Dulcie Mary Pillers

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Dulcie Mary Pillers

Dulcie Mary Pillers.jpg
Pillers at Beaufort War Hospital in 1918
Born(1891-08-17)17 August 1891
St Andrew's, Bristol, England
Died2 December 1961(1961-12-02) (aged 70)
Stoke Bishop, Bristol, England
Alma materKensington Government School of Art, Berkeley Square, Clifton, Bristol, England
Known for Medical illustration
Style
Patron(s)

Dulcie Mary PillersMMAA (17 August 1891 2 December 1961) was an English medical illustrator and founding member of the Medical Artists' Association of Great Britain (MAA). The daughter of a Bristol solicitor, she completed her art training at Kensington Government School of Art, Berkeley Square, Clifton, Bristol, graduating in September 1911 with an Art Class Teachers' Certificate. At the end of the First World War, she was a medical illustrator to Ernest William Hey Groves, a well-known orthopaedic surgeon, at Beaufort War Hospital, a military orthopaedic centre at Stapleton, Bristol. After the armistice, she completed numerous pen and watercolour illustrations of operations at the Ministry of Pensions Hospital, Bath, and Southmead Hospital, Westbury-on-Trym. She also produced illustrations for papers written by medical colleagues at Bristol General Hospital.

Contents

When Hey Groves died he left her his casebooks and copyright in some of his books. Her artwork, including ink drawings and colour illustrations of orthopaedic surgery, was exhibited at the British Orthopaedic Association conference in 1989. In 2013, her niece donated Pillers' artwork, and Hey Groves's casebooks, to the Royal College of Surgeons of England. She was a good amateur golfer and a member of the Bristol and Clifton golf club. In later life, she lived with her mother and sister, Irene Dorothy, a former inspector for the Board of Trade. She died at a nursing home in Stoke Bishop, Bristol, close to Sneyd Park.

Early life

Dulcie Mary was born on 17 August 1891, at Glen Gariff, Chesterfield Road, St Andrew's, Bristol, [1] the second daughter of Ernest James Pillers (1864–1905) and Elizabeth Scott (1863–1960), née  Webb. [2] [3] [lower-alpha 1] Elizabeth Scott was the daughter of Robert Barrett Webb, a former partner in Laverton & Co, furnishers and upholsterers, at Corn Street and Mary le Port Street in Bristol. [2] [5] [6] [lower-alpha 2] Ernest James was a Bristol solicitor and the son of a hop merchant. They had married on 4 September 1889 at St Werburgh's Church, Bristol. [2] [lower-alpha 3]

Pillers' father, Ernest James Pillers Ernest James Pillers.jpg
Pillers' father, Ernest James Pillers

Pillers' father had a troubled career as a solicitor in Bristol. In 1898, he was charged with forging shares in the Fishponds and Bedminster Brick and Tile Company and obtaining transfer deeds by false pretences, though the case was settled the following year. [14] [15] In 1905, his firm at St Stephen's Chambers, Baldwin Street, Bristol, was embezzled by a shorthand clerk. [16] Subsequently, on 15 March 1905, a creditor petitioned for bankruptcy, and he was made bankrupt on 19 May 1905. [17] He had been suffering from a long and painful illness, [18] and for this reason, his public examination on 2 June 1905 was postponed. [19] He died only a few days later on 4 June 1905(1905-06-04) (aged 41), at 16 Withleigh Road, Knowle, Bristol. [20] [18] His funeral was held at Arnos Vale Cemetery in the afternoon of the 7 June 1905. [20]

After her father's death, the family moved from Withleigh Road to live with Pillers' maternal grandparents, the Webbs, at 20 Belgrave Road, Tyndalls Park. [21] [17] In 1906, Pillers began corresponding with the "Children's Corner" section in the Bristol Times and Mirror, [22] that was edited by Florence Beatrice Hawkins, née Bird. [23] [lower-alpha 4] She entered the puzzle and painting competitions in that section, coming second in March 1907 for her "charming watercolour seascape, with softly coloured cliffs and brown rocks; also another clever painting of three kittens, and a third of a bunch of violets." [25]

