Edirne

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Edirne
City
Edirne mosque outside.jpg
Meric Koprusu ve Meric Nehri.jpg
Nagymecset - Edirne, 2014.10.22 (6).JPG
TreatyOfLausanneMonumentEdirne (2).JPG
KaraagacRailwayStation.JPG
Nagymecset - Edirne, 2014.10.22 (13).JPG
Edirne - 2014.10.22 (4).JPG
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From top down, left to right: Selimiye Mosque, Meriç Bridge, Ali Pasha Bazaar, Treaty of Lausanne Monument and Museum, Trakya University (formerly Karaağaç railway station), Old Mosque, Town Hall, Historical Express
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Edirne
Location of Edirne within Turkey
Coordinates: 41°40′37″N26°33′20″E / 41.67694°N 26.55556°E / 41.67694; 26.55556
Country Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Region Marmara
Province Edirne
Government
   Mayor Recep Gürkan (CHP)
   Governor Dursun Ali Şahin
Area
[1]
   Province 6,098 km2 (2,354 sq mi)
  City844 km2 (326 sq mi)
Elevation
42 m (138 ft)
Population
  Density196.7/km2 (509/sq mi)
   Province
400,280
  City
165,979
Time zone UTC+3 (FET)
Postal code
22000
Area code(s) (+90) 284
Licence plate 22

Edirne [eˈdiɾne] , historically known as Odrin (Bulgarian: Odrin, Greek / Ancient Greek: Adrianoupoli / -polis, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), [2] is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria. Edirne served as the third capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1369 to 1453, [3] before Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) became the empire's fourth and final capital between 1453 and 1922. The city's estimated population in 2014 was 165,979.

Bulgarian language South Slavic language

Bulgarian, is an Indo-European language and a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic language family.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Ancient Greek Version of the Greek language used from roughly the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek.

Contents

Etymology

The city was founded as Hadrianopolis (Ἁδριανούπολις in Greek), named after the Roman emperor Hadrian. This name is still used in the modern Greek language (Αδριανούπολη, Adrianoúpoli). The Turkish name Edirne derives from the Greek name. The name Adrianople was used in English until the Turkish adoption of the Latin alphabet in 1928 made Edirne the internationally recognized name. Bulgarian : Одрин, Albanian : Edrenë, Slovene : Odrin and Serbian : Једрене / Jedrene are adapted forms of the name Hadrianopolis or of its Turkish version; see also its other names.

Hadrian 2nd-century Roman Emperor

Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Italica, near Santiponce, Spain into a Hispano-Roman family. His father was of senatorial rank and was a first cousin of Emperor Trajan. He married Trajan's grand-niece Vibia Sabina early in his career, before Trajan became emperor and possibly at the behest of Trajan's wife Pompeia Plotina. Plotina and Trajan's close friend and adviser Lucius Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian. When Trajan died, his widow claimed that he had nominated Hadrian as emperor immediately before his death.

Modern Greek refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, and includes Standard Modern Greek. The end of the Medieval Greek period and the beginning of Modern Greek is often symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, even though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic modern features of the language arose centuries earlier, between the fourth and the fifteenth centuries AD.

Albanian language Indo-European language

Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. It comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language in Europe.

History

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1400s70,000    
1700s35,000−50.0%
1800s33,000−5.7%
1900s68,661+108.1%
192734,528−49.7%
196578,161+126.4%
197084,531+8.1%
197594,449+11.7%
1980105,503+11.7%
1985120,663+14.4%
1990124,361+3.1%
2000140,830+13.2%
2010152,993+8.6%
2014165,979+8.5%

The area around Edirne has been the site of numerous major battles and sieges, from the days of the ancient Greeks. The vagaries of the border region between Asia and Europe gives rise to Edirne's historic claim to be the most frequently contested spot on the globe. [4]

The Battle of Adrianople, in which Gothic rebels defeated the Eastern Roman Empire, was the main battle of the Gothic War (376–382).

