquest of western lands previously lost to the Rong; its position at the western edge of Chinese civilization permitted expansion and development that was unavailable to its rivals in the North China Plain. Following extensive "Legalist" reform in the 3rd century BC, Qin emerged as one of the dominant powers of the Seven Warring States and unified China in 221 BC under Shi Huangdi. The empire it established was short-lived but greatly influential on later Chinese history.
Duke Xiao ascended to the throne of the Qin state in 361 BC at the age of 21, succeeding his father, Duke Xian. Duke Xiao was determined to restore the Qin state to its former glory as one of the Five Hegemons during the reign of his ancestor, Duke Mu. Hence, the duke sent out an announcement, calling for men of talent to aid him in strengthening Qin, promising them rewards of high offices and lands in return for their service. Wei Yang (later known as Shang Yang), a scholar from the Legalist School, responded to the duke's call as he had been unsuccessful in attempting to start his career in other states.
The Five Hegemons refers to several especially powerful rulers of Chinese states of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history, sometimes alternatively referred to as the "Age of Hegemons". There are various lists of five hegemon rulers of those certain states which rose to power over the other states of this time period, states which were also formed during the period of dissolution of a once real and strong central state, namely the empire of the Zhou dynasty. The Hegemons mobilized the remnants of the Zhou empire, according to shared mutual political and martial interests. An especially prominent Hegemon was Duke Huan of Qi.
Duke Mu of Qin, born Renhao, was a duke of Qin in the western reaches of the Zhou Kingdom during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. Sometimes considered one of China's Five Hegemons, he greatly expanded the territory of Qin during the reign of King Xiang. He was also known for his many talented advisors, such as Baili Xi, Jian Shu (蹇叔), Pi Bao (丕豹), and Gong Sun (公孫).
Shang Yang, also known as Wei Yang and originally surnamed Gongsun, was a Chinese philosopher and politician. He was a prominent legalist scholar. Born in Wey, Zhou Kingdom, he was a statesman and reformer of the State of Qin during the Warring States period of ancient China. His policies laid the administrative and political foundations that would enable Qin to conquer all of China, uniting the country for the first time and ushering in the Qin dynasty. He and his followers contributed to the Book of Lord Shang, a foundational work of what has modernly been termed Chinese Legalism.
Wei Yang was introduced to Duke Xiao by Jing Jian and had two audiences with the duke, during which he proposed ideas on governance based on the principles of Confucianism, Taoism and other schools of thought, but the duke was not impressed. During the third meeting, Wei proposed his ideas on strict governance, based on ideas from Legalism, and captured the duke's attention. Duke Xiao and Wei Yang had a discussion that lasted for three days and three nights, after which they drafted plans for reform. The plans were put into effect in 363 BC, but several Qin politicians objected strongly to the reforms.However, Duke Xiao supported Wei Yang fully and ensured that the reforms were implemented as planned.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life. Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, who considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang and Zhou dynasties. In the Han dynasty, Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang–Lao as the official ideology, while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism.
Taoism, or Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao. The Tao is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. Taoism differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order, but is similar in the sense that it is a teaching about the various disciplines for achieving "perfection" by becoming one with the unplanned rhythms of the universe called "the way" or "dao". Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei, "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures: 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", and 不敢為天下先 "humility".
The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 B.C. during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.
The reforms caused ground breaking changes in the Qin state and transformed it into a strict, controlling,militaristic state, which governed by using tough and oppressive laws. Agriculture was expanded through forced migration to new regions, and citizens were rewarded or punished based on their military or agricultural achievements.
In 366 BC, the Qin armies defeated the allied forces from the states of Han and Wei at the Battle of Shimen.The Qin soldiers and officers were promoted to higher ranks based on the number of enemy heads they collected during battle. The Qin state pushed on to seize lands from the Wei state, which managed to survive only with the help of the Zhao state, and Wei was drastically weakened by its losses and defeats.
Han was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period of ancient China. It is conventionally romanized by scholars as Hann to distinguish it from the later Han Dynasty (漢).
Wei was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin, together with Han and Zhao. Its territory lay between the states of Qin and Qi and included parts of modern-day Henan, Hebei, Shanxi, and Shandong. After its capital was moved from Anyi to Daliang during the reign of King Hui, Wei was also called Liang.
Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin, together with Han and Wei, in the 5th century BC. Zhao gained significant strength from the military reforms initiated during King Wuling's reign, but suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Qin at the Battle of Changping. Its territory included areas now in modern Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces. It bordered the Xiongnu, the states of Qin, Wei and Yan. Its capital was Handan, in modern Hebei Province.
Duke Xiao ruled Qin for 24 years and died at the age of 44 in 338 BC. He was succeeded by his son King Huiwen of Qin. Duke Xiao was given the posthumous name of "Xiao", which means "filial". The reforms that took place during his reign helped to lay a strong foundation for Qin's eventual unification of China under the Qin Dynasty, under the leadership of Duke Xiao's descendant, Zheng, who became Qin Shi Huang (First Emperor of Qin).
King Huiwen of Qin, also known as Lord Huiwen of Qin or King Hui of Qin, given name Si (駟), was the ruler of the Qin state from 338 to 311 BC during the Warring States period of Chinese history and likely an ancestor of Emperor Qin Shi Huang. He was the first ruler of Qin to style himself "King" (王) instead of "Duke" (公).
