Dwarf galaxy

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The Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way Large.mc.arp.750pix.jpg
The Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way

A dwarf galaxy is a small galaxy composed of about 1000 up to several billion stars, as compared to the Milky Way's 200–400 billion stars. The Large Magellanic Cloud, which closely orbits the Milky Way and contains over 30 billion stars, is sometimes classified as a dwarf galaxy; others consider it a full-fledged galaxy. Dwarf galaxies' formation and activity are thought to be heavily influenced by interactions with larger galaxies. Astronomers identify numerous types of dwarf galaxies, based on their shape and composition.

Contents

Formation

Dwarf galaxies like NGC 5264 typically possess around a billion stars. NGC 5264 HST.jpg
Dwarf galaxies like NGC 5264 typically possess around a billion stars.

One theory states that most galaxies, including dwarf galaxies, form in association with dark matter, or from gas that contains metals. However, NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer space probe identified new dwarf galaxies forming out of gases with low metallicity. These galaxies were located in the Leo Ring, a cloud of hydrogen and helium around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo. [2]

Because of their small size, dwarf galaxies have been observed being pulled toward and ripped by neighbouring spiral galaxies, resulting in galaxy merger. [3]

Local dwarf galaxies

The Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy is a dwarf irregular galaxy, featuring younger stars in its inner regions and older ones at its outskirts. An explosive phoenix - Phoenix Dwarf.jpg
The Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy is a dwarf irregular galaxy, featuring younger stars in its inner regions and older ones at its outskirts.

There are many dwarf galaxies in the Local Group; these small galaxies frequently orbit larger galaxies, such as the Milky Way, the Andromeda Galaxy and the Triangulum Galaxy. A 2007 paper [5] has suggested that many dwarf galaxies were created by galactic tides during the early evolutions of the Milky Way and Andromeda. Tidal dwarf galaxies are produced when galaxies collide and their gravitational masses interact. Streams of galactic material are pulled away from the parent galaxies and the halos of dark matter that surround them. [6] A 2018 study suggests that some local dwarf galaxies formed extremely early, during the Dark Ages within the first billion years after the big bang. [7]

More than 20 known dwarf galaxies orbit the Milky Way, and recent observations [8] have also led astronomers to believe the largest globular cluster in the Milky Way, Omega Centauri, is in fact the core of a dwarf galaxy with a black hole at its centre, which was at some time absorbed by the Milky Way.

Common types

UGC 11411 is a galaxy known as an irregular blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy. True blue.jpg
UGC 11411 is a galaxy known as an irregular blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy.

Blue compact dwarf galaxies

Blue compact dwarf PGC 51017. An intriguing young-looking dwarf galaxy.jpg
Blue compact dwarf PGC 51017.

In astronomy, a blue compact dwarf galaxy (BCD galaxy) is a small galaxy which contains large clusters of young, hot, massive stars. These stars, the brightest of which are blue, cause the galaxy itself to appear blue in colour. [12] Most BCD galaxies are also classified as dwarf irregular galaxies or as dwarf lenticular galaxies. Because they are composed of star clusters, BCD galaxies lack a uniform shape. They consume gas intensely, which causes their stars to become very violent when forming.

BCD galaxies cool in the process of forming new stars. The galaxies' stars are all formed at different time periods, so the galaxies have time to cool and to build up matter to form new stars. As time passes, this star formation changes the shape of the galaxies.

Nearby examples include NGC 1705, NGC 2915, NGC 3353 and UGCA 281. [13] [14] [15] [16]

Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies

Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are a class of galaxies that contain from a few hundred to one hundred thousand stars, making them the faintest galaxies in the Universe. [17] UFDs resemble globular clusters (GCs) in appearance but have very different properties. Unlike GCs, UFDs contain a significant amount of dark matter and are more extended. UFDs were first discovered with the advent of digital sky surveys in 2005, in particular with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). [18] [19]

UFDs are the most dark matter-dominated systems known. Astronomers believe that UFDs encode valuable information about the early Universe, as all UFDs discovered so far are ancient systems that have likely formed very early on, only a few million years after the Big Bang and before the epoch of reionization. [20] Recent theoretical work has hypothesised the existence of a population of young UFDs that form at a much later time than the ancient UFDs. [21] These galaxies have not been observed in our Universe so far.

Ultra-compact dwarfs

Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCD) are a class of very compact galaxies with very high stellar densities, discovered [22] [23] [24] in the 2000s. They are thought to be on the order of 200 light years across, containing about 100 million stars. [25] It is theorised that these are the cores of nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxies that have been stripped of gas and outlying stars by tidal interactions, travelling through the hearts of rich clusters. [26] UCDs have been found in the Virgo Cluster, Fornax Cluster, Abell 1689, and the Coma Cluster, amongst others. [27] In particular, an unprecedentedly large sample of ~ 100 UCDs has been found in the core region of the Virgo cluster by the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey team. The first ever relatively robust studies of the global properties of Virgo UCDs suggest that UCDs have distinct dynamical [28] and structural [29] properties from normal globular clusters. An extreme example of UCD is M60-UCD1, about 54 million light years away, which contains approximately 200 million solar masses within a 160 light year radius; its central region packs in stars about 25 times closer together than stars in Earth's region in the Milky Way. [30] [31] M59-UCD3 is approximately the same size as M60-UCD1 with a half-light radius, rh, of approximately 20 parsecs but is 40% more luminous with an absolute visual magnitude of approximately −14.6. This makes M59-UCD3 the densest known galaxy. [32] Based on stellar orbital velocities, two UCD in the Virgo Cluster are claimed to have supermassive black holes weighing 13% and 18% of the galaxies' masses. [33]

