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In mathematics, **E _{8}** is any of several closely related exceptional simple Lie groups, linear algebraic groups or Lie algebras of dimension 248; the same notation is used for the corresponding root lattice, which has rank 8. The designation E

- Basic description
- Real and complex forms
- E8 as an algebraic group
- Constructions
- Geometry
- E8 root system
- Construction
- Dynkin diagram
- Cartan matrix
- Simple roots
- Weyl group
- E8 root lattice
- Simple subalgebras of E8
- Chevalley groups of type E8
- Subgroups
- Applications
- History
- See also
- Notes
- References
- External links

The Lie group E_{8} has dimension 248. Its rank, which is the dimension of its maximal torus, is eight.

Therefore, the vectors of the root system are in eight-dimensional Euclidean space: they are described explicitly later in this article. The Weyl group of E_{8}, which is the group of symmetries of the maximal torus which are induced by conjugations in the whole group, has order 2^{14} 3^{5} 5^{2} 7 = 696729600.

The compact group E_{8} is unique among simple compact Lie groups in that its non-trivial representation of smallest dimension is the adjoint representation (of dimension 248) acting on the Lie algebra E_{8} itself; it is also the unique one which has the following four properties: trivial center, compact, simply connected, and simply laced (all roots have the same length).

There is a Lie algebra E_{k} for every integer *k* ≥ 3. The largest value of *k* for which E_{k} is finite-dimensional is *k* = 8, that is, E_{k} is infinite-dimensional for any *k* > 8.

There is a unique complex Lie algebra of type E_{8}, corresponding to a complex group of complex dimension 248. The complex Lie group E_{8} of complex dimension 248 can be considered as a simple real Lie group of real dimension 496. This is simply connected, has maximal compact subgroup the compact form (see below) of E_{8}, and has an outer automorphism group of order 2 generated by complex conjugation.

As well as the complex Lie group of type E_{8}, there are three real forms of the Lie algebra, three real forms of the group with trivial center (two of which have non-algebraic double covers, giving two further real forms), all of real dimension 248, as follows:

- The compact form (which is usually the one meant if no other information is given), which is simply connected and has trivial outer automorphism group.
- The split form, EVIII (or E
_{8(8)}), which has maximal compact subgroup Spin(16)/(**Z**/2**Z**), fundamental group of order 2 (implying that it has a double cover, which is a simply connected Lie real group but is not algebraic, see below) and has trivial outer automorphism group. - EIX (or E
_{8(−24)}), which has maximal compact subgroup E_{7}×SU(2)/(−1,−1), fundamental group of order 2 (again implying a double cover, which is not algebraic) and has trivial outer automorphism group.

For a complete list of real forms of simple Lie algebras, see the list of simple Lie groups.

By means of a Chevalley basis for the Lie algebra, one can define E_{8} as a linear algebraic group over the integers and, consequently, over any commutative ring and in particular over any field: this defines the so-called split (sometimes also known as “untwisted”) form of E_{8}. Over an algebraically closed field, this is the only form; however, over other fields, there are often many other forms, or “twists” of E_{8}, which are classified in the general framework of Galois cohomology (over a perfect field *k*) by the set H^{1}(*k*,Aut(E_{8})) which, because the Dynkin diagram of E_{8} (see below) has no automorphisms, coincides with H^{1}(*k*,E_{8}).^{ [1] }

Over **R**, the real connected component of the identity of these algebraically twisted forms of E_{8} coincide with the three real Lie groups mentioned above, but with a subtlety concerning the fundamental group: all forms of E_{8} are simply connected in the sense of algebraic geometry, meaning that they admit no non-trivial algebraic coverings; the non-compact and simply connected real Lie group forms of E_{8} are therefore not algebraic and admit no faithful finite-dimensional representations.

Over finite fields, the Lang–Steinberg theorem implies that H^{1}(*k*,E_{8})=0, meaning that E_{8} has no twisted forms: see below.

