Dunkirk

Last updated
Dunkirk

Dunkerque  (French)
Duunkerke  (West Flemish)
Dunkerque hotel de ville vu port.jpg
Dunkirk Town Hall and port
Flag of Dunkirk.svg
Flag
Greater Coat of Arms of Dunkerque.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Dunkirk
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Dunkirk
Hauts-de-France region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Dunkirk
Coordinates: 51°02′18″N2°22′39″E / 51.0383°N 2.377500°E / 51.0383; 2.377500 Coordinates: 51°02′18″N2°22′39″E / 51.0383°N 2.377500°E / 51.0383; 2.377500
Country France
Region Hauts-de-France
Department Nord
Arrondissement Dunkerque
Canton Dunkerque-1
Dunkerque-2
Grande-Synthe
Intercommunality Dunkerque
Government
  Mayor (2014–2020) Patrice Vergriete
Area
1
43.89 km2 (16.95 sq mi)
Population
 (2017-01-01) [1]
87,353
  Density2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
59183 /59140, 59240, 59640
Elevation0–17 m (0–56 ft)
(avg. 4 m or 13 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Dunkirk ( UK: /dʌnˈkɜːrk/ , US: /ˈdʌnkɜːrk/ ; [2] [3] French : Dunkerque [dœ̃kɛʁk] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); French Flemish : Duunkerke; Dutch : Duinkerke(n) [ˈdœyŋkɛrkə(n)] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a commune in Nord, a French department in northern France. It is the northernmost city in France, lying 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Belgian border. It has the third-largest French harbour. The population of the commune at the 2016 census was 91,412.

Contents

Etymology and language use

The name of Dunkirk derives from West Flemish dun(e) 'dune' or 'dun' and kerke 'church', which together means 'church in the dunes'. [4]

Dunkirk is the world's northernmost Francophone city; there are smaller French-speaking settlements further north in Quebec, Canada. Until the middle of the 20th century, French Flemish (the local variety of the Dutch language) was commonly spoken in Dunkirk; it has largely been forsaken, although it can still be heard.

History

Middle Ages

Saint Eloi Church Sinteligiuskerkduinkerke 11-03-2009 13-59-42.JPG
Saint Eloi Church

A fishing village arose late in the tenth century, in the originally flooded coastal area of the English Channel south of the Western Scheldt, when the area was held by the Counts of Flanders, vassals of the French Crown. About AD 960, Count Baldwin III had a town wall erected in order to protect the settlement against Viking raids. The surrounding wetlands were drained and cultivated by the monks of nearby Bergues Abbey. The name Dunkirka was first mentioned in a tithe privilege of 27 May 1067, issued by Count Baldwin V of Flanders.[ citation needed ] Count Philip I (1157–1191) brought further large tracts of marshland under cultivation, laid out the first plans to build a Canal from Dunkirk to Bergues and vested the Dunkirkers with market rights.

In the late 13th century, when the Dampierre count Guy of Flanders entered into the Franco-Flemish War against his suzerain King Philippe IV of France, the citizens of Dunkirk sided with the French against their count, who at first was defeated at the 1297 Battle of Furnes, but reached de facto autonomy upon the victorious Battle of the Golden Spurs five years later and exacted vengeance. Guy's son, Count Robert III (1305–1322), nevertheless granted further city rights to Dunkirk; his successor Count Louis I (1322–1346) had to face the Peasant revolt of 1323–1328, which was crushed by King Philippe VI of France at the 1328 Battle of Cassel, whereafter the Dunkirkers again were affected by the repressive measures of the French king.

Count Louis remained a loyal liensman of the French king upon the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War with England in 1337, and prohibited the maritime trade, which led to another revolt by the Dunkirk citizens. After the count had been killed in the 1346 Battle of Crécy, his son and successor Count Louis II of Flanders (1346–1384) signed a truce with the English; the trade again flourished and the port was significantly enlarged. However, in the course of the Western Schism from 1378, English supporters of Pope Urban VI (the Roman claimant) disembarked at Dunkirk, captured the city and flooded the surrounding estates. They were ejected by King Charles VI of France, but left great devastations in and around the town.