Pillers' younger brother, Robert Kingsley (1893–1971), would also enter the newspaper competitions. [26] He was educated at the Merchant Venturers' technical college, gaining a scholarship to study automotive engineering at the University of Bristol. [27] He worked for Morgan and Wood, automobile engineers at 7 Unity Street, Bristol, [28] [lower-alpha 5] before being called-up to the Northamptonshire Regiment at the start of World War I. [27] [lower-alpha 6] He made the rank of lieutenant colonel and was appointed an OBE in the 1919 New Year Honours. [27] In World War II, he served as an educational officer in the Royal Air Force Educational Service, and was given the honorary (and matching) rank of wing commander. [31]

Pillers' elder sister, Irene Dorothy (1890–1966), was a former inspector for the Board of Trade. [32] She was educated at Fairfield College for Girls, Apsley Road, Clifton, [33] [34] and Skerry's College, 88, Park Street, Bristol, where in July 1920, she passed civil service entrance examinations, coming twelfth out of six hundred candidates. [35] In the 1930s, she was a member of the South-Western and Wales regional branch of the Council of Women Civil Servants. [36] In 1951, she joined the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, and later, moved to The Plain, Nympsfield, near Stroud, Gloucestershire. She was elected to the Royal Archaeological Institute in 1961. [37] [38] :232

Education

The former Kensington Government School of Art building at 31 Berkeley Square, Clifton, Bristol 31 Berkeley Square, Clifton.jpg
The former Kensington Government School of Art building at 31 Berkeley Square, Clifton, Bristol

Pillers was educated at Kensington Government School of Art (known occasionally as the "Kensington House School of Art"), 31  Berkeley Square, Clifton, Bristol. [39] [40] [lower-alpha 7] The school was founded in 1890 by John Fisher, with the objective of providing a grounding in drawing, sculpture, and design, for professional artists, designers, craftsmen, and art teachers. [42] [43] The school offered courses in artistic anatomy, architecture, decorative design, modelling, figure composition, and painting. There was also an annual exhibition of students' work. [42] William Stuart Vernon Stock, an anaesthetist at the 2nd Southern General Hospital in 1908, [lower-alpha 8] was honorary lecturer in anatomy at the school. [42] [45]

Pillers took courses in:

She graduated from the school in September 1911, aged 20, with an Art Class Teachers' Certificate. [47] At the end of July 1914, the school closed and moved to new premises at Broad Weir, Bristol, to form the Municipal School of Industrial Art. [48] [49] In December 1921, John Fisher retired through ill health, and a year later, the school was closed permanently because of dwindling pupil numbers and escalating costs. [50] [51]

Career

Use of pituitrin in inoperable cancer of lower jaw.jpg
A railway porter, admitted to Southmead Hospital on 15 March 1920, with inoperable cancer of the lower jaw. The image on the left shows the patient prior to treatment with Pituitrin. Described by Robert Henry Norgate. [52]
Method of inlay grafting for a gap fracture of the tibia.jpg
Method of inlay grafting for a gap fracture of the tibia. An aluminium template is nailed to the periosteum to guide the saw. Described by Hey Groves. [53]
Examples of Pillers' medical illustrations

By 1918, Pillers was employed as a secretary and medical illustrator to Ernest William Hey Groves, a well-known orthopaedic surgeon. [4] :457 [54] [lower-alpha 9] He was commissioned captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps in the First World War, serving for a year at the Surgical Division of a General Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt. [56] :138 [57] :93 In 1917, Sir Robert Jones, Inspector of Military Orthopaedics, recommended that he take charge of the military orthopaedic centre at Beaufort War Hospital, Stapleton, Bristol. [56] :138 [58] [lower-alpha 10] The war was one of the most destructive conflicts in human history, leaving over 750 thousand British troops dead with 1.6 million injured, the majority with orthopaedic injuries. [59] :12 At least half the patients arriving at Beaufort had compound fractures caused by shrapnel and gunshot wounds. [58] Hey Groves experimented with grafts and pins to stabilise the fractures and used medical illustrators to record the operations. At the time, photography was unable show enough detail of the interior of the body to be of use to surgeons. [4] :459 Conversely, photography was used extensively for medical records, slides and book illustration. [60] :56

