Eastern Poland

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This article is about the modern eastern Poland. For the region that was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1945, see Kresy.


Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state. As a concept the Polish notion of Kresy corresponds with the Russian one of Okrainy (Oкраины).. The population in Kresy had a considerable proportion of national minorities, which in total were roughly equal in their number to ethnic Poles and even exceeded the numbers of Poles in some areas. Administratively, the territory of Kresy was composed of voivodeships of Lwów, Nowogródek, Polesie, Stanisławów, Tarnopol, Wilno, Wołyń, and the Białystok. Today, these territories are divided between Western Ukraine, Western Belarus, and south-eastern Lithuania, with such major cities as Lviv, Vilnius, and Grodno no longer in Poland. In the Second Polish Republic the term Kresy roughly equated with the lands beyond the so-called Curzon Line, which was suggested after World War I in December 1919 by the British Foreign Office as the eastern border of the re-emerging sovereign Republic following the century of partitions. In September 1939, after the Soviet Union joined Nazi Germany in their attack on Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the territories were incorporated into Soviet Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania in the atmosphere of terror.

Eastern Poland is a macroregion in Poland comprising Lublin, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Świętokrzyskie and Warmian-Masurian voivodeships.

A macroregion is a geopolitical subdivision that encompasses several traditionally or politically defined regions. The meaning may vary, with the common denominator being cultural, economical, historical or social similarity within a macroregion. The term is often used in the context of globalization.

Poland Republic in Central Europe

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Lublin Voivodeship Voivodeship in Poland

Lublin Voivodeship, or Lublin Province, is a voivodeship, or province, located in southeastern Poland. It was created on January 1, 1999, out of the former Lublin, Chełm, Zamość, Biała Podlaska and (partially) Tarnobrzeg and Siedlce Voivodeships, pursuant to Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The province is named after its largest city and regional capital, Lublin, and its territory is made of four historical lands: the western part of the voivodeship, with Lublin itself, belongs to Lesser Poland, the eastern part of Lublin Area belongs to Red Ruthenia, and the northeast belongs to Polesie and Podlasie.

The make-up of the distinct macroregion is based not only of geographical criteria, but also economical: in 2005, these five voivodeships has the lowest GDP per capita in the enlarged European Union. [1] On this basis, the macroregion is subject to special additional support with European funds under the Eastern Poland Economic Promotion Programme over 20072013. [2]

European Union Economic and political union of European states

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.

In 20122013, the macroregion was the subject of an advertising campaign, Why didn't you invest in Eastern Poland?, which was to raise awareness of and increase investment in the region. [3]

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Wilno Voivodeship (1926–1939) geographical object

The Wilno Voivodeship was one of 16 Voivodeships in the Second Polish Republic, with the capital in Wilno. It was created in 1926 and populated predominantly by Poles with notable minorities of Belarusians, Jews and Lithuanians.

Poland does not legally recognize same-sex unions, either in the form of marriage or civil unions. In 2012, the Supreme Court ruled that same-sex couples have limited legal rights in regards to the tenancy of a shared household. A few laws also guarantee certain limited rights for unmarried couples, including couples of the same sex. Same-sex spouses also have access to residency rights under EU law.

The Lithuanian minority in Poland consists of 8,000 people living chiefly in the Podlaskie Voivodeship in the north-eastern part of Poland. The Lithuanian embassy in Poland notes that there are about 15,000 people in Poland of Lithuanian ancestry.

Ukrainians in Poland ethnic group

The Ukrainian minority in Poland was composed of approximately 51,000 people, according to the Polish census of 2011. Some 38,000 respondents named Ukrainian as their first identity, 13,000 as their second identity, and 21,000 declared Ukrainian identity jointly with Polish nationality.

Gmina Łukowica is a rural gmina in Limanowa County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland. Its seat is the village of Łukowica, which lies approximately 11 kilometres (7 mi) south-east of Limanowa and 63 km (39 mi) south-east of the regional capital Kraków.

