Duke of Braganza

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Duke of Braganza
Duchy of Braganza (1640-1910).png
Creation date1442
Monarch John I of Portugal
Peerage Peerage of Portugal
First holder Afonso I of Braganza
Present holder Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
Remainder toHeir Apparent of the Throne of Portugal
Subsidiary titles Prince of Brazil, Prince Royal of Portugal, Duke of Guimarães, Marquis of Vila Viçosa, Count of Ourém, Count of Arraiolos, Count of Neiva, Count of Faria

The title Duke of Braganza (Portuguese : Duque de Bragança) in the House of Braganza is one of the most important titles in the peerage of Portugal. Starting in 1640, when the House of Braganza acceded to the throne of Portugal, the male heir of the Portuguese Crown were known as Duke of Braganza, along with their style Prince of Beira or (from 1645 to 1816) Prince of Brazil. The tradition of the heir to the throne being titled Duke of Braganza was revived by various pretenders after the establishment of the Portuguese Republic on 5 October 1910 to signify their claims to the throne.

Portuguese language Romance language that originated in Portugal

Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. Reintegrationists maintain that Galician is not a separate language, but a dialect of Portuguese. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (Lusófono).

House of Braganza dynasty

The Most Serene House of Braganza, or the Brigantine Dynasty, also known in the Empire of Brazil as the Most August House of Braganza is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese origin, a cadet branch of the House of Aviz.

Portugal Republic in Southwestern Europe

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe. It is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Contents

History of Dukedom

Feudal dukes

The Duke of Braganza holds one of the most important dukedoms in Portugal, see Duchy of Braganza (Bragança). Created in 1442 by King Afonso V of Portugal for his uncle Afonso, Count of Barcelos (natural son of King John I of Portugal), it is one of the oldest fiefdoms in Portugal.

Duchy of Braganza

The Duchy of Braganza has been the fief of an important Portuguese noble family: the House of Braganza, and is one of the most important Dukedoms of Portugal. Created in 1442 by King Afonso V of Portugal for his uncle Afonso, Count of Barcelos, it is one of the oldest fiefdoms in Portugal.

Afonso V of Portugal King of Portugal and the Algarves

Afonso V, called the African, was King of Portugal and of the Algarves. His sobriquet refers to his conquests in Northern Africa.

John I of Portugal King of Portugal

John I, also called John of Aviz, was King of Portugal from 1385 until his death in 1433. He is recognized chiefly for his role in Portugal's victory in a succession war with Castile, preserving his country's independence and establishing the Aviz dynasty on the Portuguese throne. His long reign of 48 years, the most extensive of all Portuguese monarchs, saw the beginning of Portugal's overseas expansion. John's well-remembered reign in his country earned him the epithet of Fond Memory ; he was also referred to as "the Good", sometimes "the Great", and more rarely, especially in Spain, as "the Bastard" (Bastardo).

The fifth Duke of Braganza (Teodósio I, b. 1510) is especially important to historians of international trade as when he died in 1563, the contents of the family's main palace in Vila Vicosa, were inventoried in their entirety. Because Portugal had established a global trade network for sixty-odd years by the time of the Duke's death, and was "in the process of establishing their military, religious and commercial presence, sailors, merchants, priests and crown officials had developed sophisticated, transcontinental trading practices that involved all sorts of global commodities, [1] the inventory is a priceless resource to art historians as it lists artefacts originating in Mozambique, the western coast of India, Malacca, China, Japan, Morocco, and Brazil. Slaves were also included in the inventory; one of the duke's slaves, a gifted artist, ranking amongst the "top 100 most expensive items in the whole inventory". [2]

By 1640, Portugal was on the verge of rebellion against Spanish-based Habsburg rule, and a new Portuguese king had to be found. The choice fell upon John, 8th Duke of Braganza, who had a claim to the throne of Portugal both through his grandmother Catherine of Guimarães, a legitimate granddaughter of King Manuel I, and through his great-great-grandfather, the 4th duke of Braganza, a nephew of King Manuel I. John was a modest man without particular ambitions to the crown. Legend has it that his wife Luisa of Guzman urged him to accept the offer by saying, "I'd rather be queen for one day than duchess for a lifetime". He accepted the leadership of the rebellion against Spain, which was successful, and was acclaimed King John IV of Portugal on 1 December 1640.