Hey Groves wrote several standard textbooks on surgery for students and nurses, but before 1915, they contained few illustrations. [4] :457 [lower-alpha 11] His 1915 book, Gunshot Injuries of Bones, was illustrated by Lucy Marion Joll, known as Marion Joll, the younger sister of Cecil Augustus Joll, [61] who had proofread the book. [62] :Preface [lower-alpha 12] From January 1916, Cecil Gwendolen St Leger Russell worked with Hey Groves at Beaufort and Southmead Hospital as a "surgical draughtswoman", illustrating his 1918 paper on the treatment of gunshot injuries to bone. [68] [69] [lower-alpha 13] Pillers, with Russell, illustrated Hey Groves's first post- armistice paper, The Crucial Ligaments of the Knee‑joint , published in the January 1919 edition of the British Journal of Surgery . [70] In December 1918, Russell married Niel Charles Trew, an American physician, born in Toronto, who had worked at Beaufort during the war. [71] [72] [lower-alpha 14] In March 1919, the Trews left Bristol for New York, and in consequence, Pillers became the sole medical illustrator to Hey Groves. [72]

After the war, Pillers completed numerous pen and watercolour illustrations of bone-grafting operations. [4] :458 In 1920, with Alexander Kirkpatrick Maxwell, she illustrated The new physiology in surgical and general practice , Arthur Rendle Short's book on physiology. She contributed to a number of papers on rheumatic and coronary artery diseases by Carey Coombs, including the 1926 Long Fox Memorial Lecture. [73] [lower-alpha 15] In 1933, Hey Groves retired from the consulting staff of Bristol General Hospital and the University of Bristol medical school. [75] :166 In the same year, Percy Phillips was appointed medical superintendent of Southmead Hospital, with Pillers also working there. [76] [77] She continued to contribute to her colleague's medical papers, including sketches of bone cross-sections, that exhibited the typical features of renal rickets. [78]

The new drawings have been made by Miss D. Pillers, and I am greatly indebted to her for the trouble she has taken.

Hey Groves, Synopsis of Surgery (Fifth edition, 1920)

Hey Groves died on 22 October 1944, and in recognition of Pillers' "long and devoted service", he left her his casebooks and copyright in Synopsis of Surgery . [21] [54] In 1945, the book was updated and edited by Sir Cecil Wakeley, with Pillers contributing new illustrations, and republished as the twelfth edition. [79] On 2 April 1949, she attended the founding meeting of the Medical Artists' Association of Great Britain at Nunnery Close, Upper Wolvercote, Oxford, the then home of Audrey Arnott and Margaret McLarty. [60] :59 Also present, amongst others, were Zita Blackburn (honorary secretary), Dorothy Davison (honorary treasurer), and David Tompsett, assistant prosector at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, who was elected chairman. At the following meeting in July 1950, it was agreed that those who had attended the first meeting would become founding members of the association. [60] :59

Personal life

In the 1920s, Pillers joined the Bristol Venture Club, one of the first women's classification clubs, as an "anatomical artist". [80] [81] :34 [lower-alpha 16] She was an active participant in the club's membership committee and charitable activities. [82] [83] However, in 1930, the club merged with the Soroptimist volunteer movement, and she allowed her membership to lapse. [80] [81] :61 In the 1930s, she lived at 24 Goldney Road in Clifton, [84] and along with Hey Groves, was a member of the Bristol and Clifton golf club. [85] [55] [86] She won a number of club medals at monthly competitions, off an improving handicap of 25. [86] [87] [lower-alpha 17]

Pillers' home at Goldney Road was damaged during the Bristol Blitz, [90] and by July 1941, she had moved to Kimbolton House, 2 Mount Beacon in Lansdown, Bath, close to the then Lansdown Grove Hospital, and now known as Haygarth Court. [91] [92] [lower-alpha 18] In 1943, she returned to Clifton to live with her sister at Eaton Villa in Clifton Down. [96] [37] She never married; nine percent of all British men under the age of forty-five died during the First World War. [97] While many women remained unmarried due to the lack of available men, some women in this period remained single by choice or by financial necessity. Furthermore, careers such as medicine, were opening up to women, but only if they remained unmarried. [97]