The characters of finite dimensional representations of the real and complex Lie algebras and Lie groups are all given by the Weyl character formula. The dimensions of the smallest irreducible representations are (sequence A121732 in the OEIS ):

- 1, 248, 3875, 27000, 30380, 147250, 779247, 1763125, 2450240, 4096000, 4881384, 6696000, 26411008, 70680000, 76271625, 79143000, 146325270, 203205000, 281545875, 301694976, 344452500, 820260000, 1094951000, 2172667860, 2275896000, 2642777280, 2903770000, 3929713760, 4076399250, 4825673125, 6899079264, 8634368000 (twice), 12692520960…

The 248-dimensional representation is the adjoint representation. There are two non-isomorphic irreducible representations of dimension 8634368000 (it is not unique; however, the next integer with this property is 175898504162692612600853299200000 (sequence A181746 in the OEIS )). The fundamental representations are those with dimensions 3875, 6696000, 6899079264, 146325270, 2450240, 30380, 248 and 147250 (corresponding to the eight nodes in the Dynkin diagram in the order chosen for the Cartan matrix below, i.e., the nodes are read in the seven-node chain first, with the last node being connected to the third).

The coefficients of the character formulas for infinite dimensional irreducible representations of E_{8} depend on some large square matrices consisting of polynomials, the Lusztig–Vogan polynomials, an analogue of Kazhdan–Lusztig polynomials introduced for reductive groups in general by George Lusztig and David Kazhdan (1983). The values at 1 of the Lusztig–Vogan polynomials give the coefficients of the matrices relating the standard representations (whose characters are easy to describe) with the irreducible representations.

These matrices were computed after four years of collaboration by a group of 18 mathematicians and computer scientists, led by Jeffrey Adams, with much of the programming done by Fokko du Cloux. The most difficult case (for exceptional groups) is the split real form of E_{8} (see above), where the largest matrix is of size 453060×453060. The Lusztig–Vogan polynomials for all other exceptional simple groups have been known for some time; the calculation for the split form of *E*_{8} is far longer than any other case. The announcement of the result in March 2007 received extraordinary attention from the media (see the external links), to the surprise of the mathematicians working on it.

The representations of the E_{8} groups over finite fields are given by Deligne–Lusztig theory.

One can construct the (compact form of the) E_{8} group as the automorphism group of the corresponding **e**_{8} Lie algebra. This algebra has a 120-dimensional subalgebra **so**(16) generated by *J*_{ij} as well as 128 new generators *Q*_{a} that transform as a Weyl–Majorana spinor of **spin**(16). These statements determine the commutators

as well as

while the remaining commutators (not anticommutators!) between the spinor generators are defined as

It is then possible to check that the Jacobi identity is satisfied.

The compact real form of E_{8} is the isometry group of the 128-dimensional exceptional compact Riemannian symmetric space EVIII (in Cartan's classification). It is known informally as the "octooctonionic projective plane" because it can be built using an algebra that is the tensor product of the octonions with themselves, and is also known as a Rosenfeld projective plane, though it does not obey the usual axioms of a projective plane. This can be seen systematically using a construction known as the *magic square*, due to Hans Freudenthal and Jacques Tits ( Landsberg & Manivel 2001 ).

A root system of rank *r* is a particular finite configuration of vectors, called *roots*, which span an *r*-dimensional Euclidean space and satisfy certain geometrical properties. In particular, the root system must be invariant under reflection through the hyperplane perpendicular to any root.

The **E _{8} root system** is a rank 8 root system containing 240 root vectors spanning

In the so-called *even coordinate system*, E_{8} is given as the set of all vectors in **R**^{8} with length squared equal to 2 such that coordinates are either all integers or all half-integers and the sum of the coordinates is even.

