East Texas

Last updated
Red counties show the core of East Texas; the inclusion of pink and red counties varies from source to source, thus may or may not be included in East Texas. East Texas map.PNG
Red counties show the core of East Texas; the inclusion of pink and red counties varies from source to source, thus may or may not be included in East Texas.

East Texas is a distinct cultural, geographic, and ecological area in the U.S. state of Texas.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Contents

Railroad map of Texas, east of the 100th meridian (circa 1884) Railroad Map of Texas East of the 100th Meridian.jpg
Railroad map of Texas, east of the 100th meridian (circa 1884)

According to the Handbook of Texas , the East Texas area "may be separated from the rest of Texas roughly by a line extending from the Red River in north-central Lamar County southwestward to east-central Limestone County and then southeastward towards eastern Galveston Bay", though most sources separate the Gulf Coast area into a separate region. [1]

<i>Handbook of Texas</i> encyclopedia of Texas published by the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA)

The Handbook of Texas is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Texas geography, history, and historical persons published by the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA).

Red River of the South major tributary of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers in the southern United States

The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. It was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure.

Lamar County, Texas County in the United States

Lamar County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas, in the Northeast Texas region of the state. As of the 2010 census, its population was 49,891. Its county seat is Paris. The county was formed by the Congress of the Republic of Texas on December 17, 1840 and organized the next year. It is named for Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar, the second president of the Republic of Texas.

Another popular, somewhat simpler, definition defines East Texas as the region between the Trinity River, north and east of Houston, (or sometimes Interstate 45, when defining generously) as the western border, the Louisiana border as the eastern border, the Gulf of Mexico as the southern border, the Oklahoma border as the northern border, Arkansas as the northeastern border, and extending as far south as Orange, Texas. The East Texas regions includes Tyler, Longview, Lufkin, Marshall, Palestine, Jacksonville, Mount Pleasant, and Nacogdoches.

Trinity River (Texas) river in Texas

The Trinity River is a 710-mile-long (1,140 km) river in Texas, and is the longest river with a watershed entirely within the U.S. state of Texas. It rises in extreme northern Texas, a few miles south of the Red River. The headwaters are separated by the high bluffs on the southern side of the Red River.

Houston City in Texas, United States

Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas, fourth most populous city in the United States, as well as the sixth most populous in North America, with an estimated 2018 population of 2,328,419. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, which is the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, with a population of 6,997,384 in 2018.

Interstate 45 (I-45) is an interstate highway located entirely within the U.S. state of Texas. While most interstate routes ending in five are cross-country north-south routes, I-45 is comparatively short, with the entire route located in Texas. It connects the cities of Dallas and Houston, continuing southeast from Houston to Galveston over the Galveston Causeway to the Gulf of Mexico.

Most of the region consists of the Piney Woods ecoregion, and East Texas can sometimes be reduced to include only the Piney Woods. [2] At the fringes, towards Central Texas, the forests expand outward toward sparser trees and eventually into open plains.

Piney Woods

The Piney Woods is a temperate coniferous forest terrestrial ecoregion in the Southern United States covering 54,400 square miles (141,000 km2) of East Texas, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and southeastern Oklahoma. These coniferous forests are dominated by several species of pine as well as hardwoods including hickory and oak. Historically the most dense part of this forest region was the Big Thicket though the lumber industry dramatically reduced the forest concentration in this area and throughout the Piney Woods during the 19th and 20th centuries. The World Wide Fund for Nature considers the Piney Woods to be one of the critically endangered ecoregions of the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines most of this ecoregion as the South Central Plains.

Ecoregion Ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion

An ecoregion is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone. All three of these are either less or greater than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species. The biodiversity of flora, fauna and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are relatively large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains relatively constant, within an acceptable range of variation.

Central Texas geographic region

Central Texas is a region in the U.S. state of Texas surrounding Austin and roughly bordered by Brady to Brenham to Seguin to Waco. Central Texas contains the Texas Hill Country and corresponds to a physiographic section designation within the Edwards Plateau, in a geographic context.