Death and legacy

Pillers' mother died on 9 April 1960(1960-04-09) (aged 96) at Downleaze Nursing Home, 9 Downleaze, Stoke Bishop, Bristol, close to Sneyd Park. [98] [21] [99] Pillers died at the same nursing home on 2 December 1961(1961-12-02) (aged 70) and her remains were later cremated. [100] [101] Her estate was administered by her niece, Elizabeth Mary Marrian (known as "Biddy"), née Kingsley Pillers, [100] the only child of Pillers' brother, Robert Kingsley. [102] [103] Marrian was a qualified doctor, a former research fellow at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and until her retirement, director of medical studies at Girton College, Cambridge. [103] [104] [lower-alpha 19]

Pillers' artwork, including ink drawings and colour illustrations of orthopaedic surgery, was exhibited at the British Orthopaedic Association conference in 1989. [4] :462 In 2013, Marrian donated around twenty-five illustrations by Pillers to the archives of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. [105] [106] In February 2015, Gordon Bannister, professor of orthopaedic surgery at the University of Bristol, presented a further seventy-five illustrations to the same archives. [107] [21] [105] In the same year, her life and career was chronicled by Samuel Alberti FRSE , then director of museums and archives at the Royal College of Surgeons of England (which includes the Hunterian Museum). [108] On 11 March 2015, he presented this research to the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, as part of a series of seminars organised by the Edinburgh History of Medicine Group. [105] In May 2015, Alberti made a related presentation of her work to the Hunterian Society, at the Medical Society of London, titled "Watercolour, Woodcut and Wax: Medical Illustrations since Hunter." [109]