Explicitly, there are 112 roots with integer entries obtained from

by taking an arbitrary combination of signs and an arbitrary permutation of coordinates, and 128 roots with half-integer entries obtained from

by taking an even number of minus signs (or, equivalently, requiring that the sum of all the eight coordinates be even). There are 240 roots in all.

The 112 roots with integer entries form a D_{8} root system. The E_{8} root system also contains a copy of A_{8} (which has 72 roots) as well as E_{6} and E_{7} (in fact, the latter two are usually *defined* as subsets of E_{8}).

In the *odd coordinate system*, E_{8} is given by taking the roots in the even coordinate system and changing the sign of any one coordinate. The roots with integer entries are the same while those with half-integer entries have an odd number of minus signs rather than an even number.

The Dynkin diagram for E_{8} is given by .

This diagram gives a concise visual summary of the root structure. Each node of this diagram represents a simple root. A line joining two simple roots indicates that they are at an angle of 120° to each other. Two simple roots which are not joined by a line are orthogonal.

The Cartan matrix of a rank *r* root system is an *r × r* matrix whose entries are derived from the simple roots. Specifically, the entries of the Cartan matrix are given by

where ( , ) is the Euclidean inner product and *α _{i}* are the simple roots. The entries are independent of the choice of simple roots (up to ordering).

The Cartan matrix for E_{8} is given by

The determinant of this matrix is equal to 1.

A set of simple roots for a root system Φ is a set of roots that form a basis for the Euclidean space spanned by Φ with the special property that each root has components with respect to this basis that are either all nonnegative or all nonpositive.

Given the E_{8} Cartan matrix (above) and a Dynkin diagram node ordering of:

One choice of simple roots is given by the rows of the following matrix:

The Weyl group of E_{8} is of order 696729600, and can be described as O^{+}_{8}(2): it is of the form 2.*G*.2 (that is, a stem extension by the cyclic group of order 2 of an extension of the cyclic group of order 2 by a group *G*) where *G* is the unique simple group of order 174182400 (which can be described as PSΩ_{8}^{+}(2)).^{ [3] }

The integral span of the E_{8} root system forms a lattice in **R**^{8} naturally called the ** E _{8} root lattice **. This lattice is rather remarkable in that it is the only (nontrivial) even, unimodular lattice with rank less than 16.

The Lie algebra E8 contains as subalgebras all the exceptional Lie algebras as well as many other important Lie algebras in mathematics and physics. The height of the Lie algebra on the diagram approximately corresponds to the rank of the algebra. A line from an algebra down to a lower algebra indicates that the lower algebra is a subalgebra of the higher algebra.

Chevalley (1955) showed that the points of the (split) algebraic group E_{8} (see above) over a finite field with *q* elements form a finite Chevalley group, generally written E_{8}(*q*), which is simple for any *q*,^{ [4] }^{ [5] } and constitutes one of the infinite families addressed by the classification of finite simple groups. Its number of elements is given by the formula (sequence A008868 in the OEIS ):

The first term in this sequence, the order of E_{8}(2), namely 337804753143634806261388190614085595079991692242467651576160959909068800000 ≈ 3.38×10^{74}, is already larger than the size of the Monster group. This group E_{8}(2) is the last one described (but without its character table) in the ATLAS of Finite Groups.^{ [6] }

The Schur multiplier of E_{8}(*q*) is trivial, and its outer automorphism group is that of field automorphisms (i.e., cyclic of order *f* if *q*=*p ^{f}* where

Lusztig (1979) described the unipotent representations of finite groups of type *E*_{8}.

The smaller exceptional groups E_{7} and E_{6} sit inside E_{8}. In the compact group, both E_{7}×SU(2)/(−1,−1) and E_{6}×SU(3)/(**Z**/3**Z**) are maximal subgroups of E_{8}.

