E. Donnall Thomas
Thomas in 2000
Edward Donnall Thomas
March 15, 1920
Mart, Texas, United States
|Died||October 20, 2012 92) (aged|
|Alma mater|| University of Texas at Austin |
Harvard Medical School
|Awards|| Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, |
National Medal of Science in 1990
|Institutions||Mary Imogene Bassett Medical Center|
|Notable students||Eloise Giblett|
Edward Donnall "Don" Thomas (March 15, 1920 – October 20, 2012) was an American physician, professor emeritus at the University of Washington, and director emeritus of the clinical research division at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. In 1990 he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Joseph E. Murray for the development of cell and organ transplantation. Thomas and his wife and research partner Dottie Thomas developed bone marrow transplantation as a treatment for leukemia.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients, and methods of treatment—known as specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines, such as anatomy and physiology, underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine.
The University of Washington is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, also known as Fred Hutch or The Hutch, is a cancer research institute established in 1972 in Seattle, Washington.
Born in Mart, Texas, Thomas often shadowed his father who was a general practice doctor. Later, he attended the University of Texas at Austin where he studied chemistry and chemical engineering, graduating with a B.A. in 1941 and an M. A. in 1943. While Thomas was an undergraduate he met his wife, Dorothy (Dottie) Martin while she was training to be journalist. They had three children. Thomas entered Harvard Medical School in 1943, receiving an M.D. in 1946. Dottie became a lab technician during this time to support the family, and the pair worked closely thereafter. He did his residency at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital before joining the US Army. "In 1955, he was appointed physician in chief at the Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital, now Bassett Medical Center, in Cooperstown, N.Y., an affiliate of Columbia University."
Mart is a city in Limestone and McLennan counties in the U.S. state of Texas. The population was 2,426 at the 2010 census.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population, right behind Alaska. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It was founded in 1883 and is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System. The University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff.
At Mary Imogene Bassett, he began to study rodents that received lethal doses of radiation who were then saved by an infusion of marrow cells. At the time, patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation all died from infections or immune reactions that weren't seen in the rodent studies. Thomas began to use dogs as a model system. In 1963, he moved his lab to the United States Public Health Service in Seattle.
Rodents are commonly used in animal testing, particularly mice and rats, but also guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils and others. Mice are the most commonly used vertebrate species, due to their availability, size, low cost, ease of handling, and fast reproduction rate.
The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services concerned with public health. It contains eight out of the department's eleven operating divisions. The Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) oversees the PHS. The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) is the federal uniformed service of the USPHS, and is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Thomas also received National Medal of Science in 1990. In 2003 he was one of 22 Nobel laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto.
The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics. The twelve member presidential Committee on the National Medal of Science is responsible for selecting award recipients and is administered by the National Science Foundation (NSF).
Humanism and Its Aspirations is the most recent of the Humanist Manifestos, published in 2003 by the American Humanist Association (AHA). The newest one is much shorter, listing six primary beliefs, which echo themes from its predecessors:
He died of heart failure and is survived by his three children.
The Charles F. Kettering Prize was a US$250,000 award given by the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation for the most outstanding recent contribution to the diagnosis or treatment of cancer.
The Karl Landsteiner Memorial Award is a scientific award given by the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) to scientists with "an international reputation in transfusion medicine or cellular therapies" "whose original research resulted in an important contribution to the body of scientific knowledge". Recipients give a lecture at the AABB Annual Meeting and receive a $7,500 honorarium. The prize was initiated in 1954 to honor Karl Landsteiner, whose research laid the foundation for modern blood transfusion therapy.
The Canada Gairdner International Award is given annually at a special dinner to five individuals for outstanding discoveries or contributions to medical science. Receipt of the Gairdner is traditionally considered a precursor to winning the Nobel Prize in Medicine; as of 2018, 86 Nobel Prizes have been awarded to prior Gairdner recipients.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood. It involves treating diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, blood vessels, spleen, and the mechanism of coagulation. Such diseases might include hemophilia, blood clots, other bleeding disorders and blood cancers such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist or medical laboratory scientist.
Wang Zhenyi, also known as Zhen-yi Wang, is a Chinese pathophysiologist, hematologist, and a professor emeritus of Medicine and Pathophysiology at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). He is most well known for discovering the cure for acute promyelocytic leukemia while working with Laurent Degos in France, using tretinoin on a trial of 24 patients at Ruijin Hospital in 1986.
Stephen Gould Emerson, M.D, Ph.D., was the 13th president of Haverford College from July 1, 2007, to August 10, 2011. In February 2012, he was appointed Director of the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, and he will also hold the Clyde ’56 and Helen Wu Professorship in Immunology at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.
Robert Alan Good was an American physician who performed the first successful human bone marrow transplant between persons who were not identical twins. He is regarded as a founder of modern immunology.
