|Duke of Braganza|
|Monarch||John I of Portugal|
|Peerage||Peerage of Portugal|
|First holder||Afonso I of Braganza|
|Present holder||Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza|
|Remainder to||Heir Apparent of the Throne of Portugal|
|Subsidiary titles||Prince of Brazil, Prince Royal of Portugal, Duke of Guimarães, Marquis of Vila Viçosa, Count of Ourém, Count of Arraiolos, Count of Neiva, Count of Faria|
The title Duke of Braganza (Portuguese : Duque de Bragança) in the House of Braganza is one of the most important titles in the peerage of Portugal. Starting in 1640, when the House of Braganza acceded to the throne of Portugal, the male heir of the Portuguese Crown were known as Duke of Braganza, along with their style Prince of Beira or (from 1645 to 1816) Prince of Brazil. The tradition of the heir to the throne being titled Duke of Braganza was revived by various pretenders after the establishment of the Portuguese Republic on 5 October 1910 to signify their claims to the throne.
The Duke of Braganza holds one of the most important dukedoms in Portugal, see Duchy of Braganza (Bragança). Created in 1442 by King Afonso V of Portugal for his uncle Afonso, Count of Barcelos (natural son of King John I of Portugal), it is one of the oldest fiefdoms in Portugal.
The fifth Duke of Braganza (Teodósio I, b. 1510) is especially important to historians of international trade as when he died in 1563, the contents of the family's main palace in Vila Vicosa, were inventoried in their entirety. Because Portugal had established a global trade network for sixty-odd years by the time of the Duke's death, and was "in the process of establishing their military, religious and commercial presence, sailors, merchants, priests and crown officials had developed sophisticated, transcontinental trading practices that involved all sorts of global commodities,the inventory is a priceless resource to art historians as it lists artefacts originating in Mozambique, the western coast of India, Malacca, China, Japan, Morocco, and Brazil. Slaves were also included in the inventory; one of the duke's slaves, a gifted artist, ranking amongst the "top 100 most expensive items in the whole inventory".
By 1640, Portugal was on the verge of rebellion against Spanish-based Habsburg rule, and a new Portuguese king had to be found. The choice fell upon John, 8th Duke of Braganza, who had a claim to the throne of Portugal both through his grandmother Catherine of Guimarães, a legitimate granddaughter of King Manuel I, and through his great-great-grandfather, the 4th duke of Braganza, a nephew of King Manuel I. John was a modest man without particular ambitions to the crown. Legend has it that his wife Luisa of Guzman urged him to accept the offer by saying, "I'd rather be queen for one day than duchess for a lifetime". He accepted the leadership of the rebellion against Spain, which was successful, and was acclaimed King John IV of Portugal on 1 December 1640.
After the accession of the House of Braganza to the Portuguese throne in 1640 as a replacement for the Philippine Dynasty of Spanish Habsburgs, the Dukedom of Braganza became linked to the crown. "Duke of Braganza" became the traditional title of the heir to the Portuguese throne, together with or alternate to "Prince of Beira", much as "Prince of Wales" is in the United Kingdom. After the 8th Duke had ascended the royal throne, he elevated his son and heir Teodósio to the newly created rank of Prince of Brazil in 1645, but granted the Duchy of Braganza to his brother, the Infante Duarte, who died in 1649 in Spanish captivity. Then it was granted to the king's second son, the future Afonso VI of Portugal.
From this time onwards, the title "Duke of Braganza" was kept for the heir apparent of the throne – in its strictest sense. Although the other title for an unavoidable heir, that of "Prince of Brazil", was from time to time granted even to female heirs, the Dukedom of Braganza was always reserved only for the male heir except for two extraordinary creations, in 1683 and 1711. These two creations are deemed invalid by some legalists, who accordingly number the dukes in a way that Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, the last Duke of Braganza during the period of Portuguese monarchy, is reckoned to be the 21st Duke. The present table reflects a numbering that specifies him as the 21st Duke.
When Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicated his throne in 1831, he claimed the title of Duke of Braganza.
On 1 February 1908 King Charles I of Portugal was murdered along with his eldest son and heir, Luís Filipe, the last individual during the monarchy to carry that title. Carlos was succeeded by Manuel II of Portugal but for a short time: on 5 October 1910, a republic was instituted, and the king was exiled. King Manuel II then settled in England.
After the foundation of the Portuguese Republic in 1910, the tradition of the heir to the throne being titled Duke of Braganza was revived by various pretenders to signify their claims to the throne.[ citation needed ]
In the last years of the deposed king Manuel II of Portugal, the dukedom of Bragança was claimed by Miguel, Duke of Braganza, son of the exiled king Miguel I of Portugal, who was living in the Austrian Empire. His branch of the Braganza family allegedly became heirs to the crown in 1932, when Manuel II died without children.[ citation needed ] These Braganzas were officially allowed to return to the country in 1950 and have lived there ever since.
Presently, the commonly acknowledged duke of Braganza and Portuguese heir is Duarte Pio de Bragança (born 1945).[ citation needed ] Unlike other European republics (such as Greece) which attempt to prevent the presence of former royal houses in their lands, republican Portugal and its claimants to the throne have long been reconciled, a fact shown when among the guests at the wedding of Duarte Pio was the President of the Portuguese Republic and the country's prime minister.[ citation needed ]
In contrast to Duarte Pio and his family's claim, Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragançahas made claim to the title of Duchess of Braganza and Queen of Portugal, since 1932.
DomDuarte Pio, Duke of Braganza is a claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as the head of the House of Braganza. The Miguelist Braganzas, to whom Duarte Pio belongs as great-grandson of King Miguel I, is a cadet branch of the House of Braganza. With the extinction of male-line dynasts descended from Queen Maria II in 1932, King Miguel's descendants became the only male-line Braganzas remaining and the closest male-line heirs to the defunct Portuguese throne.