Population, demographics, and government

Lucas Gusher, Spindletop near Beaumont, Texas Lucas gusher.jpg
Lucas Gusher, Spindletop near Beaumont, Texas

East Texas comprises 41 counties, 38 of which collaborate in sub-regional Ark-Tex Council of Governments, the East Texas Council of Governments, the Deep East Texas Council of Governments and the South East Texas Regional Planning Commission.

Ark-Tex Council of Governments organization

The Ark-Tex Council of Governments (ARK-TEX) is a voluntary association of cities, counties and special districts in Northeast Texas and Miller County, Arkansas.

East Texas Council of Governments organization

The East Texas Council of Governments (ETCOG) is a voluntary association of cities, counties and special districts in East Texas.

Deep East Texas Council of Governments organization

The Deep East Texas Council of Government (DETCOG) is a voluntary association of cities, counties and special districts in Deep East Texas.

Counties included are Anderson, Angelina, Bowie, Camp, Cass, Cherokee, Delta, Franklin, Gregg, Hardin, Harrison, Henderson, Hopkins, Houston, Jasper, Jefferson, Lamar, Marion, Morris, Nacogdoches, Newton, Orange, Panola, Polk, Rains, Red River, Rusk, Sabine, San Augustine, San Jacinto, Shelby, Smith, Titus, Trinity, Tyler, Upshur, Van Zandt, and Wood County, Texas. [2]

Anderson County, Texas County in the United States

Anderson County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 58,458. Its county seat is Palestine. Anderson County was organized in 1846, and was named for Kenneth L. Anderson, who had been the final Vice President of the Republic of Texas.

Angelina County, Texas County in the United States

Angelina County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 86,771. Its county seat is Lufkin. It was formed in 1846 from Nacogdoches County. It is named for a Hasinai Native American woman who assisted early Spanish missionaries and was named Angelina by them. It is a wet county as of November 2006 wet/dry election. In November 2007 the small community of Burke was the only city in it to return to dry status.

Bowie County, Texas County in the United States

Bowie County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 92,565. Its legal county seat is Boston, though its courthouse is located in New Boston. The county is named for James Bowie, the legendary knife fighter who died at the Battle of the Alamo.

The three additional East Texas counties that join with other regional government councils are Chambers County (Anahuac), Liberty County (Liberty), and Walker County (Huntsville), all three in geographic proximity to the Houston metropolitan areas.

Outside of the Greater Houston area, the average population density is around 18–45 per mi2 (7–12 per km2), with the population density near the Big Thicket dropping below 18 people per mi2. East Texas's population is very large and is centered around the Golden Triangle (Texas), which is Beaumont/Port Arthur/Orange in Southeast Texas. Moving north from the coast, Lufkin and Nacogdoches anchor the population center of Deep East Texas. Continuing north from Deep East Texas, Tyler, Longview, and Marshall, in Northeast Texas, along with Texarkana, on the far northeastern border with Arkansas, represent the major population centers in the northern section of East Texas. Only 8 mi from the Texas border, Shreveport, Louisiana, is considered the economic and cultural center for the Ark-La-Tex, the area where Arkansas, Louisiana, and East Texas meet.

The 2010 U.S. Census shows these 41 East Texas counties with a population of 2,057,518 residents, which represents 8% of the total state population of Texas.

Per the 2010 US Census records, the five most populous counties are:

  1. Jefferson County (252,273)
  2. Smith County (209,714)
  3. Gregg County (121,730)
  4. Bowie County (92,565)
  5. Angelina County (86,771)

Per the 2010 US census records, the ten most populous East Texas cities are:

  1. Beaumont (118,296)
  2. Tyler (98,564)
  3. Longview (81,336)
  4. Port Arthur (53,937)
  5. Huntsville (38,548) (Huntsville, Walker County, Texas is not of the above 41 listed counties of East Texas.)
  6. Texarkana, Texas (36,411)
  7. Lufkin (35,067)
  8. Nacogdoches (32,996)
  9. Paris, Texas (25,151)
  10. Marshall (23,523)