Upon the extinction of the Counts of Flanders with the death of Louis II in 1384, Flanders was acquired by the Burgundian, Duke Philip the Bold. The fortifications were again enlarged, including the construction of a belfry daymark (a navigational aid similar to a non-illuminated lighthouse). As a strategic point, Dunkirk has always been exposed to political greed, by Duke Robert I of Bar in 1395, by Louis de Luxembourg in 1435 and finally by the Austrian archduke Maximilian I of Habsburg, who in 1477 married Mary of Burgundy, sole heiress of late Duke Charles the Bold. As Maximilian was the son of Emperor Frederick III, all Flanders was immediately seized by King Louis XI of France. However, the archduke defeated the French troops in 1479 at the Battle of Guinegate. When Mary died in 1482, Maximilian retained Flanders according to the terms of the 1482 Treaty of Arras. Dunkirk, along with the rest of Flanders, was incorporated into the Habsburg Netherlands and upon the 1581 secession of the Seven United Netherlands, remained part of the Southern Netherlands, which were held by Habsburg Spain (Spanish Netherlands) as Imperial fiefs.

Corsair base

Historical affiliations
Flag of the Low Countries.svg Burgundian Netherlands 1384–1482

Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Habsburg Netherlands 1482–1556
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spanish Netherlands 1556–1577
Statenvlag.svg Dunkirk Rebels 1577–1583
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spanish Netherlands 1583–1646
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg France 1646–1652
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spanish Netherlands 1652–1658
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Flag of England.svg England and France 1658–1659
Flag of England.svg England 1659–1662
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France 1662–1870
Flag of the German Empire.svg Prussian occupation 1870–1873
Flag of France.svg France 1873–1940
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German occupation 1940–1945

Flag of France.svg France 1945–present
Statue of Jean Bart in Dunkirk, the most famous corsair of the city Dunkerque Jean Bart2.JPG
Statue of Jean Bart in Dunkirk, the most famous corsair of the city

The area remained much disputed between the Kingdom of Spain, the United Netherlands, the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, Dunkirk was briefly in the hands of the Dutch rebels, from 1577. Spanish forces under Duke Alexander Farnese of Parma re-established Spanish rule in 1583 and it became a base for the notorious Dunkirkers. The Dunkirkers briefly lost their home port when the city was conquered by the French in 1646 but Spanish forces recaptured the city in 1652. In 1658, as a result of the long war between France and Spain, it was captured after a siege by Franco-English forces following the battle of the Dunes. The city along with Fort-Mardyck was awarded to England in the peace the following year as agreed in the Franco-English alliance against Spain. The English governors were Sir William Lockhart (1658–60), Sir Edward Harley (1660–61) and Lord Rutherford (1661–62).

It came under French rule when King Charles II of England sold it to France for £320,000 [5] on 17 October 1662. The French government developed the town as a fortified port. The town's existing defences were adapted to create ten bastions. The port was expanded in the 1670s by the construction of a basin that could hold up to thirty warships with a double lock system to maintain water levels at low tide. The basin was linked to the sea by a channel dug through coastal sandbanks secured by two jetties. This work was completed by 1678. The jetties were defended a few years later by the construction of five forts, Château d'Espérance, Château Vert, Grand Risban, Château Gaillard, and Fort de Revers. An additional fort was built in 1701 called Fort Blanc. The jetties, their forts, and the port facilities were demolished in 1713 under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht. [6]

During the reign of King Louis XIV, a large number of commerce raiders and pirates once again made their base at Dunkirk. Jean Bart was the most famous. The main character (and possible real prisoner) in the famous novel Man in the Iron Mask by Alexandre Dumas was arrested at Dunkirk. The eighteenth-century Swedish privateers and pirates Lars Gathenhielm and his wife Ingela Hammar, are known to have sold their gains in Dunkirk. The Treaty of Paris (1763) between France and Great Britain ending the Seven Years' War, included a clause restricting French rights to fortify Dunkirk, to allay British fears of it being used as an invasion base to cross the English Channel. This clause was overturned in the subsequent Treaty of Versailles of 1783. [7]

Dunkirk in World War I

Dunkirk's port was used extensively during the war by British forces who brought in dock workers from, among other places, Egypt and China. [8]