John IV of Portugal King of Portugal

John IV, nicknamed John the Restorer, was the King of Portugal whose reign, lasting from 1640 until his death, led to the Portuguese "restoration" of independence from Spanish rule. His accession established the house of Braganza on the Portuguese throne, and marked the end of the 60-year-old Iberian Union, by which Portugal and Spain shared the same monarch.

Manuel I of Portugal Portuguese monarch

Dom Manuel I, the Fortunate, King of Portugal and the Algarves, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese history distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and in the arts. In spite of Portugal’s small size and population in comparison to the great European land powers of France, Italy and even Spain, the classical Portuguese Armada was the largest in the world at the time. During Manuel's reign Portugal was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions, the first in world history to reach global dimensions. The landmark symbol of the period was the Portuguese discovery of Brazil and South America in April 1500.

Dukedom in the Braganza monarchy

After the accession of the House of Braganza to the Portuguese throne in 1640 as a replacement for the Philippine Dynasty of Spanish Habsburgs, the Dukedom of Braganza became linked to the crown. "Duke of Braganza" became the traditional title of the heir to the Portuguese throne, together with or alternate to "Prince of Beira", much as "Prince of Wales" is in the United Kingdom. After the 8th Duke had ascended the royal throne, he elevated his son and heir Teodósio to the newly created rank of Prince of Brazil in 1645, but granted the Duchy of Braganza to his brother, the Infante Duarte, who died in 1649 in Spanish captivity. Then it was granted to the king's second son, the future Afonso VI of Portugal.

Prince of Beira is a title traditionally granted to the heir apparent of the heir apparent to the throne of Portugal. The title's original use that it be granted on the eldest daughter of the reigning monarch of Portugal. Tied with the title of Prince of Beira, is Duke of Barcelos, as heir to the Duke of Braganza and Prince of Brazil. The current Prince of Beira is Prince Afonso, the eldest son of Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza.

Prince of Wales title granted to princes born in Wales

Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

From this time onwards, the title "Duke of Braganza" was kept for the heir apparent of the throne – in its strictest sense. Although the other title for an unavoidable heir, that of "Prince of Brazil", was from time to time granted even to female heirs, the Dukedom of Braganza was always reserved only for the male heir except for two extraordinary creations, in 1683 and 1711. These two creations are deemed invalid by some legalists, who accordingly number the dukes in a way that Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, the last Duke of Braganza during the period of Portuguese monarchy, is reckoned to be the 21st Duke. The present table reflects a numbering that specifies him as the 21st Duke.

An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone who is first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir.

Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal Portuguese crown prince

D. Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, Duke of Braganza, was the eldest son and heir-apparent of King Carlos I of Portugal. He was born in 1887 when his father was still Prince Royal of Portugal and received the usual style of the heirs to the heir of the Portuguese crown: 4th Prince of Beira at birth, with the subsidiary title 14th Duke of Barcelos. After his grandfather King Luís I of Portugal died, he became Prince Royal of Portugal with the subsidiary titles 21st Duke of Braganza, 20th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 28th count of Barcelos, 25th count of Ourém, 23rd count of Arraiolos and 22nd count of Neiva.

When Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicated his throne in 1831, he claimed the title of Duke of Braganza.

On 1 February 1908 King Charles I of Portugal was murdered along with his eldest son and heir, Luís Filipe, the last individual during the monarchy to carry that title. Carlos was succeeded by Manuel II of Portugal but for a short time: on 5 October 1910, a republic was instituted, and the king was exiled. King Manuel II then settled in England.