Racism in Poland is present even though a race-based worldview has had little chance to develop. Racism has persisted alongside the fact that ethnic minorities have made up a significant proportion of the population since the founding of the Polish state. Throughout most of its one thousand-year history, Poland has experienced very limited immigration; apart from the immigration of the Jews while they were having been expelled from other parts of the Europe. Poland has never had overseas colonies. For a lengthy period the country was regarded as having a very tolerant society vowing to "constant evidence for numerous varieties of religious nonconformity, sectarians, schism, and heterodoxy."

Lucyna Kulińska is a Polish historian specializing in modern history and university lecturer. She has authored several books, collections of documents, publications and articles on the subject of Polish-Ukrainian relations, globalization and international relations. Lucyna Kulińska is the chairwoman of Społeczna Fundacja Pamięci Narodu Polskiego.

The modern Poland–Russia border is a nearly straight-line division between the Republic of Poland and the Russian Federation exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast, a region not connected to the Russian mainland. It is currently 232 kilometres (144 mi) long. Its current location and size were decided as part of the aftermath of World War II. In 2004 it became part of the boundary of the European Union and Commonwealth of Independent States.

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Unemployment in Poland

Unemployment in Poland appeared in the 19th century during industrialization, and was particularly severe during the Great Depression. Under communist rule Poland officially had close to full employment, although hidden unemployment existed. After Poland's transition to a market economy the unemployment rate sharply increased, peaking at above 16% in 1993, then dropped afterwards, but remained well above pre-1993 levels. Another period of high unemployment occurred in the early 2000s when the rate reached 20%. As Poland entered the European Union (EU) and its job market in 2004, the high unemployment set off a wave of emigration, and as a result domestic unemployment started a downward trend that continued until the onset of the 2008 Great Recession. Recent years have seen an increase in the unemployment rate from below 8% to above 10% (Eurostat) or from below 10% to 13% (GUS). The rate began dropping again in late 2013. Polish government (GUS) reported 9.6% registered unemployment in November 2015, while European Union's Eurostat gave 7.2%. According to Eurostat data, since 2008, unemployment in Poland has been constantly below the EU average. Significant regional differences in the unemployment rate exist across Poland.

<i>Why didnt you invest in Eastern Poland?</i>

Why didn't you invest in Eastern Poland? was an advertising campaign conducted by the Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency (PAIiIZ), and supported by the European Regional Development Fund, to raise the domestic and international profile of Eastern Poland, with the aim of increasing economic investment in the region.

Migrations from Poland since EU accession

Since the fall of Communism in 1989, the nature of migration to and from Poland has been in flux. After Poland's accession to the European Union and accession to the Schengen Area in particular, a significant number of Poles, estimated at over two million, have emigrated, primarily to the United Kingdom, Germany, France and Ireland. The majority of them, according to the Central Statistical Office of Poland, left in search of better work opportunities abroad while retaining permanent resident status in Poland itself.

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  1. "Program Operacyjny Rozwój Polski Wschodniej 2007 – 2013" (PDF) (in Polish). Ministry of Regional Development. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014. W grudniu 2005 r. Rada Europejska podjęła decyzję o przyznaniu Polsce dodatkowej kwoty z budżetu Unii Europejskiej w wysokości 882 mln euro (107 euro na mieszkańca każdego z województw Polski Wschodniej - uznanych za regiony o najniższym poziomie PKB na mieszkańca na podstawie danych Eurostatu z 2002 r.) w ramach Europejskiego Funduszu Rozwoju Regionalnego (EFRR).
  2. http://www.polskawschodnia.gov.pl. Dostęp: 29.09.2011
  3. "Dlaczego nie zainwestowałeś w Polsce Wschodniej? Kluczowe pytanie kampanii medialnej Polski Wschodniej" (in Polish). Interia.pl. 4 September 2012. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014.