The 248-dimensional adjoint representation of E_{8} may be considered in terms of its restricted representation to the first of these subgroups. It transforms under E_{7}×SU(2) as a sum of tensor product representations, which may be labelled as a pair of dimensions as (3,1) + (1,133) + (2,56) (since there is a quotient in the product, these notations may strictly be taken as indicating the infinitesimal (Lie algebra) representations). Since the adjoint representation can be described by the roots together with the generators in the Cartan subalgebra, we may see that decomposition by looking at these. In this description,

- (3,1) consists of the roots (0,0,0,0,0,0,1,−1), (0,0,0,0,0,0,−1,1) and the Cartan generator corresponding to the last dimension;
- (1,133) consists of all roots with (1,1), (−1,−1), (0,0), (−1⁄2,−1⁄2) or (1⁄2,1⁄2) in the last two dimensions, together with the Cartan generators corresponding to the first seven dimensions;
- (2,56) consists of all roots with permutations of (1,0), (−1,0) or (1⁄2,−1⁄2) in the last two dimensions.

The 248-dimensional adjoint representation of E_{8}, when similarly restricted, transforms under E_{6}×SU(3) as: (8,1) + (1,78) + (3,27) + (__3__,__27__). We may again see the decomposition by looking at the roots together with the generators in the Cartan subalgebra. In this description,

- (8,1) consists of the roots with permutations of (1,−1,0) in the last three dimensions, together with the Cartan generator corresponding to the last two dimensions;
- (1,78) consists of all roots with (0,0,0), (−1⁄2,−1⁄2,−1⁄2) or (1⁄2,1⁄2,1⁄2) in the last three dimensions, together with the Cartan generators corresponding to the first six dimensions;
- (3,27) consists of all roots with permutations of (1,0,0), (1,1,0) or (−1⁄2,1⁄2,1⁄2) in the last three dimensions.
- (
__3__,__27__) consists of all roots with permutations of (−1,0,0), (−1,−1,0) or (1⁄2,−1⁄2,−1⁄2) in the last three dimensions.

The finite quasisimple groups that can embed in (the compact form of) E_{8} were found by Griess & Ryba (1999).

The Dempwolff group is a subgroup of (the compact form of) E_{8}. It is contained in the Thompson sporadic group, which acts on the underlying vector space of the Lie group E_{8} but does not preserve the Lie bracket. The Thompson group fixes a lattice and does preserve the Lie bracket of this lattice mod 3, giving an embedding of the Thompson group into E_{8}(**F**_{3}).

The E_{8} Lie group has applications in theoretical physics and especially in string theory and supergravity. E_{8}×E_{8} is the gauge group of one of the two types of heterotic string and is one of two anomaly-free gauge groups that can be coupled to the *N* = 1 supergravity in ten dimensions. E_{8} is the U-duality group of supergravity on an eight-torus (in its split form).

One way to incorporate the standard model of particle physics into heterotic string theory is the symmetry breaking of E_{8} to its maximal subalgebra SU(3)×E_{6}.

In 1982, Michael Freedman used the E_{8} lattice to construct an example of a topological 4-manifold, the E_{8} manifold, which has no smooth structure.

Antony Garrett Lisi's incomplete "An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything" attempts to describe all known fundamental interactions in physics as part of the E_{8} Lie algebra.^{ [7] }^{ [8] }

R.Coldea,D. A. Tennant,andE. M. Wheeleret al. ( 2010 ) reported an experiment where the electron spins of a cobalt-niobium crystal exhibited, under certain conditions, two of the eight peaks related to E_{8} that were predicted by Zamolodchikov (1989).^{ [9] }^{ [10] }

WilhelmKilling ( 1888a , 1888b , 1889 , 1890 ) discovered the complex Lie algebra E_{8} during his classification of simple compact Lie algebras, though he did not prove its existence, which was first shown by Élie Cartan. Cartan determined that a complex simple Lie algebra of type E_{8} admits three real forms. Each of them gives rise to a simple Lie group of dimension 248, exactly one of which (as for any complex simple Lie algebra) is compact. Chevalley (1955) introduced algebraic groups and Lie algebras of type E_{8} over other fields: for example, in the case of finite fields they lead to an infinite family of finite simple groups of Lie type. E8 continues to be an area of active basic research by Atlas of Lie Groups and Representations, which aims to determine the unitary representations of all the Lie groups.^{ [11] }

