The East Demerara Water Conservancy (EDWC) is one of Guyana's major water storage and flood control facilities. Over 500,000 residents inhabit the basin that lies below and between the sea wall and the EDWC Dam in a 48 km band from Georgetown to Mahaica. Located in Demerara-Mahaica, the EDWC serves to irrigate thousands of hectares of rice and other crops within this area by storing rain water for dry periods and it also provides one of the primary source (about 60%) of drinking water for the capital city of Georgetown.
The irrigation network also has a number of drainage relief structures to protect the EDWC Dam from over-topping and collapse during the rainy periods including the Hope Canal, which connects the EDWC to the Atlantic Ocean. The Guyana Sugar Corporation is completely reliant on water from the EDWC.
The EDWC is located 15 miles south of the most densely populated section of the Guyana Coast. It is bounded to the North by a man-made 45 mile earthen dam and to the deep south by a natural topographic rise composing largely of ancient coastal dune formation over geological time. The EDWC Dam is constructed of clay and pagasse (an organic soil also known as tropical peat).
Guyana's drainage and irrigation system has its origins in the late 1600s under the Dutch colonial rule. One of the major innovations of the time was the building of water conservancies (artificial water catchment polderized by earthen dams) to retain fresh water from upland streams during the dry seasons and release via irrigation canals and head regulators.
The EDWC is one of the most important of these conservancies and it was designed over 125 years ago by William Russell and built using slave labour.
Since then, changes in the land use, climate change driven increases in rainfall intensity and a number of other factors have left the EDWC in a fragile state. The National Drainage and Irrigation Authority has worked and continues to work diligently with international assistance to maintain and protect this network.
The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sponsored work to improve the EDWC in an effort to assist countries vulnerable to climate change.JICA provided grant aid which was utilized to improve the drainage and irrigation capacity within the EDWC by supplying eight long-reach excavators and two pontoons to the Government of Guyana.
The excavators and pontoons were assembled locally and operators were given essential training in their use. They were deployed immediately after the handing over ceremony in November 2012.
The second component of the programme was the rehabilitation of six key EDWC structures in 2016:
Phase II funds were used to obtain the country's first amphibious excavator.
The EDWC NRC (Hope Canal) project was designed in response to the 2005 Georgetown flood due to the over-topping of the conservancy dam. The Hope Canal seeks to provide the means to release excess water in the EDWC when it is in danger of over-tapping and breaches. The project is a 10.3 km long earthen channel with a three-door head regulator at the conservancy end of the canal and an eight-door outfall sluice at the Atlantic end. Also included in the project was the construction on a public road bridge that has been in operation since February 2014.
The transport sector comprises the physical infrastructure, docks and vehicle, terminals, fleets, ancillary equipment and service delivery of all the various modes of transport operating in Guyana. The transport services, transport agencies providing these services, the organizations and people who plan, build, maintain, and operate the system, and the policies that mold its development.
Georgetown is a city and the capital of Guyana, located in Region 4, which is also known as the Demerara-Mahaica region. It is the country's largest urban centre. It is situated on the Atlantic Ocean coast at the mouth of the Demerara River and it was nicknamed the "Garden City of the Caribbean."
A penstock is a sluice or gate or intake structure that controls water flow, or an enclosed pipe that delivers water to hydro turbines and sewerage systems. The term is inherited from the earlier technology of mill ponds and watermills.
The Torani Canal in northeastern Guyana serves to move water from the Berbice River into the Canje River. It was to serve as irrigation for the sugar industry, and subsequently the rice industry.
The Demerara Harbour Bridge is a 6,074-foot (1,851 m) long floating toll bridge. It was commissioned on 2 July 1978. The bridge crosses the Demerara River 4 miles (6.4 km) south of the Guyanese capital Georgetown, from Peter's Hall, East Bank Demerara to Schoon Ord, West Bank Demerara, connecting Demerara-Mahaica with Essequibo Islands-West Demerara on the west bank. There is a pedestrian footwalk. A raised section lets small vessels pass under. A retractor span lets large vessels pass. Construction of the Demerara Harbour Bridge began on 29 May 1976. Construction assistance was provided by the British Government, but the basic design was by a Guyanese, Capt. John Patrick Coghlan. The bridge was only designed to last 10 years, yet it is still going strong. Tolls are collected only in one direction of travel even though the bridge handles one lane of traffic in each direction. Traffic going west to east pays no toll.
The Mahaicony River is a small river in northern Guyana that drains into the Atlantic Ocean. Mahaicony village is found at the mouth of the river.
The Mahaica River is a small river in northern Guyana that drains into the Atlantic Ocean. The village of Mahaica is found at its mouth.
Clonbrook is a village in the Demerara-Mahaica region of Guyana. The village itself has a population of about 1,193 as of 2012. The village is located along the East Coast Highway and is about 16.5 miles from Georgetown and about 6 miles from Mahaica. It is bordered in the east by the village of Bee Hive and by Ann's Grove in the west.
