|In service||22 March 1997 – Present|
|Manufacturer||Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Tokyu Car Corporation|
|Number built||261 vehicles (41 sets)|
|Number in service||105 vehicles (15 sets) (as of 1 March 2022 [update] )|
|Number scrapped||156 vehicles|
|Successor||E6 series, E8 series|
|Formation||6 or 7 cars per trainset|
|Fleet numbers||R1–R26, L51–L55, L61–L72|
|Capacity||6-car R sets: 338 (23 Green + 315 Standard)|
7-car L50 sets (E3-1000): 402 (23 Green + 379 Standard)
7-car L60 sets (E3-2000): 394 (23 Green + 371 Standard)
|Line(s) served||Tohoku Shinkansen, Yamagata Shinkansen, Joetsu Shinkansen|
|Car body construction||Aluminium|
|Car length||20.05 to 23.07 m (65 ft 9 in to 75 ft 8 in)|
|Width||2,945 mm (9 ft 8 in)|
|Doors||1 per side|
|Maximum speed||275 km/h (171 mph)(Tohoku Shinkansen), 130 km/h (81 mph) (Akita/Yamagata Shinkansen)|
|Traction system||GTO or IGBT-VVVF (6-car sets: 16 x 300 kW,|
7-car sets: 20 x 300 kW)
|Power output||6-car sets: 4.8 MW (6,437 hp)|
7-car sets: 6 MW (8,046 hp)
|Acceleration||1.6 km/(h⋅s) (0.99 mph/s)|
|Electric system(s)||20/25 kV AC, 50 Hz overhead catenary|
|Safety system(s)||ATC-2, DS-ATC, ATS-P|
|Multiple working||200 series, E2 series, E4 series, E5 series|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The E3 series (E3系) is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type built for Komachi services which commenced on 3 June 1997, coinciding with the opening of the new Akita Shinkansen "mini-shinkansen" line, a regular 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) narrow-gauge line between Morioka and Akita re-gauged to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge. Later versions of the E3 series were also introduced for use on Yamagata Shinkansen Tsubasa services. Both "mini-shinkansen" lines join the Tohoku Shinkansen, providing services to and from Tokyo.
The design of the original Akita Shinkansen E3 series trains was overseen by industrial designer Kenji Ekuan.  Like the 400 Series Shinkansen, these trains are built to a smaller loading gauge than mainline Shinkansen trains—the width and length of each car is reduced to fit on the narrower clearances of the "mini-shinkansen". Doorway steps fold out to bridge the gap between the narrow body and the platform at regular shinkansen stations.
A pre-series 5-car set, numbered S8, was delivered from Kawasaki Heavy Industries to Sendai Depot in March 1995 for extensive testing. It was modified to full-production specifications in March 1997 ahead of the start of Akita Shinkansen services. 
Until it was augmented to six cars in 1998, the pre-series was formed as follows, with scissors-type pantographs on cars 12, 13, and 14.  Set R1 was withdrawn following its final revenue run on 20 July 2013. 
The full-production trainsets built from 1996 for the Akita Shinkansen were 5-car sets, but sixth cars were added by the end of 1998. A total of 26 Akita Shinkansen sets were in service by the end of 2005. Sets R1 to R16 were leased by East Japan Railway Company (JR East) from the owning company, Akita Shinkansen Sharyō Hoyū (秋田新幹線車両保有(株)), a third-sector company jointly owned by JR East and Akita Prefecture.  This lease ended on 21 March 2010 with the dissolution of Akita Shinkansen Sharyō Hoyū. 
The E3 series sets are scheduled to be phased out following the introduction of new E6 series sets from March 2013, with 19 sets (114 vehicles) scheduled to be withdrawn during fiscal 2013. 
From the start of the 15 March 2014 timetable revision, E3 series trainsets were no longer used on Akita Shinkansen Komachi services.  Two sets remained in service, used on Yamabiko and Nasuno services. 
Cars 12 and 15 are equipped with PS206 single-arm pantographs. 