Publications

As medical illustrator

Table of selected medical papers and books
YearTitleAuthor(s)PublicationNotes
1919 The Crucial Ligaments of the Knee‑joint: Their Function, Rupture, and the Operative Treatment of the Same Ernest William Hey Groves British Journal of Surgery The majority of the cruciate ligament illustrations were drawn by Pillers. It was Hey Groves's first post- armistice paper: It is now considered to be one of the classics works of orthopaedic literature. [110]
1919 On the Treatment of Ununited Fractures, with Especial Reference to the Use of Bone Grafts Ernest William Hey Groves Bristol Medico Chirurgical Journal Figure 12 illustrates a method of inlay grafting for a gap fracture of the tibia. An aluminium template is nailed to the periosteum to guide the saw. Figure 14 shows a moulded splint that fixes the arm to the body before and after bone-grafting of the humerus.
1920 The New Physiology in Surgical and General Practice Arthur Rendle Short Book
1920 The Application of Bone-Grafting in the Treatment of Fractures Ernest William Hey Groves The Lancet
1920 Synopsis of Surgery Ernest William Hey GrovesBook
1921 Fibroma of the Mesentery Henry Greville Kyle British Journal of Surgery
1921 Military Orthopedic Surgery Sir Robert Jones and Ernest William Hey GrovesSurgery, Its Principles and PracticeSee illustrations on pages 664, 670, 672, 683, 694, and 705. See page 666 for a diagram of a step-cut operation on an ununited humerus by Cecil Gwendolen Trew.
1921 The Closure of Septic Bone Cavities Following Gunshot Wounds by Muscle-Flaps Duncan Wood British Journal of Surgery Illustrations of various methods of treating bone cavities due to discharging sinuses. The principal method is that in which the cavity is filled with a pedunculated muscle flap. [111]
1922 On Modern Methods of Treating Fractures Ernest William Hey GrovesBookSee illustrations on pages 314, 353, and 360. Includes the essay on bone grafting by Hey Groves that won the Jacksonian prize of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.
1922 The Use of Pituitrin in Inoperable Cancer Robert Henry Norgate British Journal of Surgery Includes a watercolor painting of a railway porter with inoperable cancer of the lower jaw.
1923 A Note on the Operation for the Radical Cure of Femoral Hernia Ernest William Hey Groves British Journal of Surgery See illustrations on pages 530 and 531 for a strangulated femoral hernia operation.
1923 Arthroplasty Ernest William Hey Groves British Journal of Surgery See illustrations on pages 242 and 244 for arthroplasty of the elbow.
1924 Rheumatic Heart Disease Carey Franklin Coombs Book
1925 Surgical Operations: A Textbook for Students and Nurses Ernest William Hey GrovesBookSee illustrations on pages 30 and 31 for joint and limb amputations. See page 110 for an illustration of a Caldwell‑Luc operation and page 111 for an illustration of a Killian's operation to excise the anterior wall of the frontal sinus.
1925 Fracture Dislocations of the Upper End of the Humerus Ernest William Hey Groves The Lancet
1926 The Long Fox Memorial Lecture: The Aetiology of Cardiac Disease Carey Franklin Coombs Bristol Medico Chirurgical Journal Delivered in the University of Bristol at the meeting of the Bristol Medico Chirurgical Society on 9 December 1925.
1926 Ischaemic Necrosis of the Cardiac Wall Carey Franklin Coombs and Geoffrey Hadfield The Lancet
1926 Observations on the Rheumatic Nodule Vincent Coates and Carey Franklin Coombs Archives of Disease in Childhood
1927 Some Contributions to the Reconstructive Surgery of the Hip Ernest William Hey Groves British Journal of Surgery
1927 The Pathogenesis of Respiratory Anomalies After Epidemic Encephalitis MacDonald Critchley British Medical Journal
1928 Direct Skeletal Traction in the Treatment of Fractures Ernest William Hey Groves British Journal of Surgery See the illustration on page 156 for a bradawl operation to correct lateral displacement of fractures.
1929 The Borderland between Surgery and Gynaecology Ernest William Hey Groves Bristol Medico Chirurgical Journal
1930 A Case of Spina Bifida Occulta Sidney John Hermann Griffiths British Journal of Surgery
1930 The Treatment of Infected Open Fractures Ernest William Hey Groves British Journal of Surgery See pages 300 and 302 for two coloured illustrations of an infected open fracture.
1930 Textbook for Nurses: Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery and Medicine Ernest William Hey Groves, John Matthew Fortescue‑Brickdale, and John Alexander NixonBookAmongst other drawings, page 283 illustrates a typical humerus extension splint, and the wrong and the right way of bandaging a fractured elbow. The medical section was revised by John Alexander Nixon, professor of medicine at the University of Bristol until his retirement in 1935. [112] [113]
1931 Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta Sidney John Hermann Griffiths British Journal of Surgery
1933 A Surgical Adventure: An Autobiographical Sketch Ernest William Hey Groves Bristol Medico Chirurgical Journal
1934 Localized Hypertrophic Enteritis as a Cause of Intestinal Obstruction: With a report of two cases William Austen Jackman British Journal of Surgery See page 30 for an illustration of the condition of the ileum found at operation.
1937 Some Observations on Physical Stigmata Oliver Charles Minty Davis and Percy PhillipsThe Clinical Journal
1937 Renal Rickets Norman Lloyd Price and Thomas Benjamin Davie British Journal of Surgery
1937 Renal Pelvic Epithelioma with Massive Calculi and No Infection Arthur Wilfred Adams Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine See the illustration on page 1077 for a section of left kidney with kidney stone disease calculi. In addition to calculi, there is a scirrhous carcinoma in the renal pelvis, that Adams infers is caused by the presence of the calculi. [114] :155
1938 A Case of Intussusception of the Normal Appendix into the Caecum George Thomson Mowat British Journal of Surgery
1939 Vascular Anomalies of the Upper Limbs Associated with Cervical Ribs: Report of a case and review of the literature Reginald Manson Hill British Journal of Surgery See pages 106 and 107 for illustrations of the post-operative condition of the hands.
1945 Synopsis of Surgery Ernest William Hey GrovesBook
1949 The Ocular Manifestations of Polyarteritis Nodosa Ralph Norman Herson and Robert Sampson Quarterly Journal of Medicine
1983 Ernest William Hey Groves and his Contributions to Orthopaedic Surgery Anthony Hugh Cyril Ratliff Bristol Medico Chirurgical Journal

Publications detail

Adams

  • Adams, Arthur Wilfred (July 1937). Martin, Edward Kenneth; Moncrieff, Alan (eds.). "Renal Pelvic Epithelioma with Massive Calculi and No Infection". Urology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine . London: Royal Society of Medicine. 30 (9): 1075–1077. doi: 10.1177/003591573703000923 . ISSN   0035-9157. PMC   2076334 . PMID   19991199.