According to US Census records from 2010, the population of East Texas counties is 65.93% White non-Hispanic, 17.44% African American, 14.29% Hispanic or Latino origin, and 2.34% Other (including Native American and Asian). East Texas' most ethnically and racially diverse county is Jefferson County, East Texas' largest county, which includes the city of Beaumont, with 44.1% White non-Hispanic, 34.1% African American, 17.7% Hispanic or Latino origin and 4.1% other (including Native American and Asian). Unlike Texas' total state racial demographics, only two counties in East Texas have a majority minority, Jefferson County in the Golden Triangle and Titus County having a 40.6% Hispanic or Latino origin population. East Texas and Southeast Texas have a significant African-American population, ranging to nearly 20% in some counties.

Geography and climate

Caddo Lake Caddo Lake- Cypress.jpg
Caddo Lake
Developing male cones and needles Loblolly Pine.jpg
Developing male cones and needles

Climate is the unifying factor in the region's geography; all of East Texas has the humid subtropical climate typical of the Southeast, occasionally interrupted by intrusions of cold air from the north. East Texas receives more rainfall, 35 to 60 inches (890 to 1,520 mm), than the rest of Texas. [3] In Houston, the average January temperature is 50.4 °F (10.2 °C) and the average July temperature is 82.6 °F (28.1 °C), but Houston has slightly warmer winters than most of East Texas due to its proximity to the coast.

All of East Texas also lies within the Gulf Coastal Plain, but with less uniformity than the climate with rolling hills in the north and flat coastal plains in the south. Local vegetation also varies from north to south with the lower third consisting of the temperate grassland extending from South Texas to South Louisiana. The northern two-thirds of the region is dominated by temperate forest known as the Piney Woods, which extends over 23,500 square miles (61,000 km2). The Piney Woods are part of a much larger region of pine-hardwood forest that extends into Louisiana, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. The Piney Woods area thins out as it nears the Gulf of Mexico. West of the Piney Woods are the ranchlands and remnant oak forests of the East Central Texas forests ecoregion.

The Sabine, Trinity, Neches, Angelina and Sulphur Rivers are the major rivers in East Texas, but the Brazos River and Red River also flow through the region. The Brazos cuts through the southwest portion of the region, while the Red River forms its northern border with Oklahoma and a portion of Arkansas. In East Texas and the rest of the South, small rivers and creeks collect into swamps called "bayous" and merge with the surrounding forest. Bald cypress and Spanish moss are the dominant plants in bayous. The most famous of these bayous are Cypress Bayou and Buffalo Bayou. Cypress Bayou surrounds the Big, Little, and Black Cypress Rivers around Jefferson. They flow east into Caddo Lake, and the adjoining wetlands cover the rim and islands of the lake.

Culture

East Texas is often considered the westernmost extension of the Deep South. The predominant cultural influence comes from customs and traditions passed down from European-American and African-American Southerners who settled the region during the mid- and late 19th century. African Americans were first brought to the area as enslaved workers for the plantations. These influences are noticeable in the subdialect of Texan English that is spoken throughout the region. According to the most recent linguistic studies, East Texans tend to pronounce Southern English with the drawl typical of the Lower South, whereas other parts of Texas are more prone to the "twang" of the Upper South, or—depending upon demographic influences of the particular area—with some Hispanic and Midwestern traits.

East Texas lacks the strong influence of late 19th and early 20th-century European immigrants from Germany and Central Europe. Similarly, the new waves of immigrants since the late 20th century, primarily from India, other Asian nations, and Latin America, and their influences, have been less prevalent in East Texas.

First Baptist Church at 117 Cora Street in Center is located next to the downtown section. First Baptist Church of Center, TX IMG 0952.JPG
First Baptist Church at 117 Cora Street in Center is located next to the downtown section.