From 1915, the city experienced severe bombardment, including from the largest gun in the world in 1917, the German 'Lange Max'. On a regular basis, heavy shells weighing approximately 750 kg were fired from Koekelare, about 45–50 km away. [9] The bombardment killed nearly 600 people and wounded another 1,100, both civilian and military, while 400 buildings were destroyed and 2,400 damaged. The city's population, which had been 39,000 in 1914, reduced to fewer than 15,000 in July 1916 and 7,000 in the autumn of 1917. [8]

In January, 1916, a spy scare took place in Dunkirk. The writer Robert W. Service, then a war correspondent for the Toronto Star, was mistakenly arrested as a spy and narrowly avoided being executed out of hand. [10] On 1 January 1918, the United States Navy established a naval air station to operate seaplanes. The base closed shortly after the Armistice of 11 November 1918. [11]

In October 1917, to mark the gallant behaviour of its inhabitants during the war, the City of Dunkirk was awarded the Croix de Guerre and, in 1919, the Legion of Honour and the British Distinguished Service Cross. [8] [12] These decorations now appear in the city's coat of arms. [13]

Dunkirk in World War II

Evacuation

British troops embarking from Dunkirk's beaches DUNKIRK1940.jpg
British troops embarking from Dunkirk's beaches

During the Second World War, in the May 1940 Battle of France, the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), while aiding the French and Belgian armies, were forced to retreat in the face of the overpowering German Panzer attacks. Fighting in Belgium and France, the BEF and a portion of the French Army became outflanked by the Germans and retreated to the area around the port of Dunkirk. More than 400,000 soldiers were trapped in the pocket as the German Army closed in for the kill. Unexpectedly, the German Panzer attack halted for several days at a critical juncture. For years, it was assumed that Adolf Hitler ordered the German Army to suspend the attack, favouring bombardment by the Luftwaffe. However, according to the Official War Diary of Army Group A, its commander, Generaloberst Gerd von Rundstedt, ordered the halt to allow maintenance on his tanks, half of which were out of service, and to protect his flanks which were exposed and, he thought, vulnerable. [14] Hitler merely validated the order several hours later. [15] This lull gave the British and French a few days to fortify their defences and evacuate by sea across the English Channel, codenamed Operation Dynamo. Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister, ordered any ship or boat available, large or small, to collect the stranded soldiers. 338,226 men (including 123,000 French soldiers) were evacuated – the miracle of Dunkirk, as Churchill called it. It took over 900 vessels to evacuate the BEF, with two-thirds of those rescued embarking via the harbour, and over 100,000 taken off the beaches. More than 40,000 vehicles as well as massive amounts of other military equipment and supplies were left behind, their value being regarded as less than that of trained fighting men. Forty thousand Allied soldiers (some who carried on fighting after the official evacuation) were captured or forced to make their own way home through a variety of routes including via neutral Spain. Many wounded who were unable to walk were abandoned.

Liberation

Map of Dunkirk surroundings during the Allied attempt to retake Dunkirk in 1944 Dunkirk.png
Map of Dunkirk surroundings during the Allied attempt to retake Dunkirk in 1944

Dunkirk was again contested in 1944, with the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division attempting to liberate the city in September, as Allied forces surged northeast after their victory in the Battle of Normandy. However, German forces refused to relinquish their control of the city, which had been converted into a fortress. To seize the now strategically insignificant town would consume too many Allied resources which were needed elsewhere. The town was by-passed masking the German garrison with Allied troops, notably 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade. During the German occupation, Dunkirk was largely destroyed by Allied bombing. The artillery siege of Dunkirk was directed on the final day of the war by pilots from No. 652 Squadron RAF, and No. 665 Squadron RCAF.[ citation needed ] The fortress, under the command of German Admiral Friedrich Frisius, eventually unconditionally surrendered to the commander of the Czechoslovak forces, Brigade General Alois Liška, on 9 May 1945. [16]

Postwar Dunkirk

On 14 December 2002, the Norwegian auto carrier Tricolor collided with the Bahamian-registered Kariba and sank off Dunkirk Harbour, causing a hazard to navigation in the English Channel. [17]

Politics

Presidential elections 2nd round

ElectionCandidateParty%
2017 Emmanuel Macron En Marche! 54.42
2012 François Hollande PS 55.37
2007 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 52.30
2002 Jacques Chirac RPR 79.16

[18]

Climate

Dunkirk has an oceanic climate, with cool winters and warm summers. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Dunkirk has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps. [19] Summers are averaging around 21 °C (70 °F), being significantly influenced by the marine currents.

