Dulcie Mary Pillers
|Died||2 December 1961 70) (aged|
Stoke Bishop, Bristol, England
|Alma mater||Kensington Government School of Art, Berkeley Square, Clifton, Bristol, England|
|Known for||Medical illustration|
Dulcie Mary Pillers –2 December 1961) was an English medical illustrator and founding member of the Medical Artists' Association of Great Britain (MAA). The daughter of a Bristol solicitor, she completed her art training at Kensington Government School of Art, Berkeley Square, Clifton, Bristol, graduating in September 1911 with an Art Class Teachers' Certificate. At the end of the First World War, she was a medical illustrator to Ernest William Hey Groves, a well-known orthopaedic surgeon, at Beaufort War Hospital, a military orthopaedic centre at Stapleton, Bristol. After the armistice, she completed numerous pen and watercolour illustrations of operations at the Ministry of Pensions Hospital, Bath, and Southmead Hospital, Westbury-on-Trym. She also produced illustrations for papers written by medical colleagues at Bristol General Hospital.(17 August 1891
When Hey Groves died he left her his casebooks and copyright in some of his books. Her artwork, including ink drawings and colour illustrations of orthopaedic surgery, was exhibited at the British Orthopaedic Association conference in 1989. In 2013, her niece donated Pillers' artwork, and Hey Groves's casebooks, to the Royal College of Surgeons of England. She was a good amateur golfer and a member of the Bristol and Clifton golf club. In later life, she lived with her mother and sister, Irene Dorothy, a former inspector for the Board of Trade. She died at a nursing home in Stoke Bishop, Bristol, close to Sneyd Park.
Dulcie Mary was born on 17 August 1891, at Glen Gariff, Chesterfield Road, St Andrew's, Bristol, the second daughter of Ernest James Pillers (1864–1905) and Elizabeth Scott (1863–1960), née Webb. Elizabeth Scott was the daughter of Robert Barrett Webb, a former partner in Laverton & Co, furnishers and upholsterers, at Corn Street and Mary le Port Street in Bristol. Ernest James was a Bristol solicitor and the son of a hop merchant. They had married on 4 September 1889 at St Werburgh's Church, Bristol.
Pillers' father had a troubled career as a solicitor in Bristol. In 1898, he was charged with forging shares in the Fishponds and Bedminster Brick and Tile Company and obtaining transfer deeds by false pretences, though the case was settled the following year. Stephen's Chambers, Baldwin Street, Bristol, was embezzled by a shorthand clerk. Subsequently, on 15 March 1905, a creditor petitioned for bankruptcy, and he was made bankrupt on 19 May 1905. He had been suffering from a long and painful illness, and for this reason, his public examination on 2 June 1905 was postponed. He died only a few days later on 4 June 1905 (aged 41), at 16 Withleigh Road, Knowle, Bristol. His funeral was held at Arnos Vale Cemetery in the afternoon of the 7 June 1905.In 1905, his firm at St
After her father's death, the family moved from Withleigh Road to live with Pillers' maternal grandparents, the Webbs, at 20 Belgrave Road, Tyndalls Park. In 1906, Pillers began corresponding with the "Children's Corner" section in the Bristol Times and Mirror, that was edited by Florence Beatrice Hawkins, née Bird. She entered the puzzle and painting competitions in that section, coming second in March 1907 for her "charming watercolour seascape, with softly coloured cliffs and brown rocks; also another clever painting of three kittens, and a third of a bunch of violets."
Pillers' younger brother, Robert Kingsley (1893–1971), would also enter the newspaper competitions. He was educated at the Merchant Venturers' technical college, gaining a scholarship to study automotive engineering at the University of Bristol. He worked for Morgan and Wood, automobile engineers at 7 Unity Street, Bristol, before being called-up to the Northamptonshire Regiment at the start of World War I. He made the rank of lieutenant colonel and was appointed an OBE in the 1919 New Year Honours. In World War II, he served as an educational officer in the Royal Air Force Educational Service, and was given the honorary (and matching) rank of wing commander.
Pillers' elder sister, Irene Dorothy (1890–1966), was a former inspector for the Board of Trade. She was educated at Fairfield College for Girls, Apsley Road, Clifton, and Skerry's College, 88, Park Street, Bristol, where in July 1920, she passed civil service entrance examinations, coming twelfth out of six hundred candidates. In the 1930s, she was a member of the South-Western and Wales regional branch of the Council of Women Civil Servants. In 1951, she joined the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, and later, moved to The Plain, Nympsfield, near Stroud, Gloucestershire. She was elected to the Royal Archaeological Institute in 1961. : 232
Pillers was educated at Kensington Government School of Art (known occasionally as the "Kensington House School of Art"), 31 Berkeley Square, Clifton, Bristol. The school was founded in 1890 by John Fisher, with the objective of providing a grounding in drawing, sculpture, and design, for professional artists, designers, craftsmen, and art teachers. The school offered courses in artistic anatomy, architecture, decorative design, modelling, figure composition, and painting. There was also an annual exhibition of students' work. William Stuart Vernon Stock, an anaesthetist at the 2nd Southern General Hospital in 1908, was honorary lecturer in anatomy at the school.