East Texans are predominantly Protestant Christians, expressing their faith as members of many denominations: Baptist (particularly Southern Baptist), Methodist, Presbyterian, Lutheran, Pentecostal, and others. Catholicism continues to have influence, particularly with an increased Hispanic population in recent decades. Other religions with smaller numbers, but with adherents in East Texas, include Mormonism and Judaism.

Significant numbers of people of Cajun and Creole descent have come from Louisiana, although most are assimilated partially or completely into East Texas culture (adopting the local culture and losing, to varying degrees, their original culture). This assimilation pattern has often historically included conversion from Catholicism to Protestant faiths. United States settlers from the Protestant Southeast practiced some discrimination against Cajun and Creole migrants, a cultural attitude that persisted until quite recently. Despite the tendency towards assimilation, Cajun and Creole cuisine (for example, jambalaya and catfish gumbo), are popular in the region. Many East Texans, including those without Louisiana roots, are known to be expert at preparing at least some well-known Louisiana dishes.

While some East Texans associate with cowboy culture, most identify more with plantation traditions of the South than with the expansive cattle ranching of the plains regions of Texas. However, East Texans commonly own and trade cattle. Several "sale barns" exist across East Texas, with weekly and monthly trades, as is common in other parts of the lower South.

In the northern part of East Texas, awareness of the native and historical Caddo Mississippian culture remains significant. Cherokee County is home to the Caddo Mounds State Historic Site. Patrons can also view the "Caddo Indian Collection" at the Gregg County Historical Museum in Longview. In the mid-19th century, East Texas cities such as Marshall and Jefferson constituted a sphere of influence that led the entire state into the Confederacy, and during the Mexican and Republic periods, Nacogdoches and San Augustine were the most developed and influential cities in East Texas.

Many East Texans have a mixture of European and Native American ancestry, notably country and folk singer Miranda Lambert.

The Museum of East Texas opened in Lufkin in 1976 under the name Lufkin Historical and Creative Arts Center. [4]

Music

The Balloon Glow was first performed at the Great Texas Balloon Race BalloonGlowTexasBalloon.jpg
The Balloon Glow was first performed at the Great Texas Balloon Race

East Texas is home to the Texas Country Music Hall of Fame, located in Carthage. East Texans enjoy a range of music that is influenced by gospel, bluegrass, blues, rock, country, soul, rhthym and blues, Cajun, etc. Texas blues originated in East Texas, with many legends having been born in the region, including Lightnin' Hopkins and T-Bone Walker. East Texans enjoy live music at many of the region's fairs and festivals, including the Texas Rose Festival in Tyler, the East Texas Yamboree in Gilmer, and Longview's Great Texas Balloon Race. East Texas also has many venues included in what is commonly referred to as the Texas country music circuit, although the majority of such venues are located in Central/South/West Texas and the metropolitan areas of the state.

Miranda Lambert in the press room at the 2010 Academy of Country Music Awards in April 2010 Miranda Lambert at 2010 ACMA.jpg
Miranda Lambert in the press room at the 2010 Academy of Country Music Awards in April 2010

Many notable music artists have East Texas roots, including: George Jones (Saratoga), Miranda Lambert (Lindale), Kacey Musgraves (Mineola), Neal McCoy (Longview and Jacksonville), Lee Ann Womack (Jacksonville), Janis Joplin (Port Arthur), Don Henley (Linden), Ray Price (Perryville), Johnny Horton (Rusk), Johnny Mathis (Gilmer), Tex Ritter (Panola County), Jim Reeves (Panola County), Mark Chesnutt (Beaumont), Tracy Byrd (Vidor), Clay Walker (Beaumont), Chris Tomlin (Grand Saline), and Michelle Shocked (Gilmer), among many others.

Worldwide-acclaimed pianist Van Cliburn, a native of nearby Shreveport, Louisiana, was raised in Kilgore. Kilgore College houses the Van Cliburn Auditorium on its home campus.

Many high-school bands in East Texas continue the tradition of military-style marching, unlike other parts of the state. These bands compete in the National Association Of Military Marching Bands.