- ↑ Платонов, Владимир П.; Рапинчук, Андрей С. (1991),
*Алгебраические группы и теория чисел*, Наука, ISBN 5-02-014191-7 (English translation: Platonov, Vladimir P.; Rapinchuk, Andrei S. (1994),*Algebraic groups and number theory*, Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-558180-7 ), §2.2.4 - ↑ "The 600-Cell (Part 1)". December 16, 2017.
- ↑ Conway, John Horton; Curtis, Robert Turner; Norton, Simon Phillips; Parker, Richard A; Wilson, Robert Arnott (1985),
*Atlas of Finite Groups: Maximal Subgroups and Ordinary Characters for Simple Groups*, Oxford University Press, p. 85, ISBN 0-19-853199-0 - ↑ Carter, Roger W. (1989),
*Simple Groups of Lie Type*, Wiley Classics Library, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-50683-4 - ↑ Wilson, Robert A. (2009),
*The Finite Simple Groups*, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, vol. 251, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-1-84800-987-5 - ↑ Conway &al,
*op. cit.*, p. 235. - ↑ A. G. Lisi; J. O. Weatherall (2010). "A Geometric Theory of Everything".
*Scientific American*.**303**(6): 54–61. Bibcode:2010SciAm.303f..54L. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1210-54. PMID 21141358. - ↑ Greg Boustead (2008-11-17). "Garrett Lisi's Exceptional Approach to Everything".
*SEED Magazine*. Archived from the original on 2009-02-02.`{{cite news}}`

: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link) - ↑ Most beautiful math structure appears in lab for first time,
*New Scientist*, January 2010 (retrieved January 8, 2010). - ↑ Did a 1-dimensional magnet detect a 248-dimensional Lie algebra?,
*Notices of the American Mathematical Society*, September 2011. - ↑ "AIM math: Representations of E8".
*aimath.org*.

In mathematics, a **root system** is a configuration of vectors in a Euclidean space satisfying certain geometrical properties. The concept is fundamental in the theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, especially the classification and representation theory of semisimple Lie algebras. Since Lie groups and Lie algebras have become important in many parts of mathematics during the twentieth century, the apparently special nature of root systems belies the number of areas in which they are applied. Further, the classification scheme for root systems, by Dynkin diagrams, occurs in parts of mathematics with no overt connection to Lie theory. Finally, root systems are important for their own sake, as in spectral graph theory.

In the mathematical field of Lie theory, a **Dynkin diagram**, named for Eugene Dynkin, is a type of graph with some edges doubled or tripled. Dynkin diagrams arise in the classification of semisimple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields, in the classification of Weyl groups and other finite reflection groups, and in other contexts. Various properties of the Dynkin diagram correspond to important features of the associated Lie algebra.

In mathematics, a **simple Lie group** is a connected non-abelian Lie group *G* which does not have nontrivial connected normal subgroups. The list of simple Lie groups can be used to read off the list of simple Lie algebras and Riemannian symmetric spaces.

In mathematics, **G _{2}** is the name of three simple Lie groups (a complex form, a compact real form and a split real form), their Lie algebras as well as some algebraic groups. They are the smallest of the five exceptional simple Lie groups. G

In mathematics, **F _{4}** is the name of a Lie group and also its Lie algebra

In mathematics, **E _{6}** is the name of some closely related Lie groups, linear algebraic groups or their Lie algebras , all of which have dimension 78; the same notation E

In mathematics, in particular the theory of Lie algebras, the **Weyl group** of a root system Φ is a subgroup of the isometry group of that root system. Specifically, it is the subgroup which is generated by reflections through the hyperplanes orthogonal to the roots, and as such is a finite reflection group. In fact it turns out that *most* finite reflection groups are Weyl groups. Abstractly, Weyl groups are finite Coxeter groups, and are important examples of these.