Robert Peter Gale is an American physician and medical researcher. He is known for research in leukemia and other bone marrow disorders.
Allen C. Eaves was the founding Director of the Terry Fox Laboratory for Hematology/Oncology Research, which over a 25 year period (1981–2006) he grew into an internationally recognized centre for the study of leukemia and stem cell research. His own research on chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has led the way to a new understanding of the disease. As Head of Hematology at the British Columbia Cancer Agency and the University of British Columbia for 18 years (1985–2003) he engineered the building of one of the first and largest bone marrow transplant programs in Canada. In recognition of his research accomplishments and leadership in moving basic science discoveries in stem cell biology into the clinic, he was elected President of the International Society of Cellular Therapy (1995–1997), Treasurer of the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (1995–2002) and President of the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (1999–2000). In 2003 he was awarded the prestigious R. M. Taylor Medal by the Canadian Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute of Canada. In 2016 he was awarded the Order of British Columbia as well as named Ernst and Young's Entrepreneur Of The Year™ Pacific.
Timothy J. Ley is an American hematologist and cancer biologist. He is the Lewis T. and Rosalind B. Apple Professor of Oncology in the Department of Medicine, is chief of the Section of Stem Cell Biology in the Division of Oncology and is Professor of Genetics at Washington University in St. Louis. He is an associate director of the McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University and is affiliated with the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center.
Boris Labar, M.D., Ph. D., internationally renowned Croatian physician and scientist in the field of hematology and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Neal Stuart Young is an American physician and researcher, chief of the Hematology Branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Director of the Center for Human Immunology at the NIH in Bethesda, Maryland. He is primarily known for work in the pathophysiology and treatment of aplastic anemia, and is also known for his contributions to the pathophysiology of parvovirus B19 infection.
Thomas P. Loughran, Jr. is an American physician-scientist who specializes in cancer research and treatment. He became director of the University of Virginia Cancer Center, F. Palmer Weber-Smithfield Foods Professor of Oncology Research and Professor of Medicine at the University of Virginia on August 15, 2013. Between 2003 and 2013, Loughran served as the founding director of the Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute and professor of medicine at the Penn State College of Medicine. His previous appointments included program leader of hematologic malignancies at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute at the University of South Florida, associate director of the Bone Marrow Transplant Program at SUNY Health Science Center and chief of hematology at the Syracuse Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center in Syracuse, N.Y. Loughran completed his fellowship in medical oncology in 1985 at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington under direction of Nobel Laureate E. Donnall Thomas. He remained on faculty there for seven years. Loughran earned his medical degree from Hahnemann Medical School in Philadelphia in 1979.
“Marcel R.M. van den Brink” is a Dutch hematologist and researcher who is an expert in Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for cancer patients. He is Head of the Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Alan Houghton Chair in Immunology, Attending on the Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, and Member at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in New York, New York. He holds joint appointments at Sloan Kettering Institute’s Immunology Program, the Department of Medicine at MSKCC, and is also Professor of Medicine and Immunology at Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences. He is also the Co-Director of the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy (PICI) at Memorial Sloan Kettering.
Helen Elisabeth Heslop is a physician-scientist from New Zealand whose clinical interests are in hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Heslop’s research interests are in immunotherapy to treat viral infections post transplant and hematologic malignancies. She is a professor in the Department of Medicine and Pediatrics at Baylor College of Medicine and the director of the Center for Cell and Gene Therapy at Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children’s Hospital and Houston Methodist Hospital. She is also the Dan L. Duncan Chair and the associate director of clinical research at the Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center.
Roland Mertelsmann is a German hematologist and oncologist. He was a professor at the Freiburg University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine I (Oncology/Hematology). Mertelsmann is known for his scientific works in the fields of hematology, oncology, gene therapy and stem cell transplantation.
Guo Mei is a hematologist and associate director of 307th Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army and deputy director of Radiation Research Institute.
Dorothy "Dottie" Thomas was an American hematology researcher and administrator known for her work in developing bone marrow transplants. She and her husband, E. Donnall Thomas (Don), partnered to research leukemia and other blood disorders, and developed the technique for transplanting bone marrow.
The Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital is a teaching hospital in Cooperstown, New York. The hospital has 180 beds. It is associated with Columbia University.
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Carl H. June is an American immunologist and oncologist. He is currently the Richard W. Vague Professor in Immunotherapy in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania. He is most well known for his research into t-cell therapies for the treatment of cancer.
Surapol Issaragrisil is medical doctor and professor of medicine at Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University. He is an expert at hematology, bone marrow transplantation, and blood stem cells transplantation.
Dr. Donnall Thomas, who received Nobel Prize for his pioneering work in bone marrow transplantation to cure leukemia and other hematologic malignancies, must be recognized and apprised as human endeavor to cure previously incurable diseases.