Sports and outdoors

As with other parts of Texas, high-school football is king in East Texas. Residents of East Texas towns and rural communities fill high-school stadiums in support of their local teams, cheerleaders, bands, etc. Many East Texas high-school teams have won Texas state championships and have produced collegiate and professional football players.

Earl Campbell, the "Tyler Rose", played football for John Tyler High in Tyler before playing for the Texas Longhorns and the Houston Oilers. Don Meredith, who famously played for the Dallas Cowboys, played at Mt. Vernon. Dez Bryant, a football player from Lufkin, formerly played wide receiver for the Dallas Cowboys before signing with the New Orleans Saints (then getting injured three days afterwards). Adrian Peterson, a star running back for the Minnesota Vikings, played high-school football in Palestine. Other high-school sports are popular in East Texas, including basketball, baseball, volleyball, softball and track.

A significant number of East Texas youth participate in Little League Baseball, soccer, and softball. Church leagues are quite common in providing opportunities for basketball and softball for youth and adults alike. In recent years, cowboy churches have grown in number and offer rodeo events for their youth.

SFA: Homer Bryce Stadium Inside Bryce Stadium, Nacogdoches, TX IMG 3326.JPG
SFA: Homer Bryce Stadium

East Texans also enjoy collegiate athletic competition. Most residents support collegiate teams located in other regions of the state; the Texas A&M Aggies, Texas Longhorns, Texas Tech Red Raiders, Baylor Bears, TCU Horned Frogs, etc. Due to proximity to neighboring states, East Texas has a substantial number of fans of the LSU Tigers, Arkansas Razorbacks, Oklahoma State Cowboys, and Oklahoma Sooners. The Battle of the Piney Woods is a fiercely contested sports rivalry between the Bearkats of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville and the Lumberjacks of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches. Both compete in the FCS level of NCAA athletic competition as members of the Southland Conference. The Cardinals of Lamar University in Beaumont also compete with Stephen F. Austin and Sam Houston State in the Southland Conference.

Other universities and colleges that field athletic teams in East Texas include East Texas Baptist University Tigers in Marshall; University of Texas at Tyler Patriots in Tyler; LeTourneau University Yellowjackets in Longview; Texas A&M–Commerce Lions; and several junior colleges throughout the region, which participate in the Southwest Junior College Conference in Region XIV of the NJCAA. East Texas is also home to the Kilgore College Rangerettes, a world-famous dance team that debuted in 1939.

A few professional sports teams are located in East Texas. The East Texas Pump Jacks, located in Kilgore, play baseball in the Texas Collegiate League. Additionally, the East Texas Storm, a semiprofessional football team located in Tyler, competes in the Lone Star Minor League. [5] Typically, northern parts of East Texas tend to support the professional teams from the Dallas/Fort Worth area (Dallas Cowboys, Dallas Mavericks, Texas Rangers, Dallas Stars), while southern parts of East Texas tend to support professional teams from the Houston area (Houston Texans, Houston Rockets, Houston Astros).

Toledo Bend Reservoir on the Louisiana and Texas border View of Toledo Bend between LA and TX IMG 1806.JPG
Toledo Bend Reservoir on the Louisiana and Texas border

As with other parts of Texas and/or the South, other popular sporting activities in East Texas include rodeo (including PRCA), hunting, and fishing. Prominent rodeos in East Texas are held in Beaumont, Nacogdoches, Paris, Longview, Gladewater, Huntsville, Lufkin, Athens, Palestine, Lindale, etc. East Texas contains several award-winning lakes for sport fishing including Toledo Bend Reservoir, Lake Sam Rayburn, Lake Livingston, Lake Fork, Lake Tawakoni, etc. East Texans have a long tradition in outdoors sporting and observe the opening day of deer season as a near religious holiday.

East Texas also contains numerous golf courses and avid golfers, as well as NASCAR fans. However, the region does not host professional events in either of those sports. The nearest NASCAR track to East Texas is Texas Motor Speedway in Fort Worth.

