|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
Yuling, the tomb of the Qianlong Emperor
|Location||Zunhua, Hebei, China|
|Part of||Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties|
|Inscription||2000 (24th session)|
|Area||224 ha (550 acres)|
|Buffer zone||7,800 ha (19,000 acres)|
The Eastern Qing tombs (Chinese : 清 東 陵 ; pinyin : Qīng Dōng líng; Manchu :ᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳ
ᠮᡠᠩᡤᠠᠨ; Möllendorff : dergi ergi munggan) are an imperial mausoleum complex of the Qing dynasty located in Zunhua, 125 kilometres (78 mi) northeast of Beijing. They are the largest, most complete, and best preserved extant mausoleum complex in China. Altogether, five emperors (Shunzhi, Kangxi, Qianlong, Xianfeng, and Tongzhi), 15 empresses, 136 imperial concubines, three princes, and two princesses of the Qing dynasty are buried here. Surrounded by Changrui Mountain, Jinxing Mountain, Huanghua Mountain, and Yingfei Daoyang Mountain, the tomb complex stretches over a total area of 80 square kilometres (31 sq mi).
At the center of the Eastern Qing tombs lies Xiaoling, the tomb of the Shunzhi Emperor (1638–1661), who became the first Qing emperor to rule over China. Shunzhi was also the first emperor to be buried in the area. Buried with him are his empresses Xiaokangzhang (mother of the Kangxi Emperor) and Consort Donggo. The major tombs to the east of Shunzhi's mausoleum are Jingling (Kangxi Emperor) and Huiling (Tongzhi Emperor). To the west lie Yuling (Qianlong Emperor), Ding Dongling (Dowager Empress Cixi and Empress Ci'an), and Dingling (Xianfeng Emperor).
All imperial mausolea at the Eastern Qing tombs follow a pattern established by the Xiaoling mausoleum of the Shunzhi Emperor. : 隆 恩 殿 ; pinyin : Lóng ēn Diàn ; lit. 'Hall of Enormous Grace'; Manchu: baili be ujelere deyen), gate of the burial chamber, two-pillar gate, stone altar-pieces, square city, memorial tower, glazed screen, crescent city, precious citadel, earth mound with the underground palace underneath. The north of the palace was closed off with walls. The section of the offering kitchens was positioned to the left of the palace section, it consists of a walled compound that contains the offering kitchens proper (i.e., where the sacrificial food was cooked), the southern and northern offering warehouses, and a slaughterhouse where the oxen and sheep were butchered.The basic layout consists of three sections: spirit way, palaces, and offering kitchens. Xiaoling has the most elaborate spirit way and contains the following structures (from south to north): a stone archway, eastern and western dismounting stelae, grand palace gate, hall for changing clothes, divine merit stelae pavilion, stone sculptures, dragon-and-phoenix gate, one-arch bridge, seven-arch bridge, five-arch bridge, eastern and western dismounting stelae, three-way three-arch bridges and flat bridge. The palace section of Xiaoling contains the following structures (from south to north): spirit way stela pavilion, eastern and western halls for court officials, Long'en Gate, eastern and western sacrificial burners, eastern and western side halls, Long'en Hall (Chinese
Jingling is the tomb of the Kangxi Emperor, and is surprisingly modest given that he was possibly the greatest emperor of the Qing dynasty but is in keeping with what is known of his character. The spirit way leading to the tomb has an elegant five-arch bridge; the guardian figures are placed on an unusual curve quite close to the tomb itself, and are more decorated than those at earlier tombs.
Yuling, the tomb of the Qianlong Emperor (the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty), is one of the most splendid one of all royal tombs in Chinese history. Yuling has the finest tomb chamber, a series of nine vaults separated by four solid marble doors located at a depth of 54 metres (177 ft). Beginning with the first marble gate, all walls, vaulted ceilings, and gates are covered with Buddhist imagery such as the four heavenly kings, the eight bodhisattvas, the 24 buddhas, lions, the Eight Treasures, as well as ritual instruments and more than 30,000 words of Tibetan scripture and Sanskrit. The 3-ton doors themselves have reliefs of bodhisattvas (beings on the road to enlightenment) and the four protective kings usually found at temple entrances. The Qianlong Emperor (died 1799) selected the site of his mausoleum in 1742 and construction began in the following year. Construction was completed in 1752, but the mausoleum was expanded further in the years between 1755 and 1762. During this time, the square city, memorial tower, the precious citadel, as well as the two side halls were newly built.
Ding Dongling, the tomb of Empress Dowager Cixi stands out for its extremely luxurious decoration.The Long'en Hall along with its eastern and western side halls is made from valuable red wood timbers. All three halls are decorated with gold-glazed coloured painting, gilded dragons, and carved stone rails. Today, the main hall contains reproductions of pictures produced in 1903 by Cixi's photo studio within the Summer Palace. Everywhere there are reminders of the Forbidden City, such as the terrace-corner spouts carved as water-loving dragons. The interior has motifs strikingly painted in gold on dark wood, recalling the buildings where she spent her last years. There are walls of carved and gilded brick, and superbly fearsome wooden dragons writhe down the columns.
Zhaoxiling, the tomb of the Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang, the mother of the Shunzhi Emperor is located to the east of the entrance to the spirit way that leads to the tomb of Shunzhi. Xiaozhuang is believed to have played an important role in consolidating early Qing dynasty authority. The mausoleum was started as a temporary resting hall under the direction of the Kangxi Emperor, who was the grandson of Xiaozhuang and followed her wishes in making this arrangement. The temporary hall was converted into the Zhaoxiling mausoleum in 1725, during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor.