In mathematics, the **Iwahori–Hecke algebra**, or **Hecke algebra**, named for Erich Hecke and Nagayoshi Iwahori, is a deformation of the group algebra of a Coxeter group.

In the area of modern algebra known as group theory, the **Thompson group***Th* is a sporadic simple group of order

In mathematics, **E _{7}** is the name of several closely related Lie groups, linear algebraic groups or their Lie algebras

In mathematics, a **compact** (**topological**) **group** is a topological group whose topology realizes it as a compact topological space. Compact groups are a natural generalization of finite groups with the discrete topology and have properties that carry over in significant fashion. Compact groups have a well-understood theory, in relation to group actions and representation theory.

In mathematics, a **reductive group** is a type of linear algebraic group over a field. One definition is that a connected linear algebraic group *G* over a perfect field is reductive if it has a representation with finite kernel which is a direct sum of irreducible representations. Reductive groups include some of the most important groups in mathematics, such as the general linear group *GL*(*n*) of invertible matrices, the special orthogonal group *SO*(*n*), and the symplectic group *Sp*(2*n*). **Simple algebraic groups** and **semisimple algebraic groups** are reductive.

In mathematics, the term **Cartan matrix** has three meanings. All of these are named after the French mathematician Élie Cartan. Amusingly, the Cartan matrices in the context of Lie algebras were first investigated by Wilhelm Killing, whereas the Killing form is due to Cartan.

In mathematics, a Lie algebra is **semisimple** if it is a direct sum of simple Lie algebras.

In mathematics, an **affine Lie algebra** is an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra that is constructed in a canonical fashion out of a finite-dimensional simple Lie algebra. Given an affine Lie algebra, one can also form the associated affine Kac-Moody algebra, as described below. From a purely mathematical point of view, affine Lie algebras are interesting because their representation theory, like representation theory of finite-dimensional semisimple Lie algebras, is much better understood than that of general Kac–Moody algebras. As observed by Victor Kac, the character formula for representations of affine Lie algebras implies certain combinatorial identities, the Macdonald identities.

Many branches of mathematics study objects of a given type and prove a classification theorem. A common theme is that the classification results in a number of series of objects and a finite number of exceptions — often with desirable properties — that do not fit into any series. These are known as **exceptional objects**. In many cases, these exceptional objects play a further and important role in the subject. Furthermore, the exceptional objects in one branch of mathematics often relate to the exceptional objects in others.

In the mathematical field of representation theory, a **Kazhdan–Lusztig polynomial** is a member of a family of integral polynomials introduced by David Kazhdan and George Lusztig (1979). They are indexed by pairs of elements *y*, *w* of a Coxeter group *W*, which can in particular be the Weyl group of a Lie group.

In mathematics, **Deligne–Lusztig theory** is a way of constructing linear representations of finite groups of Lie type using ℓ-adic cohomology with compact support, introduced by Pierre Deligne and George Lusztig (1976).

In representation theory, a branch of mathematics, the **theorem of the highest weight** classifies the irreducible representations of a complex semisimple Lie algebra . There is a closely related theorem classifying the irreducible representations of a connected compact Lie group . The theorem states that there is a bijection

This is a glossary for the terminology applied in the mathematical theories of Lie groups and Lie algebras. For the topics in the representation theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, see Glossary of representation theory. Because of the lack of other options, the glossary also includes some generalizations such as quantum group.

