|East China Sea|
|Vietnamese alphabet||Biển Hoa Đông|
The East China Sea is an arm of the Western Pacific Ocean,located directly offshore from East China. It covers an area of roughly 1,249,000 square kilometers (482,000 sq mi). The sea’s northern extension between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula is the Yellow Sea,separated by an imaginary line between the eastern tip of Qidong at the Yangtze River estuary and the southwestern tip of South Korea's Jeju Island.
The East China Sea is bounded in the east and southeast by the middle portion of the first island chain off the eastern Eurasian continental mainland,including the Japanese island of Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands,and in the south by the island of Taiwan. It connects with the Sea of Japan in the northeast through the Korea Strait,the South China Sea in the southwest via the Taiwan Strait,and the Philippine Sea in the southeast via gaps between the various Ryukyu Islands (e.g. Tokara Strait and Miyako Strait).
Most of the East China Sea is shallow,with almost three-fourths of it being less than 200 metres (660 ft) deep,its average depth being 350 metres (1,150 ft),while the maximum depth,reached in the Okinawa Trough,is 2,716 metres (8,911 ft).
The East China Sea is shared among China,Japan,Taiwan and South Korea.
The East China Sea is an arm of the Pacific Ocean and covers an area of roughly 770,000 square kilometers (300,000 sq mi). It is bounded on the east by Kyūshū and the Ryukyu Islands of Japan,on the south by the South China Sea,and on the west by the Asian continent. It connects with the Sea of Japan through the Korea Strait;it opens in the north to the Yellow Sea.
Countries with borders on the sea (clockwise from north) include:South Korea,Japan,Taiwan and China.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the "Eastern China Sea (Tung Hai)" as follows:
The Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) is the largest river flowing into the East China Sea.
There is a cluster of submerged reefs in the northern East China Sea. These include:
The sea is called the East Sea in Chinese (東海;Dōng Hǎi),and is one of the Four Seas of Chinese literature. There are three other seas,one for each of the four cardinal directions.
Until World War II,the sea was referred to as 東支那海 (Higashi Shina Kai;"East Shina Sea") in Japanese. In 2004,official documents of the Japanese Foreign Ministry and other departments switched to the name 東シナ海 (pronounced the same),which has become the standard usage in Japan.
Common usage in Indonesia refers to the sea as Laut Cina Timur (East China Sea). This name was used officially by the Indonesian government until 2014,when Indonesia switched usage from the word Cina to Tiongkok instead;since then,the name Laut Tiongkok Timur become standard usage in Indonesia. Despite this,many Indonesian media outlets and publications continue to use the former sea name.
American whaleships cruised for right whales in the sea between 1849 and 1892.
There are disputes between the China] (PRC),Japan,Taiwan,and South Korea over the extent of their respective exclusive economic zones (EEZ). [ page needed ]
The dispute between the PRC and Japan concerns the different application of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS),which both nations have ratified. km) from its coast,and thus proposed the Median line division of the EEZ.China and Japan both claim 200 nautical miles EEZ rights,but the East China Sea width is only 360 nautical miles. China proposed the application of UNCLOS,considering the natural prolongation of its continental shelf,advocating that the EEZ extends as far as the Okinawa Trough. Its Ministry of Foreign Affairs has stated that "the natural prolongation of the continental shelf of China in the East China Sea extends to the Okinawa Trough and beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea of China is measured," which is applicable to the relevant UNCLOS provisions that support China's right to the natural shelf. In 2012,China presented a submission under the UNCLOS concerning the outer limits of the continental shelf to the UN. However,Japan claims about 40,000 square kilometers part of this territory as its own EEZ because it is within 200 nautical miles (370
In 1995,the People's Republic of China (PRC) discovered an undersea natural gas field in the East China Sea,namely the Chunxiao gas field, km) west of the median line proposed by Japan. Japan maintains that although the Chunxiao gas field rigs are on the PRC side of a median line that Tokyo regards as the two sides' sea boundary,they may tap into a field that stretches underground into the disputed area. Japan therefore seeks a share in the natural gas resources. The gas fields in the Xihu Sag area in the East China Sea (Canxue,Baoyunting,Chunxiao,Duanqiao,Wuyunting,and Tianwaitian) are estimated to hold proven reserves of 364 BCF of natural gas. Commercial operations began 2006. In June 2008,both sides agreed to jointly develop the Chunxiao gas fields, but they have never been able to agree on how to execute the plan.which lies within the Chinese EEZ while Japan believes it is connected to other possible reserves beyond the median line. Japan has objected to PRC development of natural gas resources in the East China Sea near the area where the two countries Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) claims overlap. The specific development in dispute is the PRC's drilling in the Chunxiao gas field,which is located in undisputed areas on China's side,three or four miles (6
Rounds of disputes about island ownership in the East China Sea have triggered both official and civilian protests between China and Japan.