The build details are as shown below.  As of 25 November 2021 [update] , the last of the original 26 sets (R22) was scrapped. 
|Set No.||Date delivered||Car 14 build date||Date withdrawn||Remarks|
|R1||28 March 1995||29 October 1998||26 August 2013||Pre-series set S8 (originally 5 cars with 3 pantographs)|
|R2||9 October 1996||1 November 1998||13 December 2013 ||Built as 5-car sets|
|R3||14 October 1996||4 November 1998||17 February 2014 |
|R4||22 October 1996||6 November 1998||9 January 2014 |
|R5||28 October 1996||9 November 1998||26 April 2013|
|R6||6 November 1996||12 November 1998||12 April 2013|
|R7||11 November 1996||22 November 1998||17 May 2013|
|R8||15 November 1996||24 November 1998||24 May 2013|
|R9||22 November 1996||26 November 1998||7 June 2013|
|R10||2 December 1996||28 November 1998||27 August 2013|
|R11||12 December 1996||30 October 1998||13 September 2013|
|R12||21 December 1996||17 November 1998||27 November 2013 |
|R13||20 January 1997||5 December 1998||19 October 2013 |
|R14||30 January 1997||14 November 1998||1 December 2013 |
|R15||7 February 1997||16 November 1998||28 January 2014 |
|R16||17 February 1997||19 November 1998||8 March 2014 |
|R17||30 September 1998||n/a|
(6-car sets from new)
|26 July 2013|
|R18||23 October 2002||6 March 2022||Converted 2014 to E3-700 series Toreiyu |
|R19||18 November 2002||1 March 2021||Converted 2016 to E3-700 series Genbi Shinkansen |
|R20||24 March 2003||17 December 2015 |
|R21||16 September 2003||13 September 2021|
|R22||27 October 2003||25 November 2021|
|R23||1 December 2003||25 May 2014||Converted 2014 to become Set L55|
|R24||4 April 2005||4 December 2013 [Note 1]||Converted 2014 to become Set L54|
|R25||11 July 2005||18 December 2013 [Note 2]||Converted 2014 to become Set L54|
|R26||25 July 2005||6 July 2014||Converted 2014 to become Set L55|
Three 7-car E3-1000 sets (numbered L51 – L53) were built between 1999 and 2005 for use on Yamagata Shinkansen Tsubasa services from 4 December 1999 to augment the 400 series fleet following with the extension of the line to Shinjo.  From 2014, a further two sets (L54 and L55) were introduced, reformed from withdrawn Akita Shinkansen E3-0 series "R" sets, to replace the two older sets L51 and L52. 
The sets are formed as shown below, with five motored ("M") cars and two non-powered trailer ("T") cars, and car 11 at the Tokyo end.
Cars 12 and 14 are equipped with PS206 single-arm pantographs. 
The build details are as shown below. 
|Set No.||Manufacturer||Date delivered||Date reliveried||Date withdrawn||Remarks|
|L51||Tokyu Car||11 August 1999||-||5 September 2014 |
|L52||Kawasaki Heavy Industries||11 September 1999||-||4 February 2015 |
|L53||Tokyu Car||17 August 2005||24 November 2015 |
|L54||Kawasaki Heavy Industries ||30 July 2014 ||30 July 2014 ||Rebuilt from sets R24+R25|
|L55||J-TREC ||13 January 2015 ||13 January 2015 ||Rebuilt from sets R23+R26|
The former identities of the cars reformed into sets L54 and L55 are as shown below. 
|Set No.||Car No.||Running No.||Former set No.||Former car No.||Former running No.|
The first of a fleet of twelve new E3-2000 series 7-car sets entered service on Yamagata Shinkansen Tsubasa services on 20 December 2008.  The new fleet totally replaced the older 400 series trains by summer 2009. The new trains incorporate design improvements, including active suspension, full-color LED destination indicators, and AC power outlets in all cars.  Seating capacity in cars 16 and 17 has been reduced by 4 (one row of seats) compared with the E3-1000 series to provide uniform seating pitch in all cars (seat pitch was previously reduced in non-reserved cars).
Cars 12 and 14 are equipped with PS206 single-arm pantographs. 
As of 1 October 2016 [update] , the E3-2000 series fleet is as follows. 
|Set No.||Manufacturer||Date delivered||Date reliveried|
|L61||Kawasaki HI||9 October 2008||6 July 2016|
|L62||9 December 2008|
|L63||7 January 2009||24 November 2015|
|L64||17 February 2009||25 April 2014|
|L65||3 March 2009||6 June 2014|
|L66||25 March 2009||22 October 2014|
|L67||Tokyu Car||28 March 2009||12 November 2014|
|L68||Kawasaki HI||14 April 2009||5 December 2014|
|L69||19 May 2009||23 February 2015|
|L70||30 June 2009||6 April 2016|
|L71||22 July 2009||24 April 2016|
|L72||25 March 2010||18 September 2015|
From spring 2014, the entire fleet of 15 E3-1000 and E3-2000 series Tsubasa sets were gradually repainted into a new livery designed by industrial designer Ken Okuyama.  The new livery consists of white, evoking the snow of Mount Zaō, deep purple inspired by the Mandarin duck, the prefectural bird for Yamagata Prefecture, together with yellow and red for the safflower, the prefectural flower of Yamagata Prefecture.  The first repainted set is appeared in late April.  Three sets were repainted by June 2014, and the rest of the fleet of 15 sets was repainted by mid 2016. 