Climate data for Dunkirk (1981–2010 averages, records 1917–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.0
(59.0)
19.0
(66.2)
24.0
(75.2)
28.4
(83.1)
34.0
(93.2)
34.4
(93.9)
41.3
(106.3)
36.2
(97.2)
35.2
(95.4)
30.0
(86.0)
20.1
(68.2)
16.6
(61.9)
41.3
(106.3)
Average high °C (°F)7.1
(44.8)
7.4
(45.3)
9.9
(49.8)
12.4
(54.3)
15.6
(60.1)
18.4
(65.1)
20.9
(69.6)
21.3
(70.3)
19.0
(66.2)
15.4
(59.7)
10.9
(51.6)
7.8
(46.0)
13.9
(57.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.0
(41.0)
5.1
(41.2)
7.5
(45.5)
9.6
(49.3)
12.9
(55.2)
15.7
(60.3)
18.1
(64.6)
18.4
(65.1)
16.2
(61.2)
12.7
(54.9)
8.7
(47.7)
5.7
(42.3)
11.3
(52.3)
Average low °C (°F)2.9
(37.2)
2.9
(37.2)
5.0
(41.0)
6.9
(44.4)
10.1
(50.2)
12.9
(55.2)
15.2
(59.4)
15.5
(59.9)
13.4
(56.1)
10.1
(50.2)
6.5
(43.7)
3.7
(38.7)
8.8
(47.8)
Record low °C (°F)−13.4
(7.9)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−7.0
(19.4)
−2.0
(28.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
4.0
(39.2)
6.6
(43.9)
4.0
(39.2)
4.0
(39.2)
−2.4
(27.7)
−8.0
(17.6)
−10.6
(12.9)
−18.0
(−0.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)55.0
(2.17)
41.2
(1.62)
46.9
(1.85)
43.2
(1.70)
50.4
(1.98)
56.5
(2.22)
58.4
(2.30)
59.3
(2.33)
67.0
(2.64)
78.0
(3.07)
74.8
(2.94)
67.1
(2.64)
697.8
(27.47)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)11.48.910.18.99.39.18.38.910.411.812.612.0121.6
Average snowy days2.92.71.80.80.10.00.00.00.00.00.81.911.0
Average relative humidity (%)86848180798080808183848581.8
Source #1: Météo France, [20] Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990) [21]
Source #2: [22] [23]

Heraldry

Arms of Dunkirk Blason ville fr Dunkerque (Nord)2.svg
Arms of Dunkirk
The arms of Dunkirk are blazoned:
Per fess Or and argent, a lion passant sable armed and langued gules, and a dolphin naiant azure crested, barbed, finned and tailed gules.

At their base, the arms display the insignia of the four medals awarded to the city: the Legion of Honour, Croix de Guerre and British Distinguished Service Cross for World War I; and a second Croix de Guerre for World War II. [13]

The city also has its own flag, made up of six horizontal stripes of alternate white and azure blue. [13]

Full achievement of the arms of Dunkirk Greater Coat of Arms of Dunkerque.svg
Full achievement of the arms of Dunkirk

Administration

Location of Dunkirk in the arrondissement of Dunkirk LocatieDuinkerke.PNG
Location of Dunkirk in the arrondissement of Dunkirk

The commune has grown substantially by absorbing several neighbouring communes:

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
200669,274    
200768,219−1.5%
200868,292+0.1%
200992,923+36.1%
201092,005−1.0%
201191,386−0.7%
201290,995−0.4%
201389,882−1.2%
201489,160−0.8%
201588,876−0.3%
201688,108−0.9%

Economy

Dunkirk has the third-largest harbour in France, after those of Le Havre and Marseille. As an industrial city, it depends heavily on the steel, food processing, oil-refining, ship-building and chemical industries.

Cuisine

The cuisine of Dunkirk closely resembles Flemish cuisine; perhaps one of the best known dishes is coq à la bière – chicken in a creamy beer sauce.