Coates and Coombs

Coombs

Coombs and Hadfield

Critchley

Davis and Phillips

  • Davis, Oliver Charles Minty; Phillips, Percy (January 1937). Knight, Edward (ed.). "Some Observations on Physical Stigmata". The Clinical Journal. London: H. K. Lewis & Company. 66: 29–32. ISSN   0366-6743. OCLC   10995429.

Griffiths

Herson and Sampson

Hey Groves

Hey Groves, Fortescue‑Brickdale, and Nixon

Hill

Jackman

Jones and Hey Groves

Kyle

Mowat

Norgate

Price and Davie

Ratliff

Short

Wood

See also

Footnotes

  1. Some sources name Pillers as "Dulcibel", as noted in the 1911 Census. [4] :456–457 However, all other records, such as birth, newspaper reports, academic papers, death, and probate, name her "Dulcie".
  2. In July 1903, Webb patented a rotating bookcase where the top and base remain stationary. [7]
  3. Elizabeth Scott Webb's brother, Herbert Barrett Webb, married Annie Hester Wise in 1895. [2] [8] Annie Hester was the elder sister of Beatrice Ethel Wise, [9] the founder of the first Girl Scout patrol at Brislington. [10] [11] Pillers attended Wise's funeral at Brislington Congregational Church (now the Brislington United Reformed Church) on 23 June 1944. [12] [13]
  4. Hawkins was known as "Uncle Jack" and was the first female journalist to have been appointed a MBE. [24]
  5. 7 Unity Street was then the main building of the Merchant Venturers' technical college. [29]
  6. William Morgan was professor of automobile engineering at the University of Bristol and a former research engineer at Daimler Motor Car Company. His research assistant, Edmund Baddeley Wood, was educated at Eton and the University of Cambridge, and was a researcher at the University of Birmingham and an engineer at Daimler. [29] Robert Kingsley Pillers studied under Morgan in 1910 and spoke at Morgan's retirement presentation in June 1936. [30]
  7. As of 2021, 31 Berkeley Square is still used as an arts and media space. [41]
  8. The 2nd Southern General Hospital dates to the Territorial Force Act of 1908. During the First World War, the War Office requisitioned the Memorial Wing at Bristol Royal Infirmary, together with Southmead Hospital, to create the hospital. [44] :143–145
  9. Hey Groves was born in India, the son of an English civil engineer, but had lived in Bristol from an early age. He was educated at Redland Hill House, University College, Bristol, and St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, where he won a scholarship. After qualifying he was in general medical practice for five years at Chewton Mendip, in the Mendip District of Somerset, and Kingswood, South Gloucestershire. [54] In 1905, having taken the Fellowship of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons, and the degree of Master of Surgery of the University of London, winning the Gold Medal, he was elected to the staff of the Bristol General Hospital. He then devoted his time to general surgery, with his interests concentrated on the injuries, mechanics, and diseases of the bone and joint. [55] [56] :138 [4] :457
  10. Jones and Hey Groves were good friends, with a shared interest in bone surgery, and Jones visited him many times in Bristol. [57] :93
  11. Hey Groves edited the British Journal of Surgery for twenty-seven years. [55] For this work the Royal College of Surgeons awarded Hey Groves a Hunterian Professorship in 1914 and the Jacksonian Prize in 1916. [55] His early work anticipated much that followed in the field of orthopaedic surgery. [57] :93 [56] :138–139
  12. Marion Joll had been a student at the Kensington Government School of Art at the same time as Pillers, [47] but left Bristol in 1916, to establish a photography business with Kathleen Chivers, known as "Chip", [63] in Bath, Somerset. [64] [65] Their photographic studio was known as Chivers & Joll and had premises at 1 Seymour Street, near Bath Green Park railway station, [66] and later, at 33 Milsom Street, Bath. [67]
  13. Russell was better known by her pen name, "Cecil G. Trew", an illustrator of books on horses and dogs. [71] She was born in 1897, the daughter of the headteacher at Clifton College, Bristol. She was a graduate of the Bristol Municipal School of Art (later the Royal West of England Academy), [71] [115] and at the start of the war, volunteered in the Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) for the British Red Cross. [69] She was the only surgical artist in the British Army during the Second World War and wrote a book about her war experiences entitled What are you doing Here?. [72] [116] [117]
  14. On 28 February 1919, Beaufort ceased work, and by that time, had treated 29,434 patients. [44] :151
  15. Pillers was one of the mourners at Carey's funeral on 13 December 1932 at Highbury Congregational Chapel. [74]
  16. In general, classification followed the Rotary International principle that member classes were determined by the services they provided to society and not by the position they held. Example membership classifications were "school mistress", "florist", and "chemist". [80] [81] :24
  17. Pillers' colleague, Norman Lloyd Price (she had illustrated his 1937 paper Renal Rickets ), the deputy medical registrar at Southmead Hospital, was also a member of the club. [88] He was a skilled player with a handicap of 18, sometimes called a "bogey golfer", meaning he averaged a bogey, or one shot above par, per hole. [89]
  18. Kimbolton House was owned at the time by Francis Camm Bennett, [93] [94] a medical electrician and a founder of the Russell Institute of Medical Electricity at 23 Marlborough Buildings, Bath. [95]
  19. See Marrian's memoir by Fiona Cooke.

