Dunay radar

Last updated

Dunay radar
Doghouse dunay3 kh7 receiver.jpg
Dunay-3 (NATO: Dog House) radar receiver taken by US KH-7 spy satellite in 1967
Country of originSoviet Union
Introduced1959 (Dunay-2)
1968 (Dunay-3)
1978 (Dunay-3M, Dunay-3U)
No. built3
Type early warning radar
Frequency UHF [1]
Range1,200 km (Dunay-2)
2,500 km (Dunay-3M)
Power100kW (Dunay-2)
3MW per sector (Dunay-3M)
Other Names NATO: Dog House, Cat House, Top Roost, Hen Roost

Dunay radar (Russian:Дунай, tr. Dunay literally Danube; NATO: Cat House, Dog House) was a system of two Soviet radars used to detect American ballistic missiles fired at Moscow. They were part of the A-35 anti-ballistic missile system. [2] One sector of one of the radars, the Dunay-3U ("Cat House") is still operational and is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces as part of the Main Control Centre of Outer Space. [3]

Contents

Dunay-2

The Dunay-2 was a prototype built in Sary Shagan as part of the experimental missile defence system "A". It consisted of separate transmitter and receiver complexes separated by 1 km. The power of the radar was 100 kW and its range was 1,200 km. [4] [5] The NATO codename was "Hen Roost".

Dunay-3M

Ruins of the Dunay-3M Dunai3M radar side.jpg
Ruins of the Dunay-3M

The Dunay-3 (Russian:Дунай-3М, tr. Dunay-3M; NATO: Dog House) was an upgrade of the Dunay-2 located in Kubinka, Moscow and became operational in 1968. Following an extensive upgrade in 1978 it was renamed Dunay-3M as part of the upgraded A-35M ABM system. It consisted of separate receiver and transmitter buildings separated by 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi).

The transmitter covered two sectors (roughly north and south) and its array was 200 metres (660 ft) long and 30 metres (98 ft) high. The power of each sector was about 3MW. The receiver was a building 100m x 100m containing 2 passive electronically scanned array radars as well as the command and control centre for the A-35 system. The range of the system was 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi).

The radar was functional until it caught fire on 8 May 1988.

Dunay-3UP

This was a prototype of the Dunay-3U and was located in Sary Shagan test site. [3] It was given the NATO codename "Top Roost".

Dunay-3U

The Dunay-3U (Russian:Дунай-3У, tr. Dunay-3U; NATO: Cat House) was built in 1978 as part of the upgraded A-35M anti-ballistic missile system. It is located in Chekhov and was structurally similar to the Dunay-3M – it has a separate receiver and transmitter separated by 2.7 kilometres (1.7 mi). There are two sectors. It was capable of identifying the launch of Pershing II missiles from West Germany. [6]

In 1995 A-35M was replaced by the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system which used the Don-2N radar. One sector was decommissioned in 1998 and is now ruined and the other is used for space surveillance of satellites in low earth orbit. As a UHF radar it can identify smaller objects (15–40 cm) than the VHF radars such as the Daryal and Dnepr. [3]

The Dunay-3U was commissioned in May 1978 with a life of 12 years. Both sectors were extended until 2000 but one sector (62) was decommissioned in 1998. The other one (61) has been extended in 2001 and 2005 – the last extension was until December 2009, [3] but it may have been extended again. In 2012 the Russian Ministry of Defence issued a tender for the demolition of sector 62. [7]

Before 2003 the transmitter had 30 waveguides each excited by a 100 kW transmitter Since 2003 the station has been operating at a reduced power of 500 kW rather than 1800 kW, with 12 transmitters (out of 24) rather than the previous maximum of 30. The radar is chirped. [3]

The radar's computer system is made up of 10 K340 computers. [3]

Locations

LocationCoordinatesTypeBuiltDetails
Kubinka, Russia 55°28′48″N36°38′54″E / 55.48000°N 36.64833°E / 55.48000; 36.64833 (Dunay-3M transmitter) transmitter 55°29′31″N36°40′49″E / 55.49194°N 36.68028°E / 55.49194; 36.68028 (Dunay-3M receiver) receiverDunay-3M ("Dog House")1968Azimuth 150° and 330° [1]
Chekhov, Russia 55°12′24″N37°17′41″E / 55.20667°N 37.29472°E / 55.20667; 37.29472 (Dunay-3U transmitter) transmitter 55°13′52″N37°17′49″E / 55.23111°N 37.29694°E / 55.23111; 37.29694 (Dunay-3U receiver) Dunay-3U ("Cat House")1978Azimuth 280° and 100° [1]
Sary Shagan, Kazakhstan 45°56′10″N73°37′43″E / 45.93611°N 73.62861°E / 45.93611; 73.62861 (Dunay-3UP transmitter) [8] transmitter 45°56′50″N73°37′52″E / 45.94722°N 73.63111°E / 45.94722; 73.63111 (Dunay-3UP receiver) receiver [8] Dunay-2 ("Hen Roost")
Dunay-3UP ("Top Roost")
1957–1964
1968–1973
Prototypes
Russia Moscow oblast location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Dunay-3M
Red pog.svg
Dunay-3U
Location of Dunay radar within Moscow region

Related Research Articles

Sary Shagan

Sary Shagan is an anti-ballistic missile testing range located in Kazakhstan.