The dispute between PRC and South Korea concerns Socotra Rock,a submerged reef on which South Korea has constructed the Ieodo Ocean Research Station. While neither country claims the rock as territory,the PRC has objected to Korean activities there as a breach of its EEZ rights.
In their sphere of naval operations along their littoral (in the East and South China Seas),China today possesses more naval vessels than those of the US Navy.US Presidents Barack Obama and Donald Trump have given priority to US naval operations,under the US Indo-Pacific Command,to expand its sphere of influence in the Pacific Ocean,to counter China's growing strength,and to be ready for any unforeseen challenges in the future.
Taiwan,Japan,China,and South Korea all conduct military exercises in the East China Sea.
Possibly,East China Sea (Donghai in Chinese) is represented with the star Eta Serpentis in asterism Left Wall,Heavenly Market enclosure (see Chinese constellation).
The Senkaku Islands are a group of uninhabited islands in the East China Sea, administered by Japan. They are located northeast of Taiwan, east of China, west of Okinawa Island, and north of the southwestern end of the Ryukyu Islands. They are known in mainland China as the Diaoyu Islands or Diaoyu Dao and its affiliated islands, in Taiwan as the Diaoyutai Islands or Tiaoyutai Islands, and sometimes in the Western world by the historical name Pinnacle Islands. In Okinawan they are called ʔiyukubajima (魚蒲葵島). In the Yaeyama language, they are called iigunkubajima.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ), as prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is an area of the sea in which a sovereign state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind. It stretches from the outer limit of the territorial sea out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from the coast of the state in question. It is also referred to as a maritime continental margin and, in colloquial usage, may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical mile limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.
The anti-Japanese demonstrations of 2005 were a series of demonstrations, some peaceful, some violent, which were held across most of East Asia in the spring of 2005. They were sparked off by a number of issues, including the approval of a Japanese history textbook and the proposal that Japan be granted a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.
Okinotorishima, or Parece Vela, is a coral reef with two rocks enlarged with tetrapod-cement structures. It is administered by Japan with a total shoal area of 8,482 m2 and land area 9.44 m2 (101.6 sq ft). Its dry land area is mostly made up by three concrete encasings and there is a 100 by 50 m stilt platform in the lagoon housing a research station. There is a third completely artificial tetrapod-cement islet. It is located on the Palau–Kyushu Ridge in the Philippine Sea, 534 km (332 mi) southeast of Okidaitōjima and 567 km (352 mi) west-southwest of South Iwo Jima in the Bonin Islands or 1,740 km (1,080 mi) south of Tokyo, Japan. The atoll is the southernmost part of Japan and the only Japanese territory south of the Tropic of Cancer.
The Chunxiao gas field is a natural gas field below the East China Sea within the Chinese Exclusive Economic Zone, about 4 km to the west of the EEZ border claimed by Japan which is disputed by China. The Chunxiao gas field is the first of a group of four natural gas fields in the Xihu Trough being developed by China: the other ones are Tianwaitian, Duanqiao, and Canxue.
The Ryukyu Islands, also known as the Nansei Islands or the Ryukyu Arc, are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands, with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are mostly high islands and the smaller mostly coral. The largest is Okinawa Island.
China–Japan relations or Sino–Japanese relations are the bilateral relations between China and Japan. The countries are geographically separated by the East China Sea. Japan has been strongly influenced throughout its history by China, especially by the East and Southeast through the gradual process of Sinicization with its language, architecture, culture, cuisine, religion, philosophy, and law. When Japan was forced to open trade relations with the West after the Perry Expedition in the mid-19th century, Japan plunged itself through an active process of Westernization during the Meiji Restoration in 1868 and began viewing China under the Qing dynasty as an antiquated civilization unable to defend itself against foreign forces—in part due to the First and Second Opium Wars along with the Eight-Nation Alliance's involvement in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion. Japan eventually took advantage of such weaknesses by invading China, including the First Sino-Japanese War and the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Okinawa Trough is a seabed feature of the East China Sea. It is an active, initial back-arc rifting basin which has formed behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the West Pacific. It developed where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the Eurasia Plate.