Pillers took courses in:
She graduated from the school in September 1911, aged 20, with an Art Class Teachers' Certificate. At the end of July 1914, the school closed and moved to new premises at Broad Weir, Bristol, to form the Municipal School of Industrial Art. In December 1921, John Fisher retired through ill health, and a year later, the school was closed permanently because of dwindling pupil numbers and escalating costs.
By 1918, Pillers was employed as a secretary and medical illustrator to Ernest William Hey Groves, a well-known orthopaedic surgeon. : 457 He was commissioned captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps in the First World War, serving for a year at the Surgical Division of a General Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt. : 138 : 93 In 1917, Sir Robert Jones, Inspector of Military Orthopaedics, recommended that he take charge of the military orthopaedic centre at Beaufort War Hospital, Stapleton, Bristol. : 138 The war was one of the most destructive conflicts in human history, leaving over 750 thousand British troops dead with 1.6 million injured, the majority with orthopaedic injuries. : 12 At least half the patients arriving at Beaufort had compound fractures caused by shrapnel and gunshot wounds. Hey Groves experimented with grafts and pins to stabilise the fractures and used medical illustrators to record the operations. At the time, photography was unable show enough detail of the interior of the body to be of use to surgeons. : 459 Conversely, photography was used extensively for medical records, slides and book illustration. : 56
Hey Groves wrote several standard textbooks on surgery for students and nurses, but before 1915, they contained few illustrations. : 457 His 1915 book, Gunshot Injuries of Bones, was illustrated by Lucy Marion Joll, known as Marion Joll, the younger sister of Cecil Augustus Joll, who had proofread the book. : Preface From January 1916, Cecil Gwendolen St Leger Russell worked with Hey Groves at Beaufort and Southmead Hospital as a "surgical draughtswoman", illustrating his 1918 paper on the treatment of gunshot injuries to bone. Pillers, with Russell, illustrated Hey Groves's first post- armistice paper, The Crucial Ligaments of the Knee‑joint , published in the January 1919 edition of the British Journal of Surgery . In December 1918, Russell married Niel Charles Trew, an American physician, born in Toronto, who had worked at Beaufort during the war. In March 1919, the Trews left Bristol for New York, and in consequence, Pillers became the sole medical illustrator to Hey Groves.
After the war, Pillers completed numerous pen and watercolour illustrations of bone-grafting operations. : 458 In 1920, with Alexander Kirkpatrick Maxwell, she illustrated The new physiology in surgical and general practice , Arthur Rendle Short's book on physiology. She contributed to a number of papers on rheumatic and coronary artery diseases by Carey Coombs, including the 1926 Long Fox Memorial Lecture. In 1933, Hey Groves retired from the consulting staff of Bristol General Hospital and the University of Bristol medical school. : 166 In the same year, Percy Phillips was appointed medical superintendent of Southmead Hospital, with Pillers also working there. She continued to contribute to her colleague's medical papers, including sketches of bone cross-sections, that exhibited the typical features of renal rickets.
The new drawings have been made by Miss D. Pillers, and I am greatly indebted to her for the trouble she has taken.
Hey Groves, Synopsis of Surgery (Fifth edition, 1920)
Hey Groves died on 22 October 1944, and in recognition of Pillers' "long and devoted service", he left her his casebooks and copyright in Synopsis of Surgery . In 1945, the book was updated and edited by Sir Cecil Wakeley, with Pillers contributing new illustrations, and republished as the twelfth edition. On 2 April 1949, she attended the founding meeting of the Medical Artists' Association of Great Britain at Nunnery Close, Upper Wolvercote, Oxford, the then home of Audrey Arnott and Margaret McLarty. : 59 Also present, amongst others, were Zita Blackburn (honorary secretary), Dorothy Davison (honorary treasurer), and David Tompsett, assistant prosector at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, who was elected chairman. At the following meeting in July 1950, it was agreed that those who had attended the first meeting would become founding members of the association. : 59
In the 1920s, Pillers joined the Bristol Venture Club, one of the first women's classification clubs, as an "anatomical artist". : 34 She was an active participant in the club's membership committee and charitable activities. However, in 1930, the club merged with the Soroptimist volunteer movement, and she allowed her membership to lapse. : 61 In the 1930s, she lived at 24 Goldney Road in Clifton, and along with Hey Groves, was a member of the Bristol and Clifton golf club. She won a number of club medals at monthly competitions, off an improving handicap of 25.