A-135 anti-ballistic missile system Anti-ballistic missile

The A-135 is a Russian anti-ballistic missile system deployed around Moscow to intercept incoming warheads targeting the city or its surrounding areas. The system was designed in the Soviet Union and entered service in 1995. It is a successor to the previous A-35, and complies with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

A-35 anti-ballistic missile system

The A-35 anti-ballistic missile system was a Soviet military anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system deployed around Moscow to intercept enemy ballistic missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas. The A-35 was the only Soviet ABM system allowed under the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. In development since the 1960s and in operation from 1971 until the 1990s, it featured the nuclear-tipped A350 exoatmospheric interceptor missile. The A-35 was supported by the two Dunay radars and the Soviet early warning system. It was followed by the A-135 in the early 1990s.

Gabala Radar Station

Gabala Radar Station was a Daryal-type bistatic Passive electronically scanned array early warning radar, built by the Soviet Union in the Qabala district of the Azerbaijan SSR in 1985. It was operated by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces and closed at the end of 2012. The radar station had a range of up to 6,000 kilometres (3,728 mi), and was designed to detect missile launches as far as the Indian Ocean. The radar's surveillance covered Iran, Turkey, India, Iraq and the entire Middle East. It could detect the launch of missiles and track the whole trajectory to enable a ballistic missile defense system to intercept an offensive strike. The Radar Station hosted about 1,000 Russian servicemen with about 500 Azerbaijanis.

Hantsavichy Radar Station

Hantsavichy Radar Station is a 70M6 Volga-type radar near Hantsavichy. It is an early warning radar, which is run by the Russian Space Forces. It is designed to identify launches of ballistic missiles from western Europe and can also track some artificial satellites, partly replacing the demolished radar station at Skrunda in Latvia.

ABM-1 Galosh anti-ballistic missile (ABM)

The ABM-1 Galosh was a Soviet, nuclear armed surface-to-air anti-ballistic missile. The Galosh was a component of the A-35 anti-ballistic missile system. Its primary mission was to destroy U.S. Minuteman and Titan intercontinental ballistic missiles targeting Moscow.

Daryal radar

The Daryal-type radar is a Soviet bistatic early-warning radar. It consists of two separate large active phased-array antennas separated by around 500 metres (1,640 ft) to 1.5 kilometres (4,921 ft). The transmitter array is 30 m × 40 m and the receiver is 80 m × 80 m in size. The system is a VHF system operating at a wavelength of 1.5 to 2 meters. Its initial transmit capacity was 50 MW with a target capacity of 350 MW.

Dnestr radar Soviet and Russian early warning radars

Dnestr radar and Dnepr radar, both known by the NATO reporting name Hen House are the first generation of Soviet space surveillance and early warning radars. Six radars of this type were built around the periphery of the Soviet Union starting in the 1960s to provide ballistic missile warnings for attacks from different directions. They were the primary Soviet early warning radars for much of the later Cold War. In common with other Soviet and Russian early warning radars they are named after rivers, the Dnestr and the Dnepr.

Don-2N radar

The Don-2N radar is a large missile defense and early warning passive electronically scanned array radar outside Moscow, and a key part of the Russian A-135 anti-ballistic missile system designed for the defense of the capital against ballistic missiles. Located near Sofrino in Pushkinsky District of Moscow Oblast, it is a quadrangular frustum 33 metres (108 ft) tall with sides 130 metres (427 ft) long at the bottom, and 90 metres (295 ft) long at the top. Each of its four faces has an 18 metres (59 ft) diameter Ultra high frequency band radar giving 360 degree coverage. The system is run by an Elbrus-2 supercomputer.

Pechora Radar Station

Pechora Radar Station is an early warning radar near Pechora in the Komi Republic, northern Russia. It is a key part of the Russian early warning system against missile attack and was built by the Soviet Union, becoming operational in 1984. It is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Mishelevka Radar Station

Mishelevka Radar Station is the site of three generations of Soviet and Russian early warning radars. It is located in Irkutsk in Siberia and provides coverage of China and missile launches from submarines in the Pacific Ocean. There have been seven radars at this site and it is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. In 2012 a new Voronezh-M radar is being built at the site.

