Edict attendant

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Edict attendant
Chinese

Edict attendants or Daizhi, also translated as Rescriptor-in-waiting or Academician-in-waiting, were literari in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Song dynasty (960–1279), responsible for taking notes on imperial pronouncements during the emperor's meetings with officials.

Tang dynasty State in Chinese history

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in Chinese history. Historians generally regard the Tang as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The Tang capital at Chang'an was the most populous city in the world in its day.

Song dynasty Chinese historical period

The Song dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporaneous Liao, Western Xia and Jin dynasties to its north. It was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass.

Emperor of China Sovereign of Imperial China

Emperor of China is the title given the monarch of China during the imperial period of Chinese history. In traditional Chinese political theory, the Emperor was considered the Son of Heaven and the autocrat of All under Heaven. Under the Han dynasty, Confucianism replaced Legalism as the official political theory and succession theoretically followed agnatic primogeniture. The Chinese emperors who shared the same family were classified into historical periods known as dynasties. The absolute authority of the emperor was notionally bound with various duties and obligations; failure to uphold these was thought to remove the dynasty's Mandate of Heaven and to justify its replacement. In practice, emperors and heirs sometimes avoided the strict rules of succession and dynasties' ostensible "failures" were detailed in official histories written by their successful replacements. The power of the emperor was also often limited by the imperial bureaucracy staffed by scholar-officials and eunuchs and by filial obligations to surviving parents and to dynastic traditions, such as those detailed in the Ming dynasty's Ancestral Instructions.

In Tang dynasty they were members of the Academy of Scholarly Worthies. In Song dynasty they were members of the Hanlin Academy.

Hanlin Academy Chinese university

The Hanlin Academy was an academic and administrative institution founded in the eighth-century Tang China by Emperor Xuanzong in Chang'an.

Bao Zheng (999–1062) had been an edict attendant (of the Shengtianzhang Pavilion), and in popular fiction is sometimes referred to as "Edict Attendant Bao" or "Bao Daizhi". Stephen H. West and Wilt L. Idema translated the title as "Rescriptor-in-waiting Bao".

Bao Zheng Chinese mayor

Bao Zheng, commonly known as Bao Gong, was a Chinese politician during the reign of Emperor Renzong in China's Song Dynasty. During his twenty-five years in civil service, Bao consistently demonstrated extreme honesty and uprightness, with actions such as sentencing his own uncle, impeaching an uncle of Emperor Renzong's favourite concubine and punishing powerful families. His appointment from 1057 to 1058 as the prefect of Song's capital Kaifeng, where he initiated a number of changes to better hear the grievances of the people, made him a legendary figure. During his years in office, he gained the honorific title Justice Bao (包青天) due to his ability to help peasants overcome corruption.

Stephen H. West, Ph.D is a sinologist, philologist, and translator.

Wilt L. Idema is a Dutch scholar and Sinologist teaching at Harvard University specializing in Chinese literature, with interests in early Chinese drama, Chinese women's literature of the premodern period, Chinese popular narrative ballads, and early development of Chinese vernacular fiction.

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Li Shishi (1062-1127) was a courtesan during the Northern Song Dynasty, in Bianjing, the capital of the Song Dynasty. Emperor Huizong was a regular client of hers. She fled to Zhejiang or Hunan after the Jingkang Incident of the Jin–Song wars occurred in 1127.

Judge Bao fiction

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<i>Wen Xuan</i> literary work

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Lady Meng Jiang fictional character

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Tianzhang Pavilion or Tianzhangge, also translated as Hall of Heavenly Manifestations, was one of the palace buildings during the Song dynasty to house the Hanlin Academy. It was built in 1020 in the Song capital of Kaifeng. Bao Zheng and Sima Guang have both been edict attendants at Tianzhang Pavilion.

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References

Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University. It is one of the oldest academic presses in the United States and the first university press to be established on the West Coast. It was among the presses officially admitted to the Association of American University Presses at the organization's founding, in 1937, and is one of twenty-two current member presses from that original group. The press publishes 130 books per year across the humanities, social sciences, and business, and has more than 3,500 titles in print.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.