This is a six-car set rebuilt from former Akita Shinkansen trainset R18  as an excursion train named Toreiyu (とれいゆ) for use on the Yamagata Shinkansen between Fukushima and Shinjo, entering service from July 2014.  The design work for the rebuilt train was overseen by industrial designer Ken Okuyama.  The six-car set has a total seating capacity of 143 passengers.  Car 11 is a standard-class car with reserved seating arranged 2+2 abreast, cars 12 to 14 feature Japanese-style tatami seating, car 15 is a lounge car with a bar counter, and car 16 has ashiyu foot baths.  The name of the train is a portmanteau of the English word "train" and the French word "soleil" (sun).  The train was normally used on special Toreiyu Tsubasa services running at weekends.  The train was discontinued in March of 2022. 
The Toreiyu set is based at Yamagata Depot and formed as shown below, with car 11 at the Fukushima end. 
|Facilities||2+2 seating||Japanese-style seating||Lounge + bar counter||Ashiyu foot baths|
The Genbi Shinkansen (現美新幹線, "contemporary art shinkansen") was a six-car set rebuilt from former Akita Shinkansen trainset R19 at Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Kobe as an excursion train for use on the Joetsu Shinkansen between Echigo-Yuzawa and Niigata. The train began operations on 29 April 2016,  mostly on weekends and holidays. It was withdrawn from service on 19 December 2020. 
The exterior livery was designed by photographer Mika Ninagawa.  The first car of the six car set featured the art of Nao Matsumoto; a golden yellow motif based on harvests, festivals and light was present in the car. Window shades displayed art using a special dye as the train passes through tunnels. The second car featured stainless steel mirrors on the walls, the work of Yusuke Komuta. They reflect the landscape outside the train. The third car featured a children's area and a cafe. The children's area featured blue and white representations of toy trains by Art Unit Paramodel. The cafe section of the car was designed by Kentaro Kobuke and served sweet items featuring local products. The fourth car featured an alpine photography exhibition by Naoki Ishikawa. The fifth car featured an abstract flower artpiece by Haruka Koujin that vibrated with the motion of the train. The final car featured a short film by Brian Alfred, depicting the scenery of Niigata.  The trainset was shown off to the media on 12 January 2016. 
The Genbi Shinkansen set was based at Niigata Depot and formed as shown below, with car 11 at the Tokyo end. 
|Facilities||2+2 seating||Art gallery space||Cafe + children's play area||Art gallery space|
Cars 12 and 15 each have one single-arm pantograph. 
The 200 series (200系) was a Shinkansen high-speed train type introduced by Japanese National Railways (JNR) for the Tohoku Shinkansen and Joetsu Shinkansen high-speed rail lines in Japan, and operated by East Japan Railway Company until 2013. They actually predated the 100 series trains, having been built between 1980 and 1986. It was one of the two recipients of the 23rd Laurel Prize presented by the Japan Railfan Club, the first Shinkansen type to receive that award. The last remaining sets were retired from regular service in March 2013, and were completely withdrawn from service in April 2013.
The 400 series (400系) was a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type operated by East Japan Railway Company between 1992 and 2010 on Tsubasa services on Japan's first mini-shinkansen line, the Yamagata Shinkansen branch from the main Tohoku Shinkansen.
The 500 series is a Shinkansen high-speed train type operated by West Japan Railway Company (JR-West) on the San'yō Shinkansen line in Japan since 1997. They were designed to be capable of 320 km/h (198.8 mph) but operated at 300 km/h (186.4 mph), until they were finally retired from the primary Nozomi service in 2010. The trainsets were then refurbished and downgraded to the all-stations Kodama service between Shin-Ōsaka and Hakata.
The E1 series (E1系) was a high-speed Shinkansen train type operated by East Japan Railway Company in Japan from July 1994 until September 2012. They were the first double-deck trains built for Japan's Shinkansen. They were generally, along with their fellow double-deck class the E4 series, known by the marketing name "Max". The fleet was withdrawn from regular service on 28 September 2012.
The E2 series is a Japanese high-speed Shinkansen train type operated by East Japan Railway Company on the Tohoku Shinkansen high-speed lines in Japan since 1997. They are formed in 8- and 10-car sets. The 8-car sets were used on the Hokuriku Shinkansen, and the 10-car sets are on Tohoku Shinkansen services. The 10-car sets can be coupled to E3 series sets using couplers hidden behind retracting nose doors.