East Texans enjoy many Texas state parks, including Caddo Lake, Atlanta, Daingerfield, Lake Bob Sandlin, Tyler, Mission Tejas in Grapeland, Cooper Lake, Lake Tawakoni, Martin Creek, Huntsville, Lake Sam Rayburn, Lake Livingston and Sea Rim among others. East Texas is also home to the Angelina National Forest, Sam Houston National Forest, Sabine National Forest, Big Thicket National Preserve, Trinity River National Wildlife Refuge, Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge, and McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge.

Other famous and notable East Texans

Lady Bird Taylor Johnson around age three in East Texas Lady bird 1915.jpg
Lady Bird Taylor Johnson around age three in East Texas

Deep East Texas

Map highlighting counties of Deep East Texas DETCOG.png
Map highlighting counties of Deep East Texas

Deep East Texas is a sub-region of East Texas. According to the Deep East Texas Council of Governments the region consists of the following twelve counties: Angelina, Houston, Jasper, Nacogdoches, Newton, Polk, Sabine, San Augustine, San Jacinto, Shelby, Trinity, and Tyler.

The "Deep" designation comes from the similarity to East Texas (it is similar in culture and topography, being highly forested), but with a location "deeper" (i.e., farther south and towards the Gulf Coast) than the rest of East Texas.

"Deep" also refers to the cultural and social characteristics of the area and is considered synonymous to the "Big Thicket", an allusion to the dense growth of underbrush in the Piney Woods. It was the earliest area of Texas to be settled by Anglo-Americans (and one of the last areas to submit to law enforcementby the governments of New Spain, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, the state of Texas, or the United States). Renegade clans controlled local governments, especially in Shelby County, well into the first quarter of the 20th century.[ citation needed ]

The area contains two of the oldest towns in Texas; Nacogdoches, the oldest town in Texas, dating from 18th century, and San Augustine, the oldest "Anglo" settlement in Texas, dating from the 1820s. People of English, Scottish, Scots-Irish, and to a lesser extent Welsh ancestry predominate in the region, which is in contrast to South Central Texas and West Texas, where people of German and Hispanic heritage predominate, respectively. Prior to the Texas War of Independence, settlement was generally prohibited by the Spanish and later Mexican governments, but neither government was able to exert control or law enforcement in the area. As a consequence, the "Big Thicket" became a refuge for criminals fleeing the United States and hiding out in a "no man's land" in the pine tree thickets.

The Pine Curtain

Duke Energy Field Services near Palestine on U.S. Highway 79: The company operates facilities including refineries and oil wells throughout the region. Duke Energy Field Services (East Texas Plant).jpg
Duke Energy Field Services near Palestine on U.S. Highway 79: The company operates facilities including refineries and oil wells throughout the region.

The early isolation of the region and its links to the Deep South have resulted in its well-known pine woods being described as a 'curtain' that demarcates a certain cultural enclave or bubble that distinguishes East Texas from the rest of the state. Former residents describe leaving behind the 'Pine Curtain' as a form of escape.

The phrase is often used to describe the area, appearing in a newspaper column in the Palestine Herald-Press , and in tourist guide by Mike Dougan. [6] [7]

Economy

Historically, the East Texas economy has been led by lumber, cotton, cattle, and oil. Prior to the discovery of the East Texas Oil Field, cotton, lumber and cattle were the predominant source of economic gains and stability. Needs of local farmers contributed greatly to the establishment of local towns and trading posts. As with many parts of the nation, the chosen paths of railroads often determined the continuation of many towns. At the beginning of the 20th century, the oil fields were discovered and oil became accessible, which changed the future of the region.