Dukes in the post-monarchy era

After the foundation of the Portuguese Republic in 1910, the tradition of the heir to the throne being titled Duke of Braganza was revived by various pretenders to signify their claims to the throne.

In the last years of the deposed king Manuel II of Portugal, the dukedom of Bragança was claimed by Miguel, Duke of Braganza, son of the exiled king Miguel I of Portugal, who was living in the Austrian Empire. His branch of the Braganza family allegedly became heirs to the crown in 1932, when Manuel II died without children. These Braganzas were officially allowed to return to the country in 1950 and have lived there ever since.

Presently, the commonly acknowledged duke of Braganza and Portuguese heir is Duarte Pio de Bragança (born 1945). Unlike other European republics (such as Greece) which attempt to prevent the presence of former royal houses in their lands, republican Portugal and its claimants to the throne have long been reconciled, a fact shown when among the guests at the wedding of Duarte Pio was the President of the Portuguese Republic and the country's prime minister.

In contrast to Duarte Pio and his family's claim, Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança [3] has made claim to the title of Duchess of Braganza and Queen of Portugal, since 1932. [4]

List of Dukes of Braganza

See also

Related Research Articles

Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza Duke of Braganza, Pretender to the throne of Portugal

DomDuarte Pio, Duke of Braganza is a claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as the head of the House of Braganza. The Miguelist Braganzas, to whom Duarte Pio belongs as great-grandson of King Miguel I, is a cadet branch of the House of Braganza. With the extinction of male-line dynasts descended from Queen Maria II in 1932, King Miguel's descendants became the only male-line Braganzas left and the closest male-line heirs to the Portuguese throne.

Teodósio II, Duke of Braganza Portuguese duke

Teodósio II, Duke of Braganza was a Portuguese nobleman and father of João IV of Portugal. He is known for his allegiance to King Philip I of Portugal.

Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança Bastard daughter of King Carlos I of Portugal

Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança, also known by her literary pseudonym Hilda de Toledano, was a Portuguese writer and journalist who claimed to be the bastard daughter of King Carlos I of Portugal. From 1932 she also claimed the right to the title of Duchess of Braganza and to be the rightful heiress to the throne of Portugal.

Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza Portuguese prince

DomDuarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza was the claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as both the Miguelist successor of his father, Miguel, Duke of Braganza, and later as the head of the only Brigantine house, after the death of the last Legitimist Braganza, King Manuel II of Portugal. In 1952, when the Portuguese Laws of Banishment were repealed, the Duke moved his family to Portugal, thus returning the Miguelist Braganzas to their homeland and becoming the first of the former Portuguese royal dynasty to live in Portugal since the deposition of the monarchy, in 1910.

Portuguese succession crisis of 1580

The Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 came about as a result of the deaths of young King Sebastian I of Portugal in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578 and his successor Henry I in 1580. As Sebastian and Henry had no immediate heirs, these events prompted a dynastic crisis, with internal and external battles between several pretenders to the Portuguese throne; in addition, because Sebastian's body was never found, several impostors emerged over the next several years claiming to be the young king, further confusing the situation. Ultimately, Philip II of Spain gained control of the country, uniting the Portuguese and Spanish Crowns in the Iberian Union, a personal union that would last for 60 years, during which time the Portuguese Empire declined.

Catarina, Duchess of Braganza Claimant ot the Portuguese throne in 1580

Infanta Catherine of Guimarães, Duchess of Braganza by marriage was a Portuguese infanta (princess) claimant to the throne following the death of King Henry of Portugal in 1580.

Teodósio, Prince of Brazil Brazilian prince

Dom Teodósio, Prince of Brazil, Duke of Braganza was the heir-apparent son of John IV of Portugal and his wife Luisa de Guzmán. In 1645 he was given the title of Prince of Brazil, a new crown-princely position thus created. Also, his father granted him the duchy as 10th Duke of Braganza, presumably after his uncle Duarte died in 1649.