Antiquity

In Greek mythology, Orestes, son of king Agamemnon, built this city as Orestias , at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza). The city was (re)founded eponymously by the Roman Emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement known as Uskadama, Uskudama, Uskodama or Uscudama. [2] It was the capital of the Bessi, [5] or of the Odrysians. Hadrian developed it, adorned it with monuments, changed its name to Hadrianopolis (which would be corrupted into Adrianopolis, Anglicised as Adrianople), and made it the capital of the Roman province of Thrace. Licinius was defeated there by Constantine I in 323, and Emperor Valens was killed by the Goths in 378 during the Battle of Adrianople (378).

Greek mythology body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks

Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities, heroes, and mythological creatures, and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself.

Orestes figure from Greek mythology

In Greek mythology, Orestes was the son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon. He is the subject of several Ancient Greek plays and of various myths connected with his madness and purification, which retain obscure threads of much older ones.

Agamemnon figure from Greek mythology

In Greek mythology, Agamemnon was a king of Mycenae, the son of King Atreus and Queen Aerope of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra and the father of Iphigenia, Electra or Laodike (Λαοδίκη), Orestes and Chrysothemis. Legends make him the king of Mycenae or Argos, thought to be different names for the same area. When Helen, the wife of Menelaus, was taken to Troy by Paris, Agamemnon commanded the united Greek armed forces in the ensuing Trojan War.

Medieval period

Historical image of Cihannuma Kasri (Panoramic Pavilion), part of Edirne Palace complex Cihan-numa-kasri.jpg
Historical image of Cihannüma Kasrı (Panoramic Pavilion), part of Edirne Palace complex

In 813, the city was temporarily seized by Khan Krum of Bulgaria who moved its inhabitants to the Bulgarian lands north of the Danube. [6]

Khan is a title of unknown origin for a ruler or military leader. It first appears among the Göktürks as a variant of khagan and implied a subordinate ruler. In the Seljuk Empire it was the highest noble title, ranking above malik (king) and emir. In the Mongol Empire it signified the ruler of a horde (ulus), while the ruler of all the Mongols was the khagan or great khan. The title subsequently declined in importance. In Safavid Persia it was the title of a provincial governor, and in Mughal India it was a high noble rank restricted to courtiers. After the downfall of the Mughals it was used promiscuously and became a surname.

In the Middle Ages the Bulgarian Empire controlled vast areas to the north of the river Danube from its establishment in 681 to its fragmentation in 1371-1422. These lands were called by contemporary Byzantine historians Bulgaria across the Danube. Original information for the centuries-old Bulgarian rule there is scarce as the archives of the Bulgarian rulers were destroyed and little is mentioned for this area in Byzantine or Hungarian manuscripts.

During the existence of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, the Crusaders were decisively defeated by the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan in the Battle of Adrianople (1205). In 1206 Adrianople and its territory was given to the Byzantine aristocrat Theodore Branas as a hereditary fief by the Latin regime. [7] Theodore Komnenos, Despot of Epirus, took possession of it in 1227, but three years later was defeated at Klokotnitsa by Emperor Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria.

Latin Empire feudal Crusader state (1204–1261) founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire

The Empire of Romania, more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire. It was established after the capture of Constantinople in 1204 and lasted until 1261. The Latin Empire was intended to supplant the Byzantine Empire as the titular Roman Empire in the east, with a Western Roman Catholic emperor enthroned in place of the Eastern Orthodox Roman emperors.

Bulgarian Empire Medieval empire in South-Eastern Europe

In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire, wherein it acted as a key regional power occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. The two "Bulgarian Empires" are not treated as separate entities, but rather as one state restored after a period of Byzantine rule over its territory. Bulgaria is one of the few historic states and nations whose economy and society were never based on slavery, and slavery never played an important role in Bulgarian statehood development and wealth.