In the decades leading to the new millennium, crude oil production in the East Texas Oil Field, the largest oil field in the United States, somewhat decreased. In turn, the number of high-paying jobs for uneducated workers also decreased. During the 20th century, local groceries, general stores, and cafes were replaced with franchise department stores, retail chains, and fast-food restaurants. Due to the decline of oil production, many small towns closed cafés and gas stations, some of which were replaced with cash loan shops and pawn shops. [8]

Ornamental oil derricks in Kilgore Kilgore WorldsRichestAcre 061607.JPG
Ornamental oil derricks in Kilgore

Paul Knight of the Houston Press in a 2009 article said, "some say natural gas has surpassed crude as king in East Texas." [9]

Tourism has not been a highly significant source of economic activity in East Texas, although several high-traffic corridors pass through East Texas, which have aided economic development along those routes. These include: Interstate 30 (from Dallas through Texarkana), Interstate 20 (through Dallas and on through Shreveport), Interstate 10 (through Houston and Beaumont into Louisiana), Interstate 45 (through Houston up to Dallas), and U.S. Highway 59 (through Houston and north past Texarkana; in process of being upgraded along most of the route to Interstate 69).

In recent years, the region has become home to many patent-holding companies, due to its legal system being particularly friendly to patent holders and hostile to out-of-state tech defendants. [10]

The region also contains Sam Houston State University in Huntsville and Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, which help contribute millions of dollars into the Deep East Texas economy. Texas A&M University-Texarkana, University of Texas at Tyler, LeTourneau University, and East Texas Baptist University are a few of the smaller universities in East Texas. Texas A&M University-Commerce is right outside East Texas and is formerly known as East Texas State University, while A&M-Texarkana was a branch campus of ETSU.

See also

Related Research Articles

Neches River river in the United States of America

The Neches River begins in Van Zandt County west of Rhine Lake and flows for 416 miles (669 km) through east Texas to its mouth on Sabine Lake near the Rainbow Bridge. Two major reservoirs, Lake Palestine and B. A. Steinhagen Reservoir are located on the Neches. Several cities are located along the Neches River Basin, including Tyler, Lufkin, Silsbee, Evadale, Beaumont, Vidor, Port Neches, Nederland, Groves, and Port Arthur.

Lufkin, Texas City in Texas, United States

Lufkin is a city in and the county seat of Angelina County in eastern Texas, United States. This city is 120 miles (190 km) northeast of Houston. Founded in 1882, the population was 35,837 at the 2017 census.

Longview, Texas City in Texas, United States

Longview is the forty-fifth largest city in the state of Texas. The city is mostly located in Gregg County, of which it is the county seat; a small part of Longview extends into the western part of neighboring Harrison County. Longview is located in East Texas, where Interstate 20 and U.S. Highways 80 and 259 converge just north of the Sabine River. According to the 2010 U.S. census, the city had a population of 80,455. The estimated population in 2017 was 81,522. Longview is the principal city of the Longview metropolitan statistical area, comprising Gregg, Upshur, and Rusk counties. The population of the metropolitan area as of 2017 census estimates is 217,481.

Ark-La-Tex Region

The Ark-La-Tex region is a U.S. socio-economic region where the 4 Southern states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma abut. The region contains portions of Northwest Louisiana, Northeast Texas, South Arkansas, and the Little Dixie area of Oklahoma. The largest city and center of the region is Shreveport, Louisiana. Other major cities in the Ark-La-Tex include Tyler, Texas, Longview, Texas, Marshall, Texas, and Texarkana.

Southeast Texas

Southeast Texas is a sub-region of East Texas located in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Texas. The sub-region is geographically centered on the Houston–Sugar Land–The Woodlands, and Beaumont–Port Arthur metropolitan areas.

Northeast Texas Region in Texas, United States

Northeast Texas is a region in the northeast corner of the U.S. state of Texas. It is geographically centered on two metropolitan areas strung along Interstate 20: Tyler in the west and Longview/Marshall to the east. Mount Pleasant, Sulphur Springs, Paris and Texarkana in the north primarily along Interstate 30, Jacksonville and Palestine to the south are also major cities within the region. Most of Northeast Texas is included in the inter-state region of the Arklatex.