Partial list

LEDA 677373 is located about 14 million light-years away. A stubborn dwarf galaxy.jpg
LEDA 677373 is located about 14 million light-years away.
Dwarf galaxy DDO 68. Dwarf galaxy DDO 68.jpg
Dwarf galaxy DDO 68.

See also

Related Research Articles

Fornax Constellation in the southern celestial hemisphere

Fornax is a constellation in the southern celestial hemisphere, partly ringed by the celestial river Eridanus. Its name is Latin for furnace. It was named by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1756. Fornax is one of the 88 modern constellations.

Globular cluster Spherical collection of stars

A globular cluster is a spherical collection of stars. Globular clusters are very tightly bound by gravity, giving them their spherical shapes and high concentrations of stars toward their centers. Their name is derived from Latin globulus—a small sphere. Globular clusters are occasionally known simply as globulars.

Local Group Group of galaxies that includes the Milky Way

The Local Group is the galaxy group that includes the Milky Way. It has a total diameter of roughly 3 megaparsecs (10 million light-years; 9×1022 metres), and a total mass of the order of 2×1012 solar masses (4×1042 kg). It consists of two collections of galaxies in a "dumbbell" shape: the Milky Way and its satellites form one lobe, and the Andromeda Galaxy and its satellites constitute the other. The two collections are separated by about 800 kpc (3×10^6 ly; 2×1022 m) and are moving toward one another with a velocity of 123 km/s. The group itself is a part of the larger Virgo Supercluster, which may be a part of the Laniakea Supercluster. The exact number of galaxies in the Local Group is unknown as some are occluded by the Milky Way; however, at least 80 members are known, most of which are dwarf galaxies.

Elliptical galaxy Galaxy having an approximately ellipsoidal shape and a smooth, nearly featureless brightness profile

An elliptical galaxy is a type of galaxy with an approximately ellipsoidal shape and a smooth, nearly featureless image. They are one of the four main classes of galaxy described by Edwin Hubble in his Hubble sequence and 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae, along with spiral and lenticular galaxies. Elliptical (E) galaxies are, together with lenticular galaxies (S0) with their large-scale disks, and ES galaxies with their intermediate scale disks, a subset of the "early-type" galaxy population.

Sombrero Galaxy Spiral galaxy in the constellation Virgo

The Sombrero Galaxy is a spiral galaxy in the constellation borders of Virgo and Corvus, being about 9.55 megaparsecs from our galaxy, within the local supercluster. It has a diameter of approximately 15 kiloparsecs, 0.3x times the size of the Milky Way. It has a bright nucleus, an unusually large central bulge, and a prominent dust lane in its outer disk, which is viewed almost edge-on. The dark dust lane and the bulge give it the appearance of a sombrero hat. Astronomers initially thought the halo was small and light, indicative of a spiral galaxy; but the Spitzer Space Telescope found that the dust ring was larger and more massive than previously thought, indicative of a giant elliptical galaxy. The galaxy has an apparent magnitude of +8.0, making it easily visible with amateur telescopes, and is considered by some authors to be the galaxy with the highest absolute magnitude within a radius of 10 megaparsecs of the Milky Way. Its large bulge, central supermassive black hole, and dust lane all attract the attention of professional astronomers.

Messier 49 Elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo

Messier 49 is a giant elliptical galaxy about 56 million light-years away in the equatorial constellation of Virgo. This galaxy was discovered by astronomer Charles Messier in 1777.

Messier 56 Globular cluster in Lyra

Messier 56 is a globular cluster in the constellation Lyra. It was discovered by Charles Messier in 1779. It is angularly found about midway between Albireo and Sulafat. In a good night sky it is tricky to find with large (50–80 mm) binoculars, appearing as a slightly fuzzy star. The cluster can be resolved using a telescope with an aperture of 8 in (20 cm) or larger.

Messier 60 Elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo

Messier 60 or M60, also known as NGC 4649, is an elliptical galaxy approximately 57 million light-years away in the equatorial constellation of Virgo. Together with NGC 4647, it forms a pair known as Arp 116. Messier 60 and nearby elliptical galaxy Messier 59 were discovered by Johann Gottfried Koehler in April 1779, observing a comet in the same part of the sky. Charles Messier added both to his catalogue about three days after this.