- Adams, J. Frank (1996),
*Lectures on exceptional Lie groups*, Chicago Lectures in Mathematics, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-00526-3, MR 1428422 - Baez, John C. (2002), "The octonions",
*Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society*, New Series,**39**(2): 145–205, arXiv: math/0105155 , doi:10.1090/S0273-0979-01-00934-X, MR 1886087 - Chevalley, Claude (1955), "Sur certains groupes simples",
*The Tohoku Mathematical Journal*, Second Series,**7**: 14–66, doi: 10.2748/tmj/1178245104 , ISSN 0040-8735, MR 0073602 - Coldea, R.; Tennant, D. A.; Wheeler, E. M.; Wawrzynska, E.; Prabhakaran, D.; Telling, M.; Habicht, K.; Smeibidl, P.; Kiefer, K. (2010), "Quantum Criticality in an Ising Chain: Experimental Evidence for Emergent E
_{8}Symmetry",*Science*,**327**(5962): 177–180, arXiv: 1103.3694 , Bibcode:2010Sci...327..177C, doi:10.1126/science.1180085 - Garibaldi, Skip (2016), "E
_{8}, the most exceptional group",*Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society*,**53**: 643–671, arXiv: 1605.01721 , doi:10.1090/bull/1540 - Griess, Robert L.; Ryba, A. J. E. (1999), "Finite simple groups which projectively embed in an exceptional Lie group are classified!",
*Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society*, New Series,**36**(1): 75–93, doi: 10.1090/S0273-0979-99-00771-5 , MR 1653177 - Killing, Wilhelm (1888a), "Die Zusammensetzung der stetigen endlichen Transformationsgruppen",
*Mathematische Annalen*,**31**(2): 252–290, doi:10.1007/BF01211904 - Killing, Wilhelm (1888b), "Die Zusammensetzung der stetigen endlichen Transformationsgruppen",
*Mathematische Annalen*,**33**(1): 1–48, doi:10.1007/BF01444109 - Killing, Wilhelm (1889), "Die Zusammensetzung der stetigen endlichen Transformationsgruppen",
*Mathematische Annalen*,**34**(1): 57–122, doi:10.1007/BF01446792, archived from the original on 2015-02-21, retrieved 2013-09-12 - Killing, Wilhelm (1890), "Die Zusammensetzung der stetigen endlichen Transformationsgruppen",
*Mathematische Annalen*,**36**(2): 161–189, doi:10.1007/BF01207837 - Landsberg, Joseph M.; Manivel, Laurent (2001), "The projective geometry of Freudenthal's magic square",
*Journal of Algebra*,**239**(2): 477–512, arXiv: math/9908039 , doi:10.1006/jabr.2000.8697, MR 1832903 - Lusztig, George (1979), "Unipotent representations of a finite Chevalley group of type E8",
*The Quarterly Journal of Mathematics*, Second Series,**30**(3): 315–338, doi:10.1093/qmath/30.3.301, ISSN 0033-5606, MR 0545068 - Lusztig, George; Vogan, David (1983), "Singularities of closures of K-orbits on flag manifolds",
*Inventiones Mathematicae*, Springer-Verlag,**71**(2): 365–379, Bibcode:1983InMat..71..365L, doi:10.1007/BF01389103 - Zamolodchikov, A. B. (1989), "Integrals of motion and S-matrix of the (scaled) T=T
_{c}Ising model with magnetic field",*International Journal of Modern Physics A*,**4**(16): 4235–4248, Bibcode:1989IJMPA...4.4235Z, doi:10.1142/S0217751X8900176X, MR 1017357

**Lusztig–Vogan polynomial calculation**

- Atlas of Lie groups
- Kazhdan–Lusztig–Vogan Polynomials for E
_{8} - Narrative of the Project to compute Kazhdan–Lusztig Polynomials for E
_{8} - American Institute of Mathematics (March 2007),
*Mathematicians Map E*_{8} - The
*n*-Category Café, a University of Texas blog posting by John Baez on E_{8}.

**Other links**

- Graphic representation of E
_{8}root system. - The list of dimensions of irreducible representations of the complex form of E
_{8}is sequence A121732 in the OEIS.

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