Eugène Michel Antoniadi
Eugène Michel Antoniadi
|Died||February 10, 1944 73) (aged|
|Known for||Maps of Mars and Mercury|
|La planète Mars, 1659-1929|
Eugène Michel Antoniadi (1 March 1870 – 10 February 1944) was a Greek astronomer.
The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such as stars, planets, moons, comets, and galaxies – in either observational or theoretical astronomy. Examples of topics or fields astronomers study include planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars, or the formation of galaxies. Related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology, which studies the Universe as a whole.
Antoniadi was born in Istanbul but spent most of his adult life in France, after being invited there by Camille Flammarion.
Istanbul, formerly known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the East and West.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
Nicolas Camille Flammarion FRAS was a French astronomer and author. He was a prolific author of more than fifty titles, including popular science works about astronomy, several notable early science fiction novels, and works on psychical research and related topics. He also published the magazine L'Astronomie, starting in 1882. He maintained a private observatory at Juvisy-sur-Orge, France.
He became a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society on 10 February 1899, and in 1890 he became one of the founding members of the British Astronomical Association (BAA). In 1892, he joined the BAA’s Mars Section and became that section's Director in 1896.
The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) is a learned society and charity that encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science, geophysics and closely related branches of science. Its headquarters are in Burlington House, on Piccadilly in London. The society has over 4,000 members, termed Fellows, most of them professional researchers or postgraduate students. Around a quarter of Fellows live outside the UK. Members of the public who have an interest in astronomy and geophysics but do not qualify as Fellows may become Friends of the RAS.
The British Astronomical Association (BAA) was formed in 1890 as a national body to support the UK's amateur astronomers.
He became a member of the Société astronomique de France (SAF) in 1891.
The Société astronomique de France (SAF), the French astronomical society, is a non-profit association in the public interest organized under French law. Founded by astronomer Camille Flammarion in 1887, its purpose is to promote the development and practice of astronomy.
Flammarion hired Antoniadi to work as an assistant astronomer in his private observatory in Juvisy-sur-Orge in 1893.Antoniadi worked there for nine years. In 1902, he resigned from both the Juvisy observatory and from SAF.
The observatory was established in Juvisy-sur-Orge in 1883 by the French astronomer and author Camille Flammarion. In March 2010, the structure was classified as a historical monument by the French Ministry of Culture. The observatory belongs to the Société astronomique de France.
Juvisy-sur-Orge is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France. It is located 18 km south-east of Paris.
Antoniadi rejoined SAF in 1909. That same year, Henri Deslandres, Director of the Meudon Observeratory, provided him with access to the Grande Lunette (83-cm Great Refractor)
The Paris Observatory, a research institution of PSL Research University, is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centres in the world. Its historic building is to be found on the Left Bank of the Seine in central Paris, but most of the staff work on a satellite campus in Meudon, a suburb southwest of Paris.
He became a highly reputed observer of Mars, and at first supported the notion of Martian canals, but after using the 83 centimeter telescope at Meudon Observatory during the 1909 opposition of Mars, he came to the conclusion that canals were an optical illusion. He also observed Venus and Mercury.
He made the first map of Mercury, but his maps were flawed by his incorrect assumption that Mercury had synchronous rotation with the Sun.The first standard nomenclature for Martian albedo features was introduced by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) when they adopted 128 names from the 1929 map of Antoniadi named La Planète Mars.
He is also famed for creating the Antoniadi scale of seeing, which is commonly used by amateur astronomers. He was also a strong chess player. His best result was equal first with Frank Marshall in a tournament in Paris in 1907, a point ahead of Savielly Tartakower.
He died in Paris, aged 73.
His full name was Eugène Michel Antoniadi (Greek : Ευγένιος Μιχαήλ Αντωνιάδη, Evgénios Michaíl Antoniádi), however he was also known as Eugenios Antoniadis. His name is also sometimes given as Eugène Michael Antoniadi or even (incorrectly) as Eugène Marie Antoniadi.