The Spratly Islands dispute is an ongoing territorial dispute between China, the Philippines, Taiwan, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Brunei, concerning "ownership" of the Spratly Islands, a group of islands and associated "maritime features" located in the South China Sea. The dispute is characterized by diplomatic stalemate and the employment of military pressure techniques in the advancement of national territorial claims. All except Brunei occupy some of the maritime features.
The Senkaku Islands dispute, or Diaoyu Islands dispute, is a territorial dispute over a group of uninhabited islands known as the Senkaku Islands in Japan, the Diaoyu Islands in the People's Republic of China (PRC), and Tiaoyutai Islands in the Republic of China. Aside from a 1945 to 1972 period of administration by the United States as part of the Ryukyu Islands, the archipelago has been controlled by Japan since 1895. According to Lee Seokwoo, the People's Republic of China (PRC) started taking up the question of sovereignty over the islands in the latter half of 1970 when evidence relating to the existence of oil reserves surfaced. Taiwan also claims the islands. The territory is close to key shipping lanes and rich fishing grounds, and there may be oil reserves in the area.
Territorial disputes in the South China Sea involve conflicting island and maritime claims in the region by several sovereign states, namely Brunei Darussalam, the People's Republic of China (PRC), Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam.
Shaw Han-yi is a Taiwanese academic and research fellow at the National Chengchi University.
Baodiao movement is a social movement originating among Republic of China students in the United States in the 1970s, and more recently expressed in Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan that asserts Chinese sovereignty over the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands. The territorial right to the islands is disputed among the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, and Japan. Action Committee for Defending the Diaoyu Islands and China Federation for Defending the Diaoyu Islands are the main representative organizations in the movement.
There are disputes between China, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea over the extent of their respective exclusive economic zones (EEZs) in the East China Sea.
Philippines v. China, also known as the South China Sea Arbitration, was an arbitration case brought by the Republic of the Philippines against the People's Republic of China (PRC) under Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea concerning certain issues in the South China Sea, including the nine-dash line introduced by the Republic of China (Taiwan) since as early as 1947. A tribunal of arbitrators appointed the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) as the registry for the proceedings.
Japan is currently engaged in several territorial disputes with nearby countries, including Russia, South Korea, North Korea, the People's Republic of China, and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Vietnam claims an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 1,395,096 km2 (538,650 sq mi) with 200 nautical miles from its shores.
India has the 18th-largest exclusive economic zone (EEZ) with a total size of 2,305,143 km2 (890,021 sq mi). It includes the Lakshadweep island group in the Laccadive Sea off the southwestern coast of India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands at the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. India's EEZ is bordered to the west by Pakistan, to the south by the Maldives and Sri Lanka and to the east by Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Based on new scientific data, India has petitioned United Nations to extend its EEZ from 200 Nautical miles to 350 miles.
Chinese irredentism refers to irredentist claims to territories of the former Chinese Empire made by the Republic of China (ROC) and subsequently the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Ryukyu Arc is an island arc which extends from the south of Kyushu along the Ryukyu Islands to the northeast of Taiwan, spanning about 1,200 kilometres (750 mi). It is located along a section of the convergent plate boundary where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting northwestward beneath the Eurasian Plate along the Ryukyu Trench. The arc has an overall northeast to southwest trend and is located northwest of the Pacific Ocean and southeast of the East China Sea. It runs parallel to the Okinawa Trough, an active volcanic arc, and the Ryukyu Trench. The Ryukyu Arc, based on its geomorphology, can be segmented from north to south into Northern Ryukyu, Central Ryukyu, and Southern Ryukyu; the Tokara Strait separates Northern Ryukyu and Central Ryukyu at about 130˚E while the Kerama Gap separates Central Ryukyu and Southern Ryukyu at about 127 ˚E. The geological units of the arc include igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, ranging from the Paleozoic to Cenozoic in age.