Pillers' home at Goldney Road was damaged during the Bristol Blitz, Mount Beacon in Lansdown, Bath, close to the then Lansdown Grove Hospital, and now known as Haygarth Court. In 1943, she returned to Clifton to live with her sister at Eaton Villa in Clifton Down. She never married; nine percent of all British men under the age of forty-five died during the First World War. While many women remained unmarried due to the lack of available men, some women in this period remained single by choice or by financial necessity. Furthermore, careers such as medicine, were opening up to women, but only if they remained unmarried.and by July 1941, she had moved to Kimbolton House, 2
Pillers' mother died on 9 April 1960 (aged 96) at Downleaze Nursing Home, 9 Downleaze, Stoke Bishop, Bristol, close to Sneyd Park. Pillers died at the same nursing home on 2 December 1961 (aged 70) and her remains were later cremated. Her estate was administered by her niece, Elizabeth Mary Marrian (known as "Biddy"), née Kingsley Pillers, the only child of Pillers' brother, Robert Kingsley. Marrian was a qualified doctor, a former research fellow at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and until her retirement, director of medical studies at Girton College, Cambridge.
Pillers' artwork, including ink drawings and colour illustrations of orthopaedic surgery, was exhibited at the British Orthopaedic Association conference in 1989. : 462 In 2013, Marrian donated around twenty-five illustrations by Pillers to the archives of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. In February 2015, Gordon Bannister, professor of orthopaedic surgery at the University of Bristol, presented a further seventy-five illustrations to the same archives. In the same year, her life and career was chronicled by Samuel Alberti , then director of museums and archives at the Royal College of Surgeons of England (which includes the Hunterian Museum). On 11 March 2015, he presented this research to the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, as part of a series of seminars organised by the Edinburgh History of Medicine Group. In May 2015, Alberti made a related presentation of her work to the Hunterian Society, at the Medical Society of London, titled "Watercolour, Woodcut and Wax: Medical Illustrations since Hunter."
|1919||The Crucial Ligaments of the Knee‑joint: Their Function, Rupture, and the Operative Treatment of the Same||Ernest William Hey Groves||British Journal of Surgery||The majority of the cruciate ligament illustrations were drawn by Pillers. It was Hey Groves's first post- armistice paper: It is now considered to be one of the classics works of orthopaedic literature.|
|1919||On the Treatment of Ununited Fractures, with Especial Reference to the Use of Bone Grafts||Ernest William Hey Groves||Bristol Medico Chirurgical Journal||Figure 12 illustrates a method of inlay grafting for a gap fracture of the tibia. An aluminium template is nailed to the periosteum to guide the saw. Figure 14 shows a moulded splint that fixes the arm to the body before and after bone-grafting of the humerus.|
|1920||The New Physiology in Surgical and General Practice||Arthur Rendle Short||Book|
|1920||The Application of Bone-Grafting in the Treatment of Fractures||Ernest William Hey Groves||The Lancet|
|1920||Synopsis of Surgery||Ernest William Hey Groves||Book|
|1921||Fibroma of the Mesentery||Henry Greville Kyle||British Journal of Surgery|
|1921||Military Orthopedic Surgery||Sir Robert Jones and Ernest William Hey Groves||Surgery, Its Principles and Practice||See illustrations on pages 664, 670, 672, 683, 694, and 705. See page 666 for a diagram of a step-cut operation on an ununited humerus by Cecil Gwendolen Trew.|
|1921||The Closure of Septic Bone Cavities Following Gunshot Wounds by Muscle-Flaps||Duncan Wood||British Journal of Surgery||Illustrations of various methods of treating bone cavities due to discharging sinuses. The principal method is that in which the cavity is filled with a pedunculated muscle flap.|
|1922||On Modern Methods of Treating Fractures||Ernest William Hey Groves||Book||See illustrations on pages 314, 353, and 360. Includes the essay on bone grafting by Hey Groves that won the Jacksonian prize of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.|
|1922||The Use of Pituitrin in Inoperable Cancer||Robert Henry Norgate||British Journal of Surgery||Includes a watercolor painting of a railway porter with inoperable cancer of the lower jaw.|
|1923||A Note on the Operation for the Radical Cure of Femoral Hernia||Ernest William Hey Groves||British Journal of Surgery||See illustrations on pages 530 and 531 for a strangulated femoral hernia operation.|
