Eastern Maori

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Eastern Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Northern Maori, Western Maori and Southern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Eastern Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Rawhiti and Te Puku O Te Whenua electorates.

Contents

Population centres

The electorate included the population centres of Kawerau, Opotiki, Rotorua and Whakatane.

Tribal areas

The electorate included the tribal areas of Ngāti Awa, Te Arawa, Ngāi Tai, Te Whakatōhea and Ngāti Porou.

History

Eastern Maori included Rotorua and the Bay of Plenty, and the Poverty Bay area down to Gisborne. Originally the electorate extended down the East Coast and included the Wairarapa, but in 1954 the boundaries of the Southern Maori electorate were extended to include much of the East Coast of the North Island up to Napier and Wairoa in Hawke's Bay.

The first Member of Parliament for Eastern Maori was Tareha Te Moananui, elected in 1868; he was the first Māori MP to speak in Parliament, and he retired in 1870.

James Carroll represented the electorate from 1887 to 1893, but in 1893 he changed to the Waiapu electorate and was replaced by Wi Pere who Carroll had defeated in 1887.

In the 1949 election, the incumbent, Tiaki Omana of the Labour Party, was unsuccessfully challenged by National's Turi Carroll. [1]

In the 1963 election, Puti Tipene Watene was elected. He was a Mormon and was the first non-Ratana to win a Maori seat since 1938.

With MMP Eastern Maori was replaced by the Te Tai Rawhiti electorate in 1996. Peter Tapsell, who had represented Eastern Maori since 1981 was defeated when he stood in the new electorate.

Members of Parliament

The Eastern Maori electorate was represented by ten Members of Parliament: [2]

Key

  Independent     Liberal     United     National     Labour   

ElectionWinner
1868 Māori election Tareha Te Moananui
1871 election Karaitiana Takamoana
1876 election
1879 by-election Henare Tomoana
1879 election
1881 election
1884 election Wi Pere
1887 election James Carroll
1890 election
1893 election Wi Pere (2nd period)
1896 election
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election Āpirana Ngata
1908 election
1911 election
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election
1931 election
1935 election
1938 election
1943 election Tiaki Omana
1946 election
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
1963 election Puti Tipene Watene
1966 election
1967 by-election Paraone Reweti
1969 election
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election
1981 election Peter Tapsell
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election

Election results

Note that the affiliation of many early candidates is not known.

1993 election

1993 general election: Eastern Maori [3]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Peter Tapsell 9,311 63.52 -7.40
Alliance Alamein Kopu 2,64518.04
Mana Māori Movement Tame Iti 1,3889.46
National Jim Gray6644.52
Christian Heritage Mere Wirepa4042.75
Natural Law Molly Para2461.67
Majority6,66645.47-7.95
Turnout 14,65861.64+0.37
Registered electors 23,779

1990 election

1990 general election: Eastern Maori [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Peter Tapsell 9,085 70.92 -3.19
Mana Motuhake Wi Kuki Kaa2,24117.49
National Jim Ngatai Connelly1,48411.58
Majority6,84453.42-7.08
Turnout 12,81061.27-9.24
Registered electors 20,906

1987 election

1987 general election: Eastern Maori [5]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Peter Tapsell 10,653 74.11 -10.07
Mana Motuhake Amster Reedy1,95713.61
National Jim Gray1,3219.19
Democrats G M Ngakaru4423.07
Majority8,69660.50-16.45
Turnout 14,37370.51-7.28
Registered electors 20,384

1984 election

1984 general election: Eastern Maori [5]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Peter Tapsell 12,285 84.18 +20.39
National Barry Kiwara1,0557.22
Mana Motuhake B K T McLean5753.94
NZ Party Rawinia Heremaia4002.74
Social Credit T K Te Aweawe2771.89
Majority11,23076.95-0.35
Turnout 14,59277.79+0.49
Registered electors 18,757

1981 election

1981 general election: Eastern Maori [5]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Peter Tapsell 8,222 63.79
Mana Motuhake Albert Tahana1,99015.43
National Charles Little1,50511.67
Social Credit R T Tibble1,1729.09
Majority6,23248.35
Turnout 12,88977.30+26.02
Registered electors 16,673

1978 election

1978 general election: Eastern Maori [5]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Paraone Reweti 9,085 74.79 +0.81
National Monty Searancke1,68513.87-5.56
Social Credit T Te Hira1,1959.83
Values H Te M Kaa1821.49
Majority7,40060.92+6.37
Turnout 12,14751.28-18.53
Registered electors 23,684

1975 election

1975 general election: Eastern Maori [5]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Paraone Reweti 8,491 73.98 +1.33
National Monty Searancke2,23019.43
Social Credit Manu Te Pere5484.77
Values Danny Stevens2081.81
Majority6,26154.55+3.63
Turnout 11,47769.81-16.19
Registered electors 16,439

1972 election

1972 general election: Eastern Maori [5]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Paraone Reweti 8,831 72.65 +10.64
National Koro Dewes2,64121.72
Social Credit R Rangi5054.15
New Democratic T T Clarke1771.45
Majority6,19050.92+21.09
Turnout 12,15486.00+2.84
Registered electors 14,131