The Dahla Dam, also known as Arghandab Dam, is located in the Shah Wali Kot District of Kandahar Province in Afghanistan, approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of the provincial capital Kandahar. Constructed in 1952, it is said to be the second largest dam in Afghanistan. As of 2019, the Afghan government is spending $450 million dollars on making the dam more useful. The project includes raising the dam's walls by 12 meters so its reservoir can hold nearly a billion cubic meters of fresh water and installing three turbines for the production of 22 megawatts (MW) of electricity.
The Assiut Barrage is a dam on the Nile River in the city of Assiut in Upper Egypt. It was completed in 1903.
The Rio Grande Project is a United States Bureau of Reclamation irrigation, hydroelectricity, flood control, and interbasin water transfer project serving the upper Rio Grande basin in the southwestern United States. The project irrigates 193,000 acres (780 km2) along the river in the states of New Mexico and Texas. Approximately 60 percent of this land is in New Mexico. Some water is also allotted to Mexico to irrigate some 25,000 acres (100 km2) on the south side of the river. The project was authorized in 1905, but its final features were not implemented until the early 1950s.
The Bhadra Dam, which has created the Bhadra Reservoir, is located on the Bhadra River a tributary of Tungabhadra River. Bhadra dam is located in the border of Bhadravathi and Tarikere, in the western part of Karnataka in India. The benefits derived from the reservoir storage are irrigation with gross irrigation potential of 162,818 hectares, hydro power generation of 39.2 MW, drinking water supply and industrial use. The dam commissioned in 1965 is a composite earth cum masonry structure of 59.13 metres (194.0 ft) height with length of 1,708 metres (5,604 ft) at the crest level, which submerges a land area of 11,250.88 hectares.
The Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District (MRGCD) was formed in 1925 to manage the irrigation systems and control floods in the Albuquerque Basin. It is responsible for the stretch of river from the Cochiti Dam in Sandoval County in the north, through Bernalillo County, Valencia County and Socorro County to the Elephant Butte Reservoir in the south. It manages the Angostura, Isleta and San Acacia diversion dams, which feed an extensive network of irrigation canals and ditches.
The Middle Rio Grande Project manages water in the Albuquerque Basin of New Mexico, United States. It includes major upgrades and extensions to the irrigation facilities built by the Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District and modifications to the channel of the Rio Grande to control sedimentation and flooding. The bulk of the work was done by the United States Bureau of Reclamation and the United States Army Corps of Engineers in the 1950s, but construction continued into the 1970s and maintenance is ongoing. The project is complementary to the San Juan-Chama Project, which transfers water from the San Juan River in the Colorado River Basin to the Rio Grande. Although distribution of water from the two projects is handled through separate allotments and contracts, there is some sharing of facilities including the river itself. The ecological impact on the river and the riparian zone was the subject of extended litigation after a group of environmentalists filed Rio Grande Silvery Minnow v. Bureau of Reclamation in 1999.
Avalon Dam is a small dam on the Pecos River about 5 miles (8.0 km) north of Carlsbad, New Mexico, United States. The dam is a storage and regulating reservoir, and diverts water into the main canal of the Carlsbad Project, an irrigation scheme.
Bustos Dam also known as Angat Afterbay Regulator Dam is a small irrigation dam at Bustos, Bulacan is often mistaken by the locals as Angat Dam since it is located close to the nearby town of Angat. The project is located at Barangay Tibagan, Bustos, Bulacan, served by the Angat River. The main dam is about 18 meters above sea level. Among the 2.5-meter high, six-span dam's main features are easily deflatable and inflatable rubber body, resistance to sedimentation, economical and having auto-deflation system.
The North Jiangsu Main Irrigation Canal is located in the lower reaches of the Huai River, one of the major rivers in the north of Jiangsu Province, China. It originates at Gaoliangjian on Hongze Lake and runs through Hongze, Qingpu, Huai'an, Funing, Sheyang and Binghai county(or district) and joins the artificial estuary of Biandan Harbour. The canal is 168 km in length and can irrigate 1,720,000 hectares of farmland. The construction program was organized and directed by the headquarters of the Jiangsu Huai River management program between October 1951 and May 1952.
The Rambakan Oya Dam is an embankment dam in Maha Oya, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. The reservoir was designed and constructed by the Sri Lanka Mahaveli Authority and currently functions under the direction of the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources Management. It have been created by building an Earthen dam of which is about 1225m in length across the river of Mundeni Aru.
The East Demerara Water Conservancy-Northern Relief Channel, better known locally as the Hope Canal, is one of Guyana's largest drainage projects. Construction was from 2011 to November 9, 2013 at a cost of around GYD$ 3.6 billion.
The 2005 Georgetown flood was a major flood in and around Georgetown, the capital of Guyana. It started during heavy rains in 2004, and came to a head in January, when sustained heavy rains and high tides over-topped the deteriorating water conservancy. Approximately 290,000 people were affected and the economic impact was estimated to be about US$465 million, or 59% of Guyana's GDP.