|1923||Arthroplasty||Ernest William Hey Groves||British Journal of Surgery||See illustrations on pages 242 and 244 for arthroplasty of the elbow.|
|1924||Rheumatic Heart Disease||Carey Franklin Coombs||Book|
|1925||Surgical Operations: A Textbook for Students and Nurses||Ernest William Hey Groves||Book||See illustrations on pages 30 and 31 for joint and limb amputations. See page 110 for an illustration of a Caldwell‑Luc operation and page 111 for an illustration of a Killian's operation to excise the anterior wall of the frontal sinus.|
|1925||Fracture Dislocations of the Upper End of the Humerus||Ernest William Hey Groves||The Lancet|
|1926||The Long Fox Memorial Lecture: The Aetiology of Cardiac Disease||Carey Franklin Coombs||Bristol Medico Chirurgical Journal||Delivered in the University of Bristol at the meeting of the Bristol Medico Chirurgical Society on 9 December 1925.|
|1926||Ischaemic Necrosis of the Cardiac Wall||Carey Franklin Coombs and Geoffrey Hadfield||The Lancet|
|1926||Observations on the Rheumatic Nodule||Vincent Coates and Carey Franklin Coombs||Archives of Disease in Childhood|
|1927||Some Contributions to the Reconstructive Surgery of the Hip||Ernest William Hey Groves||British Journal of Surgery|
|1927||The Pathogenesis of Respiratory Anomalies After Epidemic Encephalitis||MacDonald Critchley||British Medical Journal|
|1928||Direct Skeletal Traction in the Treatment of Fractures||Ernest William Hey Groves||British Journal of Surgery||See the illustration on page 156 for a bradawl operation to correct lateral displacement of fractures.|
|1929||The Borderland between Surgery and Gynaecology||Ernest William Hey Groves||Bristol Medico Chirurgical Journal|
|1930||A Case of Spina Bifida Occulta||Sidney John Hermann Griffiths||British Journal of Surgery|
|1930||The Treatment of Infected Open Fractures||Ernest William Hey Groves||British Journal of Surgery||See pages 300 and 302 for two coloured illustrations of an infected open fracture.|
|1930||Textbook for Nurses: Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery and Medicine||Ernest William Hey Groves, John Matthew Fortescue‑Brickdale, and John Alexander Nixon||Book||Amongst other drawings, page 283 illustrates a typical humerus extension splint, and the wrong and the right way of bandaging a fractured elbow. The medical section was revised by John Alexander Nixon, professor of medicine at the University of Bristol until his retirement in 1935.|
|1931||Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta||Sidney John Hermann Griffiths||British Journal of Surgery|
|1933||A Surgical Adventure: An Autobiographical Sketch||Ernest William Hey Groves||Bristol Medico Chirurgical Journal|
|1934||Localized Hypertrophic Enteritis as a Cause of Intestinal Obstruction: With a report of two cases||William Austen Jackman||British Journal of Surgery||See page 30 for an illustration of the condition of the ileum found at operation.|
|1937||Some Observations on Physical Stigmata||Oliver Charles Minty Davis and Percy Phillips||The Clinical Journal|
|1937||Renal Rickets||Norman Lloyd Price and Thomas Benjamin Davie||British Journal of Surgery|
|1937||Renal Pelvic Epithelioma with Massive Calculi and No Infection||Arthur Wilfred Adams||Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine||See the illustration on page 1077 for a section of left kidney with kidney stone disease calculi. In addition to calculi, there is a scirrhous carcinoma in the renal pelvis, that Adams infers is caused by the presence of the calculi. : 155|
|1938||A Case of Intussusception of the Normal Appendix into the Caecum||George Thomson Mowat||British Journal of Surgery|
|1939||Vascular Anomalies of the Upper Limbs Associated with Cervical Ribs: Report of a case and review of the literature||Reginald Manson Hill||British Journal of Surgery||See pages 106 and 107 for illustrations of the post-operative condition of the hands.|
|1945||Synopsis of Surgery||Ernest William Hey Groves||Book|
|1949||The Ocular Manifestations of Polyarteritis Nodosa||Ralph Norman Herson and Robert Sampson||Quarterly Journal of Medicine|
|1983||Ernest William Hey Groves and his Contributions to Orthopaedic Surgery||Anthony Hugh Cyril Ratliff||Bristol Medico Chirurgical Journal|
Note, the title link does open the illustrated 12th edition, and not the 6th edition (1922) that is stated in the archive.org record i.e. the archive.org record is incorrect.
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Pages 1–58 in the PDF
As a major exhibition opens at the Bristol Record Office, Gerry Brooke looks back on the history of the local Girl Guide movement as it celebrates its centenary year 'The Girl Guides helped out wherever they were needed'.
Approval No. 202 C.S.
Centenary of the club
The Annual Review of Girton College.
Mrs. C. G. Ehrenborg.