Prototype metre

The free-standing belfry - the northerly end of meridianal survey of 1792-9 Dunkerque Belfort.JPG
The free-standing belfry – the northerly end of meridianal survey of 1792–9

In June 1792 the French astronomers Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre and Pierre François André Méchain set out to measure the meridian arc distance from Dunkirk to Barcelona, two cities lying on approximately the same longitude as each other and also the longitude through Paris. The belfry was chosen as the reference point in Dunkirk.

Using this measurement and the latitudes of the two cities they could calculate the distance between the North Pole and the Equator in classical French units of length and hence produce the first prototype metre which was defined as being one ten millionth of that distance. [24] The definitive metre bar, manufactured from platinum, was presented to the French legislative assembly on 22 June 1799.

Dunkirk was the most easterly cross-channel measuring point for the Anglo-French Survey (1784–1790), which used trigonometry to calculate the precise distance between the Paris Observatory and the Royal Greenwich Observatory. Sightings were made of signal lights at Dover Castle from the Dunkirk Belfry, and vice versa.

Tourist attractions

Transport

Dunkirk has a ferry with the firm DFDS with regular services each day to England. The Gare de Dunkerque railway station offers connections to Gare de Calais-Ville, Gare de Lille Flandres, Arras and Paris, and several regional destinations in France. The railway line from Dunkirk to De Panne and Adinkerke, Belgium, is closed and has been dismantled in places.

In September 2018, Dunkirk's public transit service introduced free public transport, thereby becoming the largest city in Europe to do so. Several weeks after the scheme had been introduced, the city's mayor, Patrice Vergriete, reported that there had been 50% increase in passenger numbers on some routes, and up to 85% on others. As part of the transition towards offering free bus services, the city's fleet was expanded from 100 to 140 buses, including new vehicles which run on natural gas. [25] As of August 2019, approximately 5% of 2000 people surveyed had used the free bus service to completely replace their cars. [26]

Sports

Notable residents

Maurice Rozenthal Maurice Rozenthal.jpg
Maurice Rozenthal

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Dunkirk is twinned with: [27]

Dunkirk has co-operation agreements with:

See also

Related Research Articles

Flanders Community and region of Belgium

Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history, and sometimes involving neighbouring countries. The demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. The official capital of Flanders is the City of Brussels, although the Brussels Capital Region has an independent regional government, and the government of Flanders only oversees the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels such as (Flemish) culture and education.

Nord (French department) Department of France

Nord is a department in the far north of France. It was created from the western halves of the historical counties of Flanders and Hainaut, and the Bishopric of Cambrai. The modern coat of arms was inherited from the County of Flanders.

Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region of France

Nord-Pas-de-Calais is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It consisted of the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel (west), the North Sea (northwest), Belgium and Picardy (south). The majority of the region was once part of the historical (Southern) Netherlands, but gradually became part of France between 1477 and 1678, particularly during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and (partially) Picardy. These provincial designations are still frequently used by the inhabitants.

Cassel, Nord Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Cassel is a commune in the Nord départment in northern France. Built on a prominent hill overlooking French Flanders, the town has existed since Roman times. It was developed by the Romans into an important urban centre and was the focus of a network of roads, which are still in use today, that converge on the hill. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Cassel became an important fortified stronghold for the rulers of Flanders which was repeatedly fought over before finally being annexed to France in the 17th century. It was the headquarters of Marshal Ferdinand Foch during part of the First World War. In 1940, during the German invasion of France, Cassel was the scene of a fierce three-day battle between British forces and German forces which resulted in much of the town being destroyed.

Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660) 1654–1660 war between the English Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell and Spain

The Anglo-Spanish War was a conflict between the English Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell and Spain, between 1654 and 1660. It was caused by commercial rivalry. Each side attacked the other's commercial and colonial interests in various ways such as privateering and naval expeditions. In 1655, an English amphibious expedition invaded Spanish territory in the Caribbean. The major land actions took place in the Spanish Netherlands. In 1657, England formed an alliance with France, merging the Anglo–Spanish war with the larger Franco-Spanish War. The war officially ended with two peace treaties which were signed at Madrid in 1667 and 1670.