The tombs of Empress Dowager Cixi and the Qianlong Emperor were looted by troops under the command of the warlord Sun Dianying in 1928. Other tombs were looted in the 1940s and 1950s, leaving only the tomb of the Shunzhi Emperor untouched.The burial chambers of four of the tombs, namely the Qianlong Emperor, Empress Dowager Cixi and two of the Qianlong Emperor's concubines, are open to the public.
An abandoned construction site for the mausoleum of the Daoguang Emperor is also located in the Eastern Qing Tombs. Daoguang decided to move his tomb (muling; 慕陵) to the Western Qing tombs after water seeped into the burial chamber at the original site. The already built structures were dismantled and moved to the Western Qing Tombs. Two sons and two daughters of Daoguang are buried in the Eastern Qing tombs (in the "Tomb of the Princess").
There has been pillaging taking place.
The Summer Palace is a vast ensemble of lakes, gardens and palaces in Beijing. It was an imperial garden in the Qing dynasty. Mainly dominated by Longevity Hill and Kunming Lake, it covers an expanse of 2.9 square kilometres (1.1 sq mi), three-quarters of which is water.
Empress Dowager Cixi, of the Manchu Yehe Nara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who was the de facto supreme ruler of China in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years, from 1861 until her death in 1908. Selected as a concubine of the Xianfeng Emperor in her adolescence, she gave birth to a son, Zaichun, in 1856. After the Xianfeng Emperor's death in 1861, the young boy became the Tongzhi Emperor, and she became the Empress Dowager. Cixi ousted a group of regents appointed by the late emperor and assumed regency, which she shared with Empress Dowager Ci'an. Cixi then consolidated control over the dynasty when she installed her nephew as the Guangxu Emperor at the death of the Tongzhi Emperor in 1875, contrary to the traditional rules of succession of the Qing dynasty that had ruled China since 1644.
Empress Xiaozhenxian, of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan, was a consort of the Xianfeng Emperor.
The Ming tombs are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty of China. The first Ming emperor's tomb is located near his capital Nanjing. However, the majority of the Ming tombs are located in a cluster near Beijing and collectively known as the Thirteen Tombs of the Ming Dynasty. They are located within the suburban Changping District of Beijing Municipality, 42 kilometers (26 mi) north-northwest of Beijing's city center. The site, on the southern slope of Tianshou Mountain, was chosen based on the principles of feng shui by the third Ming emperor, the Yongle Emperor. After the construction of the Imperial Palace in 1420, the Yongle Emperor selected his burial site and created his own mausoleum. The subsequent emperors placed their tombs in the same valley.
The Ming Xiaoling is the mausoleum of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty. It lies at the southern foot of Purple Mountain, located east of the historical centre of Nanjing. Legend says that in order to prevent robbery of the tomb, 13 identical processions of funeral troops started from 13 city gates to obscure the real burying site.
Sumalagu was a palace attendant of the Qing Dynasty. She was a close confidante of Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor.
Empress Xiaogongren, of the Manchu Plain Yellow Banner Uya clan, was a consort of the Kangxi Emperor.
Empress Xiaoshengxian, of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan, was a consort of the Yongzheng Emperor.
The Looting of the Eastern Mausoleum was an incident in which some of the major mausoleums of the Chinese Qing dynasty in the Eastern Qing Tombs were looted by troops under the command of the warlord Sun Dianying.
The Grand Council or Junji Chu, officially the Banli Junji Shiwu Chu, was an important policy-making body of China during the Qing dynasty. It was established in 1733 by the Yongzheng Emperor. The Council was originally in charge of military affairs, but gradually attained a more important role and eventually attained the role of a privy council, eclipsing the Grand Secretariat in function and importance, which is why it has become known as the "Grand Council" in English.
Empress Xiao Kang Zhang, of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Tunggiya clan, was a consort of the Shunzhi Emperor.
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Malanyu is a town approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) west of the city of Zunhua, Hebei, which administrates the town, and about 120 kilometers from the Forbidden City in Beijing. It hosts the Eastern Qing Tombs, a site that is the final resting place of some of the Qing emperors and empresses. The 78-square-kilometer site, known more widely as the Eastern Qing Tombs, is the burial place for 5 emperors, 15 empresses and 136 imperial concubines within 15 tombs, including the Shunzhi Emperor (1638–1661), the Kangxi Emperor (1654–1722), the Qianlong Emperor (1711–1799), and Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908).
The Western Qing tombs are located some 140 km (87 mi) southwest of Beijing in Yi County, Hebei Province. They constitute a necropolis that incorporates four royal mausoleums where seventy-eight royal members are buried. These include four emperors of the Qing dynasty and their empresses, imperial concubines, princes and princesses, as well as other royal servants.
The Fuling or Fu Mausoleum, also known as the East Mausoleum, is the mausoleum of Nurhaci, the founding emperor of the Qing dynasty and his wife, Empress Xiaocigao. It served as the main site for ritual ceremonies conducted by the imperial family during the entire Qing dynasty. Located in the eastern part of Shenyang city, Liaoning Province, northeastern China, Fuling has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2004.
Xiaoling may refer to the following from China:
The Dingling is a mausoleum in China where the Wanli emperor, together with his two empresses Wang Xijie and Dowager Xiaojing, was buried. Dingling is one of the thirteen imperial tombs at Ming tombs in Changping district 45 km north of central Beijing. The Dingling is the only tomb of a Ming dynasty emperor that has been opened.
Consort Xi was a consort of Xianfeng Emperor.
Consort Qing was a consort of Xianfeng Emperor.