Balkhash Radar Station

Balkhash Radar Station is the site of two generations of Soviet and Russian early warning radars. It is located on the west coast of Lake Balkhash near Sary Shagan test site in Kazakhstan. Although it was used for monitoring satellites in low Earth orbit it was mainly a key part of the Russian system of warning against missile attack. It provided coverage of western and central China, India, Pakistan and submarine missile launches in the Bay of Bengal. There have been six radars at this site, the last one was removed from service in 2020, and it was run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Olenegorsk Radar Station

Olenegorsk Radar Station is the site of a Soviet and Russian early warning radar. It is located near Olenegorsk on the Kola Peninsula, north of the Arctic Circle in north west Russia. It is considered to be a key part of the Russian early warning system against ballistic missile attack, and provides coverage of ballistic missile launches in the Norwegian Sea and North Sea. The station is operated by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Yeniseysk-15

Yeniseysk-15 was the site of a disputed Soviet phased array radar near Yeniseysk in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Siberia. The never operational Daryal radar installation was demolished in 1989 after the United States claimed it was in breach of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

Serpukhov-15

Serpukhov-15 is a military townlet near Kurilovo in Kaluga Oblast which is the location of the western control centre for Russia's Oko satellites. These give early warning of ballistic missile launches, mainly from the continental United States. The site is part of the Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning and information from here is processed at the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces centre in Solnechnogorsk and could be used, together with early warning radar such as the Voronezh, for launch on warning or the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system. A similar facility is located at Pivan-1 in the Russian Far East.

Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning

The 820th Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning is the Russian early warning network against ballistic missile attack. It has headquarters in the village of Timonovo near Solnechnogorsk outside Moscow and is part of the Russian Space Forces. The centre consists of a network of early warning radar stations which transmit their data to the control centre near Solnechnogorsk. Other information comes from the early warning Oko and EKS satellites as well as the Don-2N missile defence radar. Information from the centre could be used for a launch on warning nuclear missile attack or to engage the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system.

Mukachevo Radar Station

Mukachevo radar station is a Ukrainian radar station, originally built during the Soviet period for providing early warning of ballistic missile attack. Currently it is the property of the State Space Agency of Ukraine. It is located in Shipka in the far south west of Ukraine and was part of the Soviet, and then Russian missile attack warning system. Information from this station could be used for a launch on warning nuclear missile attack or to engage the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system.

5N65 radar

The 5N65 radar was a Soviet military phased array radar initially designed for the S-225 anti-ballistic missile system which was never commissioned. The radar was later installed near the Kura Test Range in Kamchatka in the Russian Far East as a part of 5K17 tracking and measuring system and was demolished in 2006.

Main Centre for Reconnaissance of Situation in Space

The 821st Main Centre for Reconnaissance of Situation in Space is the headquarters of the Russian military's space surveillance network, SKKP. The centre is part of the Russian Space Forces and receives intelligence from a network of reporting stations which includes the Russian missile attack early warning network as well as some stations only used for space surveillance such as Okno and Krona. The purpose of SKKP is to detect satellites, identify them and to discern their orbits. It maintains the Russian catalogue of space objects and provides data which could be used to support space launches, feed an anti-satellite programme and provide intelligence on hostile military satellites. It is the Russian equivalent of the United States Space Surveillance Network.

The RS-26 Rubezh SS-X-31 or SS-X-29B, is a Russian solid-fueled intercontinental ballistic missile, equipped with a thermonuclear MIRV or MaRV payload. The missile is also intended to be capable of carrying the Avangard hypersonic glide vehicle. The RS-26 is based on RS-24 Yars, and constitutes a shorter version of the RS-24 with one fewer stages. The development process of the RS-26 has been largely comparable to that of the SS-20 Saber, a shortened derivative of the SS-16 Sinner. Deployment of the RS-26 is speculated to have a similar strategic impact as the SS-20.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Podvig, Pavel (2002). "History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System" (PDF). Science and Global Security. 10: 21–60. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.692.6127 . doi:10.1080/08929880212328. ISSN   0892-9882. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2012.
  2. Bukharin, Oleg; Kadyshev, Timur; Miasnikov, Eugene; Podvig, Pavel; Sutyagin, Igor; Tarashenko, Maxim; Zhelezov, Boris (2001). Podvig, Pavel (ed.). Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN   978-0-262-16202-9.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Непревзойденный "Дунай-3У" [Unsurpassed "Dunay-3U"] (in Russian). VKO.RU. n.d. Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.Check date values in: |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  4. O'Connor, Sean (2009). "Russian/Soviet Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems". Air Power Australia. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  5. Karpenko, A (1999). "ABM AND SPACE DEFENSE". Nevsky Bastion. 4: 2–47.
  6. "Cat House". Federation of American Scientists. 2000. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  7. Lukin, Mikhail (2012). "Brief Summary of Russian Defense Procurement Contracts in June–July 2012". Moscow Defense Brief. 4.
  8. 1 2 Holm, Michael (2011). "1st Administration". Soviet Armed Forces 1945–1991. Retrieved 24 February 2012.