The E4 series (E4系) was a high-speed shinkansen train type operated by East Japan Railway Company in Japan. They were the second series of completely bi-level Shinkansen trainsets to be built in Japan. They previously operated on the Tōhoku and Jōetsu Shinkansen, and occasionally on the Nagano Shinkansen. E4 series trains feature double-decker cars to accommodate additional commuter traffic around Tokyo and other urban areas. They were often coupled to 400 series trains on the Tōhoku Shinkansen between Tokyo and Fukushima before the latter retired in April 2010. The last trains of the E4 series were withdrawn from regular service on 1 October 2021.
The Asama (あさま) is a high-speed Shinkansen train service operated by East Japan Railway Company on the Hokuriku Shinkansen in Japan. The shinkansen service was introduced in October 1997, but the name was first used for a semi-express service operated by Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1961. "Asama" is the name of an active volcano near Karuizawa, on the boundary between Gunma and Nagano Prefecture.
The N700 series is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train with tilting capability developed jointly by JR Central and JR West for use on the Tokaido and San'yō Shinkansen lines since 2007, and also operated by JR Kyushu on the Kyushu Shinkansen line.
Fastech 360 is the name given to a pair of former experimental high-speed EMU trainsets developed by East Japan Railway Company to test technology for the next-generation Shinkansen rolling stock. The name is a portmanteau of Fast, Technology, and 360 km/h, the target operational speed for production trains based on the new technologies. Speeds of up to 405 km/h (251.7 mph) were targeted during performance testing. Results of testing using these trains was incorporated into the E5 series and E6 series trains, entering revenue service from 2011, eventually operating at 320 km/h (198.8 mph).
The Tsubasa (つばさ) is a high-speed Shinkansen train service operated on the Yamagata Shinkansen by East Japan Railway Company since July 1992. The name was formerly used for a limited express service operated by Japanese National Railways (JNR) and later by JR East, which ran from Ueno to Akita, and was discontinued in 1992 when the new shinkansen service commenced.
The Hokuetsu (北越) was a limited express train service in Japan formerly operated by Japanese National Railways (JNR) and later by East Japan Railway Company between Kanazawa and Niigata from 1970 until March 2015.
The 885 series (885系) is an AC electric multiple unit (EMU) train type operated on limited express services by Kyushu Railway Company in Japan. The type is part of Hitachi's A-train family of multiple units.
The 683 series is a dual-voltage electric multiple unit (EMU) train type operated by West Japan Railway Company (JR-West) on limited express services in Japan since 2001.
The E6 series (E6系) is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type operated by East Japan Railway Company on Komachi "mini-shinkansen" services on the Tōhoku Shinkansen and Akita Shinkansen from Tokyo to Akita since 16 March 2013. A pre-series set was delivered in June 2010 for extensive testing, with 23 full-production sets delivered between November 2012 and spring 2014.
"300X" was the name given to the Class 955 (955形) 6-car experimental Shinkansen train developed in 1994 by the Central Japan Railway Company in Japan to test technology to be incorporated in future shinkansen trains operating at speeds of 300 km/h (186 mph) or higher.
The 521 series is a dual-voltage AC/DC outer-suburban electric multiple unit (EMU) train type operated by West Japan Railway Company and third-sector railway operators IR Ishikawa Railway and Ainokaze Toyama Railway on local services in the Fukui and Kanazawa areas since November 2006.
The Kubikino (くびき野) was a "Rapid" limited-stop train service in Japan operated by the East Japan Railway Company between Niigata and Arai on the Shinetsu Main Line in Niigata Prefecture from 2002 until March 2015.
The E7 series and W7 series Shinkansen are Japanese high-speed train types operated by East Japan Railway Company and West Japan Railway Company, respectively. They were jointly developed.
The 413 series is a Japanese dual-voltage electric multiple unit (EMU) train type first introduced by Japanese National Railways (JNR) in March 1986, and later operated on local services on the Hokuriku Main Line by the West Japan Railway Company (JR-West) from 1987 and also by the third-sector railway operating company Ainokaze Toyama Railway from March 2015. The units were built by re-using the underframes, bogies and electrical equipment from former 471 series and 473 series express-type EMUs with new suburban type bodies based on the design of the 417 series EMUs introduced in 1978.
The E5 series and the related H5 series are Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train types built by Hitachi Rail and Kawasaki Heavy Industries.