Battle of the Downs Took place on 21 October 1639

The naval Battle of the Downs took place on 21 October 1639, during the Eighty Years' War, and was a decisive defeat of the Spanish, commanded by Admiral Antonio de Oquendo, by the United Provinces, commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp.

French Flanders

French Flanders is a part of the historical County of Flanders in present-day France where Flemings were traditionally the dominant ethnic group and where a dialect of Dutch was or still is traditionally spoken. The region lies in the modern-day region of Hauts-de-France and roughly corresponds to the arrondissements of Lille, Douai and Dunkirk on the southern border with Belgium. Together with French Hainaut and the Cambrésis, it makes up the French Department of Nord.

Grande-Synthe Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Grande-Synthe is a commune in the Nord department in the Nord-Pas de Calais region in northern France.

Bergues Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Bergues is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.

Arrondissement of Dunkirk Arrondissement in Hauts-de-France, France

The arrondissement of Dunkirk is an arrondissement of France in the Nord department in the Hauts-de-France region. It has 111 communes. Its population is 377,294 (2016), and its area is 1,442.7 km2 (557.0 sq mi).

Ledringhem Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Ledringhem is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.

The Treaty of Paris signed in March 1657 allied the English Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell with King Louis XIV of France against King Philip IV of Spain, merging the Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660) with the larger Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659). The treaty confirmed the growing rapprochement between France and the English Republican regime.

Fort-Mardyck former commune in Nord, France

Fort-Mardyck is a former commune in the Nord department in northern France. It has been part of the commune of Dunkirk since 9 December 2010. In 1999 it had 3,770 inhabitants.

During the Dutch Revolt (1568–1648), the Dunkirkers or Dunkirk Privateers were commerce raiders in the service of the Spanish monarchy. They were also part of the Dunkirk fleet, which consequently was a part of the Spanish monarchy's Flemish fleet(Armada de Flandes). The Dunkirkers operated from the ports of the Flemish coast: Nieuwpoort, Ostend, and Dunkirk. Throughout the Eighty Years' War, the fleet of the Dutch Republic repeatedly tried to destroy the Dunkirkers. The first Dunkirkers sailed a group of warships outfitted by the Spanish government, but non-government investment in privateering soon led to a more numerous fleet of privately owned and outfitted warships.

Battle off Lizard Point

The Battle off Lizard Point was a naval action which took place on 18 February 1637 off the coast of Cornwall, England, during the Eighty Years' War. The Spanish admiral Miguel de Horna, commander of the Armada of Flanders, intercepted an important Anglo-Dutch merchant convoy of 44 vessels escorted by six warships, destroying or capturing 20 of them, and returned safely to his base in Dunkirk.

Action of 18 February 1639

The action of 18 February 1639 was a naval battle of the Eighty Years' War fought off Dunkirk between a Dutch fleet under the command of Admiral Maarten Tromp and the Spanish Dunkirk Squadron under Miguel de Horna. Horna, who had orders to join with his ships Admiral Antonio de Oquendo's fleet at A Coruña, escorted at the same time a transport convoy carrying 2,000 Walloon soldiers to Spain, where they were needed. The attempt to exit Dunkirk was done in sight of the Dutch blockading squadron of Maarten Tromp. A 4-hour battle ensued and Horna was forced to retreat into Dunkirk leaving behind two of his galleons, whilst another ran aground. Despite his success in stopping the sortie, many of Tromp's ships suffered heavy damage, and the Dutch Admiral was forced to abandon the blockade. Therefore, De Horna, after repairing his squadron, was able to accomplish his mission.

Siege of Dunkirk (1658)

The Siege of Dunkirk in 1658 was a military operation by the allied forces of France and Commonwealth England intended to take the fortified port city of Dunkirk, Spain's greatest privateer base, from the Spanish and their confederates: the English royalists and French Fronduers. Dunkirk was a strategic port on the southern coast of the English Channel in the Spanish Netherlands that had often been a point of contention previously and had changed hands a number of times. Privateers operating out of Dunkirk and other ports had cost England some 1,500 to 2,000 merchant ships in the past year. The French and their English Commonwealth allies were commanded by Marshal of France Turenne. The siege would last a month and featured numerous sorties by the garrison and a determined relief attempt by the Spanish army under the command of Don Juan of Austria and his confederate English royalists under Duke of York and rebels of the French Fronde under the Great Condé that resulted in the battle of the Dunes.