Battle of Adrianople (1205)

The Battle of Adrianople occurred around Adrianople on April 14, 1205 between Bulgarians, Vlachs and Cumans under Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, and Crusaders under Baldwin I, who only months before had been crowned Emperor of Constantinople, allied with Venetians under Doge Enrico Dandolo. It was won by the Bulgarians, after a successful ambush.

In 1361, the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad I invaded Thrace. Murad captured Adrianople, probably in 1369 (the date is disputed). The city became "Edirne" (the Turkish pronunciation). [8] Murad moved the Ottoman capital to Edirne. Mehmed the Conqueror (Sultan Mehmed II) was born in Edirne, where he fell under the influence of some Hurufis dismissed by Taş Köprü Zade in the Şakaiki Numaniye as "Certain accursed ones of no significance", who were burnt as heretics by a certain Mahmud Pasha. [9]

The city remained the Ottoman capital for 84 years until 1453, when Mehmed II took Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) and moved the capital there. Edirne is famed for its many mosques, domes, minarets, and palaces from the Ottoman period.

Modern period

Edirne in the first quarter of the 20th century. In the background is the Selimiye Mosque 280713-2114AA.jpg
Edirne in the first quarter of the 20th century. In the background is the Selimiye Mosque
Edirne Municipality Edirne belediyesi.JPG
Edirne Municipality

Under Ottoman rule, Edirne was the principal city of the administrative unit, the eponymous Eyalet of Edirne, and after land reforms in 1867, the Vilayet of Edirne.

Sultan Mehmed IV left the palace in Constantinople and died in Edirne in 1693.

During his exile in the Ottoman Empire, the Swedish king Charles XII stayed in the city during most of 1713. [10]

Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, lived in Edirne from 1863 to 1868. He was exiled there by the Ottoman Empire before being banished further to the Ottoman penal colony in Akka. He referred to Edirne in his writings as the "Land of Mystery". [11]

Edirne was a sanjak centre during the Ottoman period and was bound to, successively, the Rumeli Eyalet and Silistre Eyalet before becoming a provincial capital of the Eyalet of Edirne at the beginning of the 19th century; until 1878, the Eyalet of Edirne comprised the sanjaks of Edirne, Tekfurdağı, Gelibolu, Filibe, and İslimye.

Edirne was briefly occupied by imperial Russian troops in 1829 during the Greek War of Independence and in 1878 during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. The city suffered a fire in 1905. In 1905 it had about 80,000 inhabitants, of whom 30,000 were Turks; 22,000 Greeks; 10,000 Bulgarians; 4,000 Armenians; 12,000 Jews; and 2,000 more citizens of unclassified ethnic/religious backgrounds.[ citation needed ]

Edirne was a vital fortress defending Ottoman Constantinople and Eastern Thrace during the Balkan Wars of 1912–13. It was briefly occupied by the Bulgarians in 1913, following the Siege of Adrianople. The Great Powers–Britain, Italy, France, and Russia–forced the Ottoman Empire to cede Edirne to Bulgaria at the end of First Balkan War, which created a political scandal in the Ottoman government in Istanbul (as Edirne was a former capital of the Empire), leading to the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état. Although it was victorious in the coup, the Committee of Union and Progress was unable to keep Edirne, but under Enver Pasha (who proclaimed himself the "second conqueror of Edirne", after Murad I), it was retaken from the Bulgarians soon after the Second Balkan War began.

It was occupied by the Greeks between the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 and their defeat at the end of the Greco-Turkish War, also known as the Western Front of the larger Turkish War of Independence, in 1922.

According to the 2007 census, Edirne Province had a population of 382,222 inhabitants. The city is a commercial centre for woven textiles, silks, carpets and agricultural products.

20120604 Edirne view from the top of the Minaret of Selimiye Mosque Edirne Turkey Panoramic.jpg
Panoramic view of the city from Selimiye Mosque.