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during their life. The posthumous name is commonly used when naming royalty of China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan.
In Confucian and Chinese Buddhist ethics, filial piety is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors. The Confucian Classic of Filial Piety, thought to be written around the Qin-Han period, has historically been the authoritative source on the Confucian tenet of filial piety. The book, a purported dialogue between Confucius and his student Tseng Tzu, is about how to set up a good society using the principle of filial piety. Filial piety is central to Confucian role ethics.
Duke Xiao was also the last ruler of Qin to be addressed as "duke" (Chinese :公; pinyin :gōng), as his successors titled themselves "kings" (Chinese :王; pinyin :wáng). The change was an indication of the loss of authority of the central government (Zhou Dynasty), as rulers of several other feudal states had begun to call themselves "kings" instead of "dukes".
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin Dynasty.
The grand chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government. The term was known by many different names throughout Chinese history, and the exact extent of the powers associated with the position fluctuated greatly, even during a particular dynasty.
King Zhaoxiang of Qin, or King Zhao of Qin (秦昭王), born Ying Ji (Chinese: 嬴稷, was the king of Qin from 306 BC to 251 BC. He was the son of King Huiwen and younger brother of King Wu.
The Book of Lord Shang is an ancient Chinese text from the 3rd century BC, regarded as a foundational work of "Chinese Legalism". The earliest surviving of such texts, it is named for and to some extent attributed to major Qin reformer Shang Yang, who served as minister to Duke Xiao of Qin from 359 BC until his death in 338 BC and is generally considered to be the father of that state's "legalism".
Wei, commonly spelled Wey to distinguish from the larger Wei (魏) state, was an ancient Chinese state that was founded in the early Western Zhou dynasty and rose to prominence during the Spring and Autumn period. Its rulers were of the surname Ji (姬), the same as that of the rulers of Zhou. It was located in modern northeastern Henan Province, east of Jin, and west of Cao.
King Wu of Qin, also known as King Daowulie of Qin (秦悼武烈王) or King Daowu of Qin (秦悼武王) or King Wulie of Qin (秦武烈王), was the ruler of the Qin state from 310 to 307 BC during the Warring States period of Chinese history.
The Qin Empire is a 2009 Chinese television series based on Sun Haohui's novel of the same Chinese title, which romanticises the rise of the Qin state in the Warring States period under the leadership of Duke Xiao of Qin. It was produced in 2006 and first aired on television channels in China in December 2009. It was followed by three sequels: The Qin Empire II: Alliance (2012), The Qin Empire III (2017) and The Qin Empire IV (2019), which were also based on Sun Haohui's novels.
Duke Huan of Jin was from 388 to 369 BC the titular ruler of the State of Jin during the beginning of the Warring States period of ancient China. His ancestral name was Ji, given name Qi, and Duke Huan was his posthumous title recorded in the Bamboo Annals, while the Records of the Grand Historian refers to him as Duke Xiao of Jin (晉孝公).
Duke Xian of Qin was from 384 to 362 BC the 29th ruler of the Zhou Dynasty state of Qin that eventually united China to become the Qin Dynasty. His ancestral name was Ying (嬴), and Duke Xian was his posthumous title. His given name was Shixi (师隰) or Lian (連).
Duke Jian of Qin was, from 414 to 400 BC, the 26th ruler of the Zhou Dynasty Chinese state of Qin that eventually united China to become the Qin Dynasty. His ancestral name was Ying (嬴), and Duke Jian was his posthumous title.
Duke Ling of Qin was from 424 to 415 BC the 25th ruler of the Zhou Dynasty Chinese state of Qin that eventually united China to become the Qin Dynasty. His ancestral name was Ying (嬴), and Duke Ling was his posthumous title.
Duke Ding of Qi was the second recorded ruler of the ancient Chinese state of Qi during the Western Zhou Dynasty. His personal name was Lü Ji (呂伋) and ancestral name was Jiang (姜).
Duke Xian of Qi was from 859 to 851 BC the seventh recorded ruler of the State of Qi during the Western Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. His personal name was Lü Shan (呂山), ancestral name Jiang (姜), and Duke Xian was his posthumous title.
Duke Zhuang I of Qi was from 794 to 731 BC the twelfth recorded ruler of the State of Qi during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. His personal name was Lü Gou (呂購), ancestral name Jiang (姜), and Duke Zhuang was his posthumous title. He was the first of the two Qi rulers called Duke Zhuang.
Duke Yì of Qi was from 612 to 609 BC ruler of the State of Qi, a major power during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China. His personal name was Lü Shangren (呂商人), ancestral name Jiang (姜), and Duke Yì was his posthumous title.
Duke Hui of Qi was from 608 to 599 BC ruler of the State of Qi, a major power during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China. His personal name was Lü Yuan (呂元), ancestral name Jiang (姜), and Duke Hui was his posthumous title. He was known as Prince Yuan before ascending the throne.
The Qin Empire II: Alliance is a 2012 Chinese television series adapted from Sun Haohui's novel of the same Chinese title, which romanticises the events in China during the Warring States period primarily from the perspective of the Qin state during the reigns of King Huiwen and King Wu.
Duke Xiao of QinBorn: 381 BC Died: 338 BC
Duke Xian of Qin
| Duke of Qin |
King Huiwen of Qin
as King of Qin