Messier 86 Elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo

Messier 86 is an elliptical or lenticular galaxy in the constellation Virgo. It was discovered by Charles Messier in 1781. M86 lies in the heart of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and forms a most conspicuous group with another large galaxy known as Messier 84. It displays the highest blue shift of all Messier objects, as it is, net of its other vectors of travel, approaching the Milky Way at 244 km/s. This is due to both galaxies falling roughly towards the center of the Virgo cluster from opposing ends.

NGC 1569 Dwarf irregular galaxy in the constellation Camelopardalis

NGC 1569 is a dwarf irregular galaxy in Camelopardalis. The galaxy is relatively nearby and consequently, the Hubble Space Telescope can easily resolve the stars within the galaxy. The distance to the galaxy was previously believed to be only 2.4 Mpc. However, in 2008 scientists studying images from Hubble calculated the galaxy's distance at nearly 11 million light-years away, about 4 million light-years farther than previous thought, meaning it is a member of the IC 342 group of galaxies.

Fornax Cluster Galaxy cluster in the constellation Fornax

The Fornax Cluster is a cluster of galaxies lying at a distance of 19 megaparsecs (62 million light-years). It has an estimated mass of 7±2 × 1013 solar masses, making it the second richest galaxy cluster within 100 million light-years, after the considerably larger Virgo Cluster. It may be associated with the nearby Eridanus Group. It lies primarily in the constellation Fornax, with its southern boundaries partially crossing into the constellation of Eridanus, and covers an area of sky about 6° across or about 28 sq degrees.

NGC 1316 Lenticular radio galaxy in the constellation Fornax

NGC 1316 is a lenticular galaxy about 60 million light-years away in the constellation Fornax. It is a radio galaxy and at 1400 MHz is the fourth-brightest radio source in the sky.

NGC 5253 Irregular galaxy in the M83 group of galaxies

NGC 5253 is an irregular galaxy in the constellation Centaurus. It was discovered by William Herschel on 15 March 1787.

A super star cluster (SSC) is a very massive young open cluster that is thought to be the precursor of a globular cluster. These clusters are referred to as "super" due to the fact that they are relatively more luminous and contain more mass than other young star clusters. The SSC, however, does not have to physically be larger than other clusters of lower mass and luminosity. They typically contain a very large number of young, massive stars that ionize a surrounding HII region or a so-called "Ultra dense HII regions (UDHIIs)" in the Milky Way Galaxy as well as in other galaxies. An SSC's HII region is in turn surrounded by a cocoon of dust. In many cases, the stars and the HII regions will be invisible to observations in certain wavelengths of light, such as the visible spectrum, due to high levels of extinction. As a result, the youngest SSCs are best observed and photographed in radio and infrared. SSCs, such as Westerlund 1 (Wd1), have been found in the Milky Way Galaxy. However, most have been observed in farther regions of the universe. In the galaxy M82 alone, 197 young SSCs have been observed and identified using the Hubble Space Telescope.

NGC 4449 Irregular magellanic type galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici

NGC 4449, also known as Caldwell 21, is an irregular Magellanic type galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici, being located about 12 million light-years away. It is part of the M94 Group or Canes Venatici I Group that is relatively close to the Local Group hosting our Milky Way galaxy.

NGC 1399 Elliptical galaxy in the Fornax Cluster

NGC 1399 is a large elliptical galaxy in the Southern constellation Fornax, the central galaxy in the Fornax Cluster. The galaxy is 66 million light-years away from Earth. With a diameter of 130 000 light-years, it is one of the largest galaxies in the Fornax Cluster and slightly larger than the Milky Way. William Herschel discovered this galaxy on October 22, 1835.

NGC 1404 Elliptical galaxy in the Fornax Cluster

NGC 1404 is an elliptical galaxy in the Southern constellation Eridanus. It was discovered on November 28, 1837 by the astronomer John Herschel. Based on the tip of the red-giant branch distance indicator, it lies at a distance of approximately 60 million light-years from the Milky Way. It is one of the brightest members of the Fornax Cluster.

Ultra diffuse galaxy Extremely low luminosity galaxy

An ultra diffuse galaxy (UDG) is an extremely low luminosity galaxy, the first example of which was discovered in the nearby Virgo Cluster by Allan Sandage and Bruno Binggeli in 1984. These galaxies have been studied for many years prior to their renaming in 2015. Their lack of luminosity is due to the lack of star-forming gas, which results in these galaxies being reservoirs of very old stellar populations.

NGC 3311 Elliptical galaxy in the constellation Hydra

NGC 3311 is a supergiant elliptical galaxy located about 190 million light-years away in the constellation Hydra. The galaxy was discovered by astronomer John Herschel on March 30, 1835. NGC 3311 is the brightest member of the Hydra Cluster and forms a pair with NGC 3309 which along with NGC 3311, dominate the central region of the Hydra Cluster.

NGC 4318 Lenticular galaxy in the constellation Virgo

NGC 4318 is a small lenticular galaxy located about 72 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo. It was discovered by astronomer John Herschel on January 18, 1828. NGC 4318 is a member of the Virgo W′ group, a group of galaxies in the background of the Virgo Cluster that is centered on the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4365.

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