Ecclesiastical history

Ottoman kulliye and hospital built by Bayezid II Edirne 7349 Nevit.JPG
Ottoman külliye and hospital built by Bayezid II

Adrianople was made the seat of a Greek metropolitan and of an Armenian bishop. Adrianople is also the centre of a Bulgarian diocese, but not recognized and deprived of a bishop. The city also had some Protestants. The Latin Catholics, foreigners for the most part, and not numerous, were dependent on the vicariate-apostolic of Constantinople. At Adrianople itself were the parish of St. Anthony of Padua (Minors Conventual) and a school for girls conducted by the Sisters of Charity of Agram. In the suburb of Karaağaç were a church (Minor Conventuals), a school for boys (Assumptionists) and a school for girls (Oblates of the Assumption). Each of its mission stations, at Tekirdağ and Alexandroupoli, had a school (Minor Conventuals), and there was one at Gallipoli (the Assumptionists).

Around 1850, from the standpoint of the Eastern Catholic Churches, Adrianople was the residence of a Bulgarian vicar-apostolic for the 4,600 Eastern Catholics of the Ottoman vilayet (province) of Thrace and after 1878 - of the principality of Bulgaria. They had 18 parishes or missions, 6 of which were in the principality, with 20 churches or chapels, 31 priests, of whom 6 were Assumptionists and 6 were Resurrectionists; 11 schools with 670 pupils. In Adrianople itself were only a very few United Bulgarians, with an Episcopal church of St. Elias, and the churches of St. Demetrius and Sts. Cyril and Methodius. The last is served by the Resurrectionists, who have also a college of 90 pupils. In the suburb of Karaağaç, the Assumptionists have a parish and a seminary with 50 pupils. Besides the Eastern Catholic Bulgarians, the above statistics included the Greek Catholic missions of Malgara (now Malkara) and Daoudili (now Davuteli village in Malkara), with 4 priests and 200 faithful, because from the civil point of view belonged to the Bulgarian Vicariate.

Later however, the Roman Catholic diocese was discontinued, and exists only in name as a titular metropolitan archbishopric, under the full name Hadrianopolis in Haemimonto to distinguish it from several other titular sees named Hadrianopolis.

In 2018, archaeologists discovered remains of a Byzantine church. The church was built around 500 AD and it was an early Byzantine period building. [12]

Geography

Climate

Edirne has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) with long, hot summers and cold and occasionally snowy winters.

Climate data for Edirne (1930–2017)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.5
(68.9)
23.3
(73.9)
28.0
(82.4)
33.5
(92.3)
37.1
(98.8)
42.6
(108.7)
44.1
(111.4)
40.8
(105.4)
37.8
(100.0)
35.8
(96.4)
28.0
(82.4)
22.8
(73.0)
44.1
(111.4)
Average high °C (°F)6.4
(43.5)
9.1
(48.4)
13.2
(55.8)
19.1
(66.4)
24.6
(76.3)
29.1
(84.4)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
27.2
(81.0)
20.5
(68.9)
13.9
(57.0)
8.3
(46.9)
19.6
(67.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.7
(36.9)
4.5
(40.1)
7.6
(45.7)
12.9
(55.2)
18.1
(64.6)
22.4
(72.3)
24.8
(76.6)
24.4
(75.9)
19.9
(67.8)
14.2
(57.6)
9.1
(48.4)
4.6
(40.3)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F)−0.6
(30.9)
0.3
(32.5)
2.8
(37.0)
7.0
(44.6)
11.6
(52.9)
15.3
(59.5)
17.2
(63.0)
17.1
(62.8)
13.3
(55.9)
9.1
(48.4)
5.0
(41.0)
1.2
(34.2)
8.3
(46.9)
Record low °C (°F)−19.5
(−3.1)
−19.0
(−2.2)
−12.0
(10.4)
−4.1
(24.6)
0.7
(33.3)
6.0
(42.8)
8.0
(46.4)
8.9
(48.0)
0.2
(32.4)
−3.7
(25.3)
−9.4
(15.1)
−14.9
(5.2)
−19.5
(−3.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)66.7
(2.63)
52.0
(2.05)
51.6
(2.03)
47.2
(1.86)
53.3
(2.10)
46.5
(1.83)
32.3
(1.27)
22.4
(0.88)
37.2
(1.46)
57.7
(2.27)
68.1
(2.68)
70.0
(2.76)
605.0
(23.82)
Average precipitation days12.49.89.910.110.38.55.53.94.87.710.613.2106.7
Average relative humidity (%)82777368686457576373818371
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77.5104.5142.6195.0263.5297.0341.0322.4240.0170.5102.071.32,327.3
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.53.74.66.58.59.911.010.48.05.53.42.36.4
Source #1: Turkish State Meteorological Service [13]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity 1931–1960) [14]

