This article needs additional citations for verification . (October 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Earl Manigault. (Photo by Charlie Samuels.)
|Died||May 15, 1998 53) (aged|
|Other names||The Lip|
|Occupation||Street basketball player|
Earl Manigault (September 7, 1944 – May 15, 1998) was an American street basketball player who was nicknamed "The Goat."
Streetball or street basketball is a variation of basketball, typically played on outdoor courts, featuring significantly less formal structure and enforcement of the game's rules. As such, its format is more conducive to allowing players to publicly showcase their own individual skills. Streetball may also refer to other urban sports played on asphalt. It is particularly big in New York City.
Earl Manigault was born in Charleston, South Carolina, and raised in Harlem, New York. He grew up playing basketball and practiced constantly. With per game averages of 24 points and 11 rebounds, Manigault starred at Benjamin Franklin High School, a basketball powerhouse in the Public School Athletic League.Manigault set the NYC junior high school record by scoring 57 points in a game in the late 1950s. While attending high school, Manigault's life took a fateful turn when he began associating with groups that would eventually lead to his expulsion. He started using drugs and skipping classes. He was the star of his high school team and seemed destined for greatness in the National Basketball Association. Manigault was expelled from school for smoking marijuana. He finished high school at a private academy, Laurinburg Institute, in North Carolina. In one year there, he averaged 31 points and 13 rebounds per game.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city lies just south of the geographical midpoint of South Carolina's coastline and is located on Charleston Harbor, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean formed by the confluence of the Ashley, Cooper, and Wando rivers. Charleston had an estimated population of 134,875 in 2017. The estimated population of the Charleston metropolitan area, comprising Berkeley, Charleston, and Dorchester counties, was 761,155 residents in 2016, the third-largest in the state and the 78th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States.
Harlem is a neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is bounded roughly by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, and Morningside Park on the west; the Harlem River and 155th Street on the north; Fifth Avenue on the east; and Central Park North on the south. It is part of greater Harlem, an area that encompasses several other neighborhoods and extends west to the Hudson River, north to 155th Street, east to the East River, and south to 96th Street.
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city in the state with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State.
He enrolled in Johnson C. Smith University, but left after one semester due to his constant problems with school and continuous quibbles with the coach.
Johnson C. Smith University (JCSU) is a private, historically black university in Charlotte, North Carolina. It is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA) and is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS), National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP), and Council on Social Work Accreditation (CSWE). The school awards Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Social Work, and Master of Social Work degrees.
The nickname "Goat" has several proposed origins. In an article for the New York Times, Earl stated that he got the nickname because a junior high school teacher kept pronouncing his name Mani-Goat. Other theories state that by the time Manigault was in high school, he was known as "The Goat" because of his quiet demeanor. Another states that the nickname started by confusion over Manigault's last name; people thought Manigault referred to himself as Earl Nanny Goat, so he became "The Goat". However, the most popular belief is that he was called The Goat as the acronym for Greatest Of All Time. Although it is unclear how the name was dubbed, Greatest of All Time is the idea that lasted. The "Happy Warrior Playground" on Amsterdam at West 99th Street in Manhattan is more commonly referred to as "Goat Park" where Manigault reigned.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components of a phrase or a word, usually individual letters and sometimes syllables.
He was mentored by Holcombe Rucker.
Manigault was particularly famous for his leaping abilities on the basketball court. However much of his legend is unsupported playground myth, including his signature move - the double dunk. He allegedly would dunk the ball, catch it with his left hand, switch the ball to his right hand, bring it back around to the top of the basket and jam it through again, all done while still in the air on a single jump, and without hanging on the rim.However this is a story repeatedly told but unconfirmed. It was refuted by Manigault himself in a CNN interview available on YouTube when he called the reports of this feat rubbish, stating not even The Goat could do that. Like other street basketballers of the day such as Jackie Jackson, Earl was reportedly able to touch the top of the backboard to retrieve quarters and dollar bills, part of "elaborate innovations and tricks" elite street players of the era performed before games to help build their reputations. Again, this has never been confirmed. Like the dunking myth, it is always referred to as "reportedly" without a credible source to support it. It is refuted in Todd Gallagher's book " Andy Roddick Beat Me With a Frying Pan." The book dedicates an entire chapter to this myth concluding it was never done by Manigault or anyone else, including NBA stars. Gallagher writes " Earl "The Goat" Manigault is widely regarded as one of the greatest playground basketball players of all time. Although he never played in the NBA and only briefly played in college, the legend of Manigault has spread far and wide and led to his play being glorified in magazines, books, and even a movie starring Don Cheadle called Rebound: The Legend of Earl "The Goat" Manigault . There are a number of tales regarding Manigault's prowess, but the central story that propelled his legend was that he had such extraordinary leaping ability he could pull dollar bills off the top of the backboard and leave change. What made this even more amazing was that Manigault was, depending on who one talks to, somewhere between 5-11 and 6-1. Considering that the top of the backboard is at thirteen feet and the average six-foot-tall man can only touch about eight feet high standing flat-footed, Manigault would have had to jump at least sixty inches to even come close. He was only 6' 1", but attributed his tremendous jumping ability to having in childhood often worn ankle weights during practice. (Such efficacy of ankle weights is doubtful, however.) He once reverse dunked 36 times in a row to win a $60 bet.