Big Thicket

Big Thicket is the name of a heavily forested area in Southeast Texas, United States. Several attempts to provide boundaries have been made ranging from only a 10 to 15 mile section of Hardin County to an area encompassing over 29 counties and over 3,350,000 acres. Scientific studies have been performed also, but with varying results. In "... 1936, ... Hal B. Parks and Victor L. Cory of the Texas Agriculture Experiment station conducted a biological survey of the Big Thicket region". Their study, based on geology, resulted in over 3,350,000 acres of Southeast Texas and covering 14 counties from Houston in the west to Orange in the east and Huntsville to Wiergate on the north. Claude McLeod, a botany professor at Sam Houston State University, performed a botanical based study, resulting in a region of over 2,000,000 acres. While no exact boundaries exist, the area occupies much of Hardin, Liberty, Tyler, San Jacinto, and Polk Counties and is roughly bounded by the San Jacinto River, Neches River, and Pine Island Bayou. To the north, it blends into the larger Piney Woods terrestrial ecoregion of which it is a part. It has historically been the most dense forest region in what is now Texas, though logging in the 19th and 20th centuries dramatically reduced the forest concentration.

KETK-TV NBC affiliate in Jacksonville, Texas

KETK-TV, virtual channel 56, is an NBC-affiliated television station serving Tyler and Longview, Texas, United States that is licensed to Jacksonville. The station is owned by Nexstar Media Group, which also operates Longview-licensed Fox affiliate KFXK-TV and Tyler-licensed low-power MyNetworkTV affiliate KTPN-LD under a shared services agreement with owner White Knight Broadcasting. The three stations share studios on Richmond Road in Tyler; KETK's transmitter is located near FM 855 in unincorporated northwestern Cherokee County.

Angelina County Airport airport in Texas, United States of America

Angelina County Airport is a county-owned, public-use airport in Angelina County, Texas, United States. The airport is located seven nautical miles (13 km) southwest of the central business district of Lufkin, Texas.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Tyler diocese of the Catholic Church

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Tyler is a Roman Catholic diocese in Texas. The episcopal see is Tyler, and the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Tyler is its mother church. The Diocese of Tyler is a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston.

Area code 936

North American area code 936 is a state of Texas telephone area code for numbers in the Nacogdoches-Huntsville area, as well as a few outer portions of the Houston metropolitan area. It was created February 19, 2000, in a code-split from area code 409. It primarily serves the Deep East Texas area.

The Texas Courts of Appeals are part of the Texas judicial system. In Texas, all cases appealed from district and county courts, criminal and civil, go to one of the fourteen Texas Courts of Appeals, with one exception: death penalty cases. The latter are taken directly to the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, the highest Texas court for criminal matters. The court of last resort for civil cases is the Texas Supreme Court. The number of justices on each intermediate court of appeals is set by statute.

The East Texas League was a Texas-based minor league baseball league that existed on-and-off from 1916 to 1950. At different times, it was considered a Class C or Class D league.

History of Texas forests

The 'forests in the U.S. state of Texas have been an important resource since its earliest days and have played a major role in the state's history. Thevast woodlands of the region, home to many varieties of wildlife before Europeans first showed up, provided economic opportunities for early settlers. They continue to play an important role economically and environmentally in the state.

References

  1. E. H. Johnson. "East Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association . Retrieved April 12, 2017.
  2. 1 2 "The Regions of Texas". Texas Counties. net. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  3. "Weather." Handbook of Texas . Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  4. "Museum of East Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 2007-02-07.
  5. "East Texas Storm Mission Statement". East Texas Storm Mission Statement. Retrieved 2014-10-18.
  6. Dougan, Michael (1988). East Texas : tales from behind the pine curtain (1st ed.). Seattle: Real Comet Press. ISBN   0941104257.
  7. Connor, Gary. "'Life Behind the Pine Curtain: Thoughts from an Ol' East Texas Philosopher'". Palestine Herald-Press.
  8. Knight, Paul (September 22, 2009). "Superthief". p. 1. Retrieved September 28, 2009.
  9. Knight, Paul (September 22, 2009). "Superthief". p. 2. Retrieved September 28, 2009.
  10. Joe Mullin (December 2, 2015). "Why East Texas courts are back on "top" for patent lawsuits" . Retrieved November 2, 2015.

Books