Antoniadi was a prolific writer of articles and books (the Astrophysics Data System lists nearly 230 that he authored or co-authored).The subjects included astronomy, history, and architecture. He frequently wrote articles for L'Astronomie of the Société astronomique de France, Astronomische Nachrichten , and the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society , among others.
Notable works include:
André-Louis Danjon was a French astronomer born in Caen to Louis Dominique Danjon and Marie Justine Binet.
Henri Alexandre Deslandres was a French astronomer, director of the Meudon and Paris Observatories, who carried out intensive studies on the behaviour of the atmosphere of the Sun.
Édouard Benjamin Baillaud was a French astronomer.
Ernest Benjamin Esclangon was a French astronomer and mathematician.
Pierre Jules César Janssen, also known as Jules Janssen, was a French astronomer who, along with English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gaseous nature of the solar chromosphere, and with some justification the element helium.
Bernard Ferdinand Lyot was a French astronomer.
Audouin Charles Dollfus was a French astronomer and aeronaut, specialist in studies of the Solar System and discoverer of Janus, a moon of Saturn.
Fernand Baldet was a French astronomer.
Jean-Henri Focas was a Greek-French astronomer. In Greek he was known as Ioannis Focas. He worked at the Pic du Midi Observatory, investigating the surface features of Mars using visual and photographic techniques. A crater on the moon and a crater on Mars were named after him.
André Lallemand was a French astronomer and director of the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris.
Ferdinand Jules Quénisset (1872–1951) was a French astronomer who specialized in astrophotography.
The Antoniadi scale is a system used by amateur astronomers to categorise the weather conditions when viewing the stars at night.
Antoniadi is a crater on Syrtis Major Planum in the Syrtis Major quadrangle, Mars, located at 21.5° north latitude and 299.2° west longitude. It is 394 km long and was named after Eugène Michael Antoniadi, a Greek astronomer (1870-1944) who spent most of his life in France.
André Couder was a French optician and astronomer.
Jean-Claude Pecker is a French astronomer, astrophysicist and author, member of the Académie des Sciences and former director of the Nice Observatory. He served as the secretary-general of the International Astronomical Union from 1964 to 1967. Pecker was the President of the Société astronomique de France (SAF), the French amateur astronomical society, from 1973-1976. He was awarded the Prix Jules Janssen by the French Astronomical Society in 1967. A minor planet is named after him. Pecker is a vocal opponent of astrology and pseudo-science and was the president of the Association française pour l'information scientifique (AFIS), a skeptical organisation which promotes scientific enquiry in the face of quackery and obscurantism.
The recorded history of observation of the planet Mars dates back to the era of the ancient Egyptian astronomers in the 2nd millennium BCE. Chinese records about the motions of Mars appeared before the founding of the Zhou Dynasty. Detailed observations of the position of Mars were made by Babylonian astronomers who developed arithmetic techniques to predict the future position of the planet. The ancient Greek philosophers and Hellenistic astronomers developed a geocentric model to explain the planet's motions. Measurements of Mars' angular diameter can be found in ancient Greek and Indian texts. In the 16th century, Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a heliocentric model for the Solar System in which the planets follow circular orbits about the Sun. This was revised by Johannes Kepler, yielding an elliptic orbit for Mars that more accurately fitted the observational data.
Jules Baillaud is a French astronomer. Initially assistant astronomer in Lyon (1900–1904) and at the Paris observatory: assistant astronomer until 1925, he went on as astronomer from 1925 to 1947. From 1937 to 1947 he was also the director of the Pic du Midi observatory and directed the Carte du Ciel from 1922 to 1947. In recognition for his achievements, he was awarded the Prix Jules Janssen in 1938.
The Observatory of the rue Serpente was an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Société Astronomique de France in the historic Latin Quarter of Paris. It operated between 1890 until 1968, when it was transferred to a new location at the nearby Astronomy Tower of the Sorbonne.