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Churchill Methodist Church, in the village of Churchill, North Somerset, is a Grade II listed Methodist church on the Somerset Mendip Methodist Circuit. Designed by Foster & Wood, Bristol, of Perpendicular Gothic style, the church opened on 2 May 1881. The schoolroom and coach house, of Elizabethan architecture, were erected before the new church, and opened on 1 June 1879 (Whitsun). Sidney Hill, a wealthy local businessman and benefactor, erected the church and schoolroom as a memorial to his wife.

Beryl May Dent English mathematical physicist (1900–1977)

Beryl May Dent was an English mathematical physicist, technical librarian, and a programmer of early analogue and digital computers to solve electrical engineering problems. She was born in Chippenham, Wiltshire, the eldest daughter of schoolteachers. The family left Chippenham in 1901, after her father became head teacher of the then recently established Warminster County School. In 1923, she graduated from the University of Bristol with First Class Honours in applied mathematics. She was awarded the Ashworth Hallett scholarship by the university and was accepted as a postgraduate student at Newnham College, University of Cambridge.

Herbert Alexander Haxton FRCS FRSE was a Scottish surgeon to the Royal Manchester Children's Hospital and the Manchester North Hospital and Crumpsall Hospital. He contributed to surgical techniques of suturing and investigated the function of the sympathetic nervous system in the sweating conditions hyperhidrosis and gustatory hyperhidrosis.

John Lockhart-Mummery British surgeon

John Percy Lockhart-Mummery FRCS, was a British surgeon at St Mark's Hospital, London, who devised a classification of rectal cancer and described familial polyposis which led to the formation of the polyposis registry. He was the author of several books, including Diseases of the Rectum and Colon and their Surgical Treatment (1923) and The Origin of Cancer (1934). His work on colorectal surgery earned him the nickname "King Rectum".

Andrew Russell Murray FRCSEd was an Australian orthopaedic surgeon who pioneered developments in hand surgery while working at Leith Hospital, Scotland. These included pollicisation, the use of stainless steel joint prostheses to replace finger joints and the use of wire to stabilise finger fractures and bone grafts. He later worked as an orthopaedic surgeon in Brisbane, Australia. On 1 December 1955 he was shot dead by Karl Kast in the "Brisbane medical massacre".

Sarah Muirhead-Allwood (FRCS), is a British orthopaedic surgeon known for performing complex hip resurfacings and unusual hip replacements. Those she has operated on include The Queen Mother, Prince Philip and Andy Murray.

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Further reading