Teodósio II, 7th Duke of Braganza was a Portuguese nobleman and father of João IV of Portugal. He is known for his allegiance to King Philip I of Portugal.
The Most Serene House of Braganza, also known as the Brigantine Dynasty, is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese origin which reigned in Europe and the Americas.
Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança, also known by her literary pseudonym Hilda de Toledano, was a Portuguese writer and journalist who claimed to be the bastard daughter of King Carlos I of Portugal. From 1932 she also claimed the right to the title of Duchess of Braganza and to be the rightful heiress to the throne of Portugal.
Infante, also anglicised as Infant or translated as Prince, is the title and rank given in the Iberian kingdoms of Spain and Portugal to the sons and daughters (infantas) of the king, regardless of age, sometimes with the exception of the [male] heir apparent to the throne, who usually bears a unique princely or ducal title. The wife of a male infante was accorded the title of infanta if the marriage was dynastically approved, although since 1987 this is no longer automatically the case in Spain. Husbands of born infantas did not obtain the title of infante through marriage, although occasionally elevated to that title de gracia at the sovereign's command.
The Duchy of Braganza has been the fief of an important Portuguese noble family: the House of Braganza, and is one of the most important Dukedoms of Portugal. Created in 1442 by King Afonso V of Portugal for his uncle Afonso, Count of Barcelos, it is one of the oldest fiefdoms in Portugal.
DomDuarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza was the claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as both the Miguelist successor of his father, Miguel, Duke of Braganza, and later as the head of the only Brigantine house, after the death of the last Legitimist Braganza, King Manuel II of Portugal. In 1952, when the Portuguese Laws of Banishment were repealed, the Duke moved his family to Portugal, thus returning the Miguelist Braganzas to their homeland and becoming the first of the former Portuguese royal dynasty to live in Portugal since the deposition of the monarchy, in 1910.
The Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 came about as a result of the deaths of young King Sebastian I of Portugal in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578 and his successor and great-uncle Henry I in 1580. As Sebastian and Henry had no immediate heirs, these events prompted a dynastic crisis, with internal and external battles between several pretenders to the Portuguese throne; in addition, because Sebastian's body was never found, several impostors emerged over the next several years claiming to be the young king, further confusing the situation. Ultimately, Philip II of Spain gained control of the country, uniting the Portuguese and Spanish Crowns in the Iberian Union, a personal union that would last for sixty years, during which time the Portuguese Empire declined, being challenged globally during Dutch-Portuguese War.
Infanta Catherine of Guimarães, Duchess of Braganza by marriage was a Portuguese infanta (princess) claimant to the throne following the death of King Henry of Portugal in 1580.
Dom Teodósio, Prince of Brazil, Duke of Braganza was the heir-apparent son of John IV of Portugal and his wife Luisa de Guzmán. In 1645 he was given the title of Prince of Brazil, a new crown-princely position thus created. Also, his father granted him the duchy as 10th Duke of Braganza, presumably after his uncle Duarte died in 1649.
Infante D. Afonso of Braganza, Duke of Porto was a Portuguese Infante of the House of Braganza, the son of King Dom Luis I of Portugal and his wife, Dona Maria Pia of Savoy. From 1908 to the abolition of the Portuguese Monarchy in 1910 he was the Prince Royal of Portugal as heir presumptive to his nephew, King Dom Manuel II.
Dom João I of Braganza was the 6th Duke of Braganza and 1st Duke of Barcelos, among other titles. He is known for pushing the claims of his wife, Infanta Catherine of Guimarães, to the throne of Portugal.
The Portuguese monarchy was abolished on 5 October 1910, when King Manuel II was deposed following a republican revolution. The present head of the House of Braganza, the former ruling house, is Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, a position he has held since the death of his father, Duarte Nuno, in 1976. The succession law for the former Portuguese throne was male-preference cognatic primogeniture.
In the history of Portugal, a Miguelist was a supporter of the legitimacy of the king Miguel I of Portugal. The name is also given to those who supported absolutism as form of government, in opposition to the liberals who intended the establishment of a constitutional regime in Portugal.
The War of the Portuguese Succession, a result of the extinction of the Portuguese royal line after the Battle of Alcácer Quibir and the ensuing Portuguese succession crisis of 1580, was fought from 1580 to 1583 between the two main claimants to the Portuguese throne: António, Prior of Crato, proclaimed in several towns as King of Portugal, and his first cousin Philip II of Spain, who eventually succeeded in claiming the crown, reigning as Philip I of Portugal.
The Dukes of Barcelos was a title of nobility granted by King Sebastian of Portugal on 5 August 1562 to the heir of the Duke of Braganza. After the Braganza accession to the throne, the title continued to be the title of the heir of the Duke of Braganza, alongside the title of Prince of Beira.
Duke of Guimarães was a Nobility title granted by King Afonso V of Portugal in 1475, to Ferdinand II, 3rd Duke of Braganza. The king just upgraded the previous title of count of Guimarães, that he granted to the same Duke of Braganza, some years before.
The title Marquis of Vila Viçosa was created by royal decree, dated May 25, 1455, by King Afonso V of Portugal), to Fernando of Braganza, second son of Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganza.
The Portuguese nobility was a social class enshrined in the laws of the Kingdom of Portugal with specific privileges, prerogatives, obligations and regulations. The nobility ranked immediately after royalty and was itself subdivided into a number of subcategories which included the titled nobility and nobility of blood at the top and civic nobility at the bottom, encompassing a small, but not insignificant proportion of Portugal's citizenry.