Afonso, Duke of Porto Prince of Portugal, Duke of Oporto

Infante D. Afonso of Braganza, Duke of Porto was a Portuguese Infante of the House of Braganza, the son of King Dom Luis I of Portugal and his wife, Dona Maria Pia of Savoy. From 1908 to the abolition of the Portuguese Monarchy in 1910 we was the Prince Royal of Portugal as heir presumptive to his nephew, King Dom Manuel II.

João I, Duke of Braganza Portuguese of Braganza

Dom João I of Braganza was the 6th Duke of Braganza and 1st Duke of Barcelos, among other titles. He is known for pushing the claims of his wife, Infanta Catherine of Guimarães, to the throne of Portugal.

The Portuguese monarchy was abolished on 5 October 1910, when King Manuel II was deposed following a republican revolution. The present head of the House of Braganza, the former ruling house, is Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, a position he has held since the death of his father, Duarte Nuno, in 1976. The succession law for the former Portuguese throne was male-preference cognatic primogeniture.

Afonso, Prince of Beira Prince of Beira

DomAfonso de Santa Maria, Prince of Beira, Duke of Barcelos is the eldest son and heir of Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, the current pretender to the defunct throne of Portugal. The first child of the Duke and Dª. Isabel Castro Curvello de Herédia, Afonso is first in the line of succession to the former Portuguese throne, behind his father.

Count of Barcelos

Count of Barcelos is a title of nobility, the first to be granted in Portugal. It was created in 1298 by king Denis I and initially it was a non hereditary title, although most of the holders belonged to the Teles de Menezes family. It was only after the death of the 6th Count, when it was granted to Nuno Álvares Pereira, that the title became hereditary. The 8th Count of Barcelos was created Duke of Braganza in 1442, by his nephew king Afonso V, and his descendants rose to the Portuguese throne after the country regained its independence from Spain in 1640.

Duke of Barcelos

The Dukes of Barcelos was a title of nobility granted by King Sebastian of Portugal on 5 August 1562 to the heir of the Duke of Braganza. After the Braganza accession to the throne, the title continued to be the title of the heir of the Duke of Braganza, alongside the title of Prince of Beira.

Duke of Guimarães

Duke of Guimarães was a Nobility title granted by King Afonso V of Portugal in 1475, to Ferdinand II, 3rd Duke of Braganza. The king just upgraded the previous title of count of Guimarães, that he granted to the same Duke of Braganza, some years before.

Marquis of Vila Viçosa

The title Marquis of Vila Viçosa was created by royal decree, dated May 25, 1455, by King Afonso V of Portugal), to Fernando of Braganza, second son of Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganza.

The Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa is a royal palace in Portugal, located in the civil parish of Nossa Senhora da Conceição, in the municipality of Vila Viçosa, in the Alentejo, situated about 150 km east of the capital Lisbon. It was for many centuries the seat of House of Braganza, one of the most important noble houses in Portugal which was the ruling house of the Kingdom of Portugal from 1640 until 1910 when King Manuel II, titular head of the family, was deposed in the 5 October 1910 Revolution which brought in a Republican government.

References

  1. Senos, Nuno, "The Empire in the Duke's Palace: Global material culture in sixteenth-century Portugal" in The Global Lives of Things, ed. by Anne Gerritsen and Giorgio Aiello, London: Rutledge, 2016, p. 130
  2. Senos, p. 133
  3. "Princess Maria Pia of Saxe-Coburg, duchess of Braganza" in CHILCOTE, Ronald H.; The Portuguese Revolution: State and Class in the Transition to Democracy, page 37. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers; Reprint edition (August 31, 2012).
  4. Jean Pailler; Maria Pia of Braganza: The Pretender. New York: ProjectedLetters, 2006.

Bibliography