Jumpin Jackie Jackson is an American former professional basketball player. Jackson was one of the first streetball legends in the Rucker Playground Basketball Tournaments in New York City in the early 1960s. He went on to a 20-year career with the Harlem Globetrotters, earning his nickname by allegedly snatching a quarter from the top of a basketball backboard on a bet.
Donald Frank Cheadle Jr. is an American actor. Following early roles in Hamburger Hill (1987), and as the gangster "Rocket" in the film Colors (1988), Cheadle built his career in the 1990s with roles in Devil in a Blue Dress (1995), Rosewood (1997) and Boogie Nights (1997). His collaboration with director Steven Soderbergh resulted in the films Out of Sight (1998), Traffic (2000) and Ocean's Eleven (2001).
Rebound: The Legend of Earl "The Goat" Manigault is a 1996 HBO television film about Earl Manigault, a legendary American street basketball player famous under his nickname of "The Goat."
But to prove dunking was not his only skill, he would practice hundreds of shots each day, making him a deadly long-range shooter as well. Manigault played with some of the best players of his day, such as Earl Monroe, Connie Hawkins, and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. When Abdul-Jabbar finished his career with the Los Angeles Lakers and had his number retired at the Los Angeles Forum, he was asked who was the greatest player he had played with or against and he responded by saying Manigault.
Vernon Earl Monroe is an American retired professional basketball player. He played for two teams, the Baltimore Bullets and the New York Knicks, during his career in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Both teams have retired Monroe's number. Due to his on-court success and flashy style-of-play, Monroe was given the nicknames "Black Jesus" and "Earl the Pearl". Monroe was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1990.
Cornelius "Connie" Lance Hawkins was an American basketball player in the American Basketball League (ABL), American Basketball Association(ABA) and National Basketball Association (NBA), Harlem Globetrotters, and Harlem Wizards, as well as being a New York City playground legend. It was on the New York City courts that he earned his nickname, The Hawk. Hawkins was inducted into the Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame in 1992.
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar is an American retired professional basketball player who played 20 seasons in the National Basketball Association (NBA) for the Milwaukee Bucks and the Los Angeles Lakers. During his career as a center, Abdul-Jabbar was a record six-time NBA Most Valuable Player (MVP), a record 19-time NBA All-Star, a 15-time All-NBA selection, and an 11-time NBA All-Defensive Team member. A member of six NBA championship teams as a player and two more as an assistant coach, Abdul-Jabbar twice was voted NBA Finals MVP. In 1996, he was honored as one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History. NBA coach Pat Riley and players Isiah Thomas and Julius Erving have called him the greatest basketball player of all time.
Earl is featured in the 2012 documentary film "Doin' it in the Park" about New York City street basketball.
Manigault returned to Harlem and developed a heroin addiction. He served sixteen months in prison in 1969 and 1970 for drug possession. While incarcerated, Manigault was a subject in Pete Axthelm's book "The City Game," which came to the attention of Utah Stars owner Bill Daniels.
After he was released in 1970 at age 25, he hung in Lower Harlem, in and near the projects known as the Frederick Douglass Houses, often with close friends who enjoyed his humor and friendship—friends like Sleepy Thomas, L. Byrd and so many others. Later he tried out for the Utah Stars of the American Basketball Association, but he did not make the team and never played professionally. After shunning an offer from the Harlem Globetrotters, Manigault started the Goat Tournament, a summer tourney that would feature NBA stars such as Bernard King and Mario Elie. Still, his drug habit reappeared and he served another term of two years from 1977 to 1979 for a failed robbery attempt so he could buy heroin. After this prison term in the Bronx House of Detention and Sing Sing, Manigault quit heroin and moved to Charleston with his two youngest sons, far away from New York City and the temptation of drugs. In 1980, Manigault returned to New York and brought back the Goat Tournament. Never married, he started the "Walk Away From Drugs" tournament for kids in Harlem to prevent them from making the same mistakes he had made. Much of his later years were dedicated to working with kids on the court.
Manigault made a living by painting houses, mowing lawns, and working for the local recreation department. By the late 1980s, however, he was almost destitute, became frail, and suffered from serious heart problems. In February 1987, he had to have two heart operations. He became a counselor and coach at East Harlem's La Guardia Memorial House, working for New York's Supportive Children's Advocacy Network.