Flemish revolts against Maximilian of Austria

In the period 1482–1492, the cities of the County of Flanders revolted twice against Archduke Maximilian of Austria, who ruled the county as regent for his son, Philip the Handsome. The revolts were rooted in the cities' desire to maintain the autonomy that they had wrested from Philip's mother and predecessor, Mary of Burgundy, which Maximilian threatened to curtail. Both revolts were ultimately unsuccessful.

County of Flanders French fiefdom and historic territory in the Low Countries

The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries.

Siege of Rees (1599)

The Siege of Ress of 1599, also known as the Relief of Ress, was an unsuccessful attempt by Protestant-German forces led by Count Simon VI of Lippe, and Anglo-Dutch forces sent by Prince Maurice of Nassau, commanded by Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and the Count Ernst of Solms, to capture the strategic stronghold of Rees, Lower Rhine, Duchy of Cleves from the Spanish forces of Don Francisco de Mendoza, Admiral of Aragon, second-in-command of the Army of Flanders, and Governor Don Ramiro de Guzmán, between 10–12 September 1599, during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). This Spanish victory was part of the campaign of Francisco de Mendoza and Cardinal Andrew of Austria of 1598-1599, also called the Spanish Winter of 1598-99.

References

  1. "Populations légales 2017". INSEE . Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  2. Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN   978-1-4058-8118-0.
  3. Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-15255-6.
  4. Pul, Paul Van (2007). In Flanders Flooded Fields: Before Ypres There Was Yser. Pen and Sword. p. 89. ISBN   978-1473814318. The French name of Dunkerque in fact is derived from the Flemish Duinkerke, which means 'church in the dunes'!
  5. "Correspondence and papers of the first Duke of Ormonde, chiefly on Irish and English public affairs: ref. MS. Carte 218, fol(s). 5 – date: 26 December 1662" (Description of contents of carte papers). Oxford University, Bodleian Library, Special Collections and Western Manuscripts: Carte Papers. 2006. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
  6. "> 3D > Dunkirk Sea Forts". Fortified Places. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  7. Ward, Sir Adolphus William (1922). "1783–1815".
  8. 1 2 3 "La Grande Guerre (fr)". Dunkerque & vous. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  9. "Lange Max Museum".
  10. "Robert Service biography". robertwservice.com. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  11. Van Wyen, Adrian O. (1969). Naval Aviation in World War I. Washington, D.C.: Chief of Naval Operations. p.  60.
  12. "Traces of War". TracesOfWar. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  13. 1 2 3 "Les Armoiries de la Ville (fr)". Dunkerque & vous. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  14. Levine, Joshua (2017) Dunkirk, Harper Collins, New York
  15. Lord, Walter (1982). "2: No. 17 Turns Up". The Miracle of Dunkirk. New York City: Open Road Integrated Media, Inc. pp. 28–35. ISBN   978-1-5040-4754-8.
  16. (in Czech) Czech army page Archived 2007-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  17. http://www.professionalmariner.com/March-2008/The-Tricolor-Kariba-Clary-Incident/
  18. http://www.lemonde.fr/nord-pas-de-calais-picardie/nord,59/dunkerque,59183/elections/presidentielle-2002/
  19. "Dunkerque, France Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  20. "Dunkerque (59)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Météo-France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  21. "Normes et records 1961–1990: Dunkerque (59) – altitude 11m" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  22. "Meteo 59–62". Archived from the original on October 18, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
  23. "Canicule : la France a connu hier une chaleur record au niveau national". www.meteofrance.fr (in French). Météo-France . Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  24. Adler, Ken (2002). The measure of all things: The seven year odyssey that transformed the world. Abacus. ISBN   978-0-349-11507-8.
  25. Willsher, Kim (15 October 2018). "'I leave the car at home': how free buses are revolutionising one French city". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  26. "French city of Dunkirk tests out free transport – and it works". France24. 31 August 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  27. "Jumelage". ville-dunkerque.fr (in French). Dunkirk. Retrieved 2019-11-12.
  28. 1 2 "Dunkirk International" (in French). Archived from the original on November 9, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2007.