1969 election

1969 general election: Eastern Maori [6]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Paraone Reweti 7,247 62.01 +12.52
National Henare Ngata 3,76032.17
Social Credit Cletus Maanu Paul6795.81-7.72
Majority3,48729.83+7.15
Turnout 11,68683.16+22.46
Registered electors 14,051

1967 by-election

1967 Eastern Maori by-election [6]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Paraone Reweti 4,460 49.49
National Arnold Reedy 2,41626.81-3.93
Social Credit Cletus Maanu Paul1,21913.53+3.11
Independent MaoriDonald Mairangi Bennett6717.45
Independent Te Okanga Kahutapere Huata2462.73
Majority2,04422.68
Turnout 9,01260.70-15.58
Registered electors 14,849
Labour hold Swing

1966 election

1966 general election: Eastern Maori [6]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Puti Tipene Watene 6,537 58.83 +3.83
National Arnold Reedy 3,41630.74-3.43
Social Credit Cletus Maanu Paul1,15810.42
Majority3,12128.08+7.25
Turnout 11,11176.28-7.03
Registered electors 14,566

1963 election

1963 general election: Eastern Maori [6]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Puti Tipene Watene 6,775 55.00
National Arnold Reedy 4,20934.17+9.49
Social Credit R W Smith7416.01
Independent B A Raukopa2301.86
Independent P H Baker1571.27
Liberal R Rangi1120.90
Ind. Social Credit M W Sadler920.74
Majority2,56620.83
Turnout 12,31683.31+3.30
Registered electors 14,783

1960 election

1960 general election: Eastern Maori [6]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Tiaki Omana 5,809 51.49 -8.43
Social Credit Arnold Reedy 2,78424.68+6.25
National Henry Reiwhati Vercoe2,49622.12
Independent Mita Carter1911.69
Majority3,02526.81-11.47
Turnout 11,28080.01-6.17
Registered electors 14,098

1957 election

1957 general election: Eastern Maori [6]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Tiaki Omana 6,569 59.92 -0.81
National Wiremu Hoete Maxwell2,37221.63
Social Credit Arnold Reedy 2,02118.43
Majority4,19738.28+11.50
Turnout 10,96286.18+1.59
Registered electors 12,719

1954 election

1954 general election: Eastern Maori [6]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Tiaki Omana 7,015 60.73 -2.41
National Claude Anaru3,92133.94
Social Credit Wilson Paku6145.31
Majority3,09426.78+0.51
Turnout 11,55084.59-13.30
Registered electors 13,654

1951 election

1951 General election: Eastern Maori [6]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Tiaki Omana 8,905 63.14 +1.48
National Turi Carroll 5,19936.86-1.48
Majority3,70626.27+2.94
Turnout 14,10497.89-9.79
Registered electors 14,407

1949 election

1949 general election: Eastern Maori [7]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Tiaki Omana 8,487 61.66 +7.68
National Turi Carroll 5,27638.34
Majority3,21123.33+12.15
Turnout 13,763107.68
Registered electors 12,781

The number of electors on Maori rolls was often inaccurate hence the impossible turnout figures. [5]

1946 election

1946 general election: Eastern Maori [8]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Tiaki Omana 7,321 53.98
National Āpirana Ngata 5,80442.79
Informal votes4393.23
Majority1,51711.18
Turnout 13,564

1931 election

1931 general election: Eastern Maori [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
United Āpirana Ngata 5,105 71.91 +1.70
Ratana Pita Moko 1,99428.09+1.90
Majority3,11143.82
Turnout 7,099

1928 election

1928 general election: Eastern Maori [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
United Āpirana Ngata 4,950 70.21
Ratana Pita Moko 1,84626.18
Labour Robert Panapa Tutaki 2543.60
Majority3,10444.03
Turnout 7,050

1899 election

1899 general election: Eastern Maori [11]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Wi Pere 2,294 40.52 -20.70
Mohi Te Atahikoia 1,38724.50
Hurinui Apanui1,31623.25
Kereru Numia3315.85
Tare Mete2073.66-9.86
Tamati Haweti1262.23
Majority90716.02
Turnout 5,661

1896 election

1896 general election: Eastern Maori [12]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Wi Pere 2,549 61.22
Tamati Tautuhi80519.33
Tare Mete56313.52
Maika Taruhe1824.37
Eriata Nopera651.56
Majority1,74441.88
Turnout 4,164

1879 by-election

1879 Eastern Maori by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Henare Tomoana 652 37.84
Independent Henare Matua 58333.84
Independent Hans Tapsell42924.90
Independent Henare Te Pukuatua593.42
Majority694.00
Turnout 1723

Notes

  1. Rorke, Jinty. "Turi Carroll". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  2. Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC   154283103.
  3. Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1993. p. 146.
  4. Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1990. p. 153.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Norton 1988, p. 396.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Norton 1988, p. 395.
  7. "The General Election, 1949". National Library. 1950. pp. 1–5, 8. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  8. "The General Election, 1946". National Library. 1947. pp. 1–11, 14. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  9. The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 6. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  10. Skinner 1929, p. 7.
  11. "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 3. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  12. "Untitled". Poverty Bay Herald. Vol. XXIV, no. 7816. 4 January 1897. p. 2. Retrieved 16 January 2014.

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References