Manigault is quoted in the New York Times article 'A Fallen King Revisits His Realm' as saying "For every Michael Jordan, there's an Earl Manigault. We all can't make it. Somebody has to fall. I was the one."
Manigault died from congestive heart failure in 1998 at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City.
In 1996, HBO aired a TV movie about Manigault's life entitled Rebound: The Legend of Earl "The Goat" Manigault , starring Don Cheadle in the title role.
Julius Winfield Erving II, commonly known by the nickname Dr. J, is an American retired basketball player who helped popularize a modern style of play that emphasizes leaping and playing above the rim. Erving helped legitimize the American Basketball Association (ABA) and was the best-known player in that league when it merged with the National Basketball Association (NBA) after the 1975–76 season.
Gus Johnson Jr. was an American professional basketball player in the National Basketball Association (NBA). A 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m), 235-pound (107 kg) forward–center, he spent nine seasons with the Baltimore Bullets, and his final season was split between the Phoenix Suns and the Indiana Pacers of the ABA.
Rucker Park is a basketball court in Harlem, Manhattan, New York City, at 155th Street and Frederick Douglass Boulevard across the street from the former Polo Grounds site; it is geographically at the base of a large cliff named Coogan's Bluff. Many who played at the park in the Rucker Tournament achieved a level of fame for their abilities, and several have gone on to play in the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Darnell "Dr. Dunk" Hillman is a former professional basketball player.
Raymond Darlington Felix was an American professional basketball player. He was born in New York City. He played high school basketball at Metropolitan High School in New York and college basketball at Long Island University. Felix was the No. 1 overall pick of the 1953 NBA draft.
Demetrius "Hook" Mitchell, also known as Waliyy Abdur Rahim is a former streetball player from Oakland, California. He was well known among San Francisco Bay Area basketball players in the late 1980s, but in spite of his considerable talents, he did not reach the National Basketball Association (NBA). Among the NBA players who grew up with Mitchell, and now speak of his talent with great admiration, are Brian Shaw, Antonio Davis, and All-Stars Jason Kidd and Gary Payton Many have suggested he had the ability to become one of the greatest NBA stars of all time. He attended McClymonds High School and played for local college teams, but is best known for his dominance in local streetball tournaments. Mitchell was listed in Complex magazine as #11 on a list of the "20 Greatest Basketball Players to Never Play in the NBA."
Jerome Lane Sr. is a retired American professional basketball player.
Kris Marcus Bruton is an American professional basketball player. Drafted by the Chicago Bulls in the second round of the 1994 NBA Draft, he was with the Bulls for two pre-seasons before a serious thigh injury ended his career. Bruton never appeared in a regular-season NBA game for the Bulls. After recuperating, he was recruited by the Harlem Globetrotters, the sports entertainment legend. He is currently playing his tenth season with the Globetrotters, and has carved a niche on the court as a slam dunk expert.
James "Fly" Williams is a retired American professional basketball player. A noted street basketball player from New York, he once scored 100 points in an IS8 League game in 1978.
Charles Hentz is an American former professional basketball player.
The 35th National Basketball Association All-Star Game was played on February 10, 1985, at the Hoosier Dome in Indianapolis, Indiana. The coaches were K. C. Jones for the East, and Pat Riley for the West. The MVP was Ralph Sampson, Houston.
A breakaway rim is a basketball rim that contains a hinge and a spring at the point where it attaches to the backboard so that it can bend downward when a player dunks a basketball, and then quickly snaps back into a horizontal position when the player releases it. It allows players to dunk the ball without shattering the backboard, and it reduces the possibility of wrist injuries. Breakaway rims were invented in the mid-1970s and are now an essential element of high-level basketball.
A backboard shattering is an accident or stunt in basketball. It occurs when a player slam dunks the ball hard enough to break the 1/2" tempered safety glass of the backboard. The stunt has caused games to be canceled or delayed, serious injuries to occur and expensive costs of cleanup and replacement. Shattering a backboard is extremely dangerous, sending shards of glass flying over the players and fans. In the National Basketball Association (NBA), shattering a backboard during a game is penalized with a non-unsportsmanlike conduct technical foul and a possible fine towards the player. The player may not be ejected, nor shall the foul count towards a player's total towards either ejection or suspension.
Richie Adams is an American known for his college basketball career at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) as well as for his manslaughter conviction of a 15-year-old girl later in his life.
Nigel Patrick Miguel is a Belizean-American actor, film producer, and technical advisor who is currently the film commissioner for Belize. He is also a former professional basketball player. A native of Belize, he immigrated to the United States when he was six, and holds dual citizenship with both countries.
James "Speedy" Williams is a streetball basketball player from the Bronx, NY, and has been called a "Rucker Park legend". He attended Morris High School in the Bronx. He played at Medgar Evers College where he averaged 26 points per game, later going on to play with the Harlem Globetrotters and the Continental Basketball Association. He played 10 seasons with the United States Basketball League and the Harlem Wizards