Points of interest

Grand Synagogue of Edirne GrandSynagogueEdirne (2).JPG
Grand Synagogue of Edirne

Situated 7 km (4.3 mi) near the Greek and 20 km (12 mi) Bulgarian borders, Edirne is famed for its many mosques, domes and minarets. The Selimiye Mosque, built in 1575 and designed by Turkey's greatest master architect, Mimar Sinan (c. 1489/1490–1588), is one of the most important monuments in the city. It has the highest minarets in Turkey, at 70.90 m (232.6 ft) and a cupola 3 or 4 ft (0.91 or 1.22 m) higher than that of Hagia Sophia, the Byzantine Orthodox Cathedral (now museum) in Istanbul. Carrying the name of the then reigning Ottoman Sultan Selim II (r. 1566–1574), this mosque futures Turkish marble handicrafts, and it is covered with valuable tiles and fine paintings. Other notable mosques are Eski Cami (Old Mosque), [15] and Burmalı Cami (Serpent Mosque), aka Üç Şerefeli Mosque. [16]

Edirne has three historic covered bazaars: Arasta, next to Selimiye Mosque, Bedesten next to Eski Cami and Ali Paşa Çarşısı (Ali Pasha Bazaar).

Besides the mosques, there are visitor attractions in Edirne, all reflecting its rich past. The most prominent place being the Edirne Palace (Ottoman Turkish : Saray-ı Cedid-i Amire for "New Imperial Palace") in Sarayiçi quarter, built during the reign of Murad II (r. 1421–1444). Although the buildings of the palace and its bath (Kum Kasrı Hamamı) are in ruined form, the palace gate and the palace kitchen facility are restored. The Kasr-ı Adalet ("Justice Castle"), built as part of the palace complex, stands intact next to the small Fatih Bridge over the Tunca river. [17]

Another notable building in the area is the Trakya University's Bayezid II Külliye Health Museum, an important monument with its complex construction comprising many facilities used in those times.

The Balkan Wars Memorial Cemetery is located close to the Edirne Palace, with an unknown soldier monument featuring an Ottoman soldier in front of its entrance. [18]

The historic Grand Synagogue of Edirne, abandoned and ruined, was restored and re-opened in March 2015. [19] [20] [21] A Roman Catholic and two Bulgarian Orthodox churches are found in the city.

Edirne has several historic arch bridges crossing over the rivers Meriç and Tundzha, which flow around west and south of the city.

There are caravansaries, like the Rustem Pasha and Ekmekcioglu Ahmet Pasha caravansaries, which were designed to host travelers, in the 16th century.

The historic Karaağaç railway station hosts today, after redevelopment, the Trakya University's Faculty of Fine Arts in Karaağaç suburb of Edirne. [18] Next to it, the Treaty of Lausanne Monument and Museum are situated. [22]

Culture

Oil-wrestling at Kirkpinar Yagli gures1.jpg
Oil-wrestling at Kırkpınar

The traditional oil-wrestling tournament called Kırkpınar, is held every year in late June or early July. [23] Kakava, an international festival celebrating the Roma people is held on 5 May each year. [24]

A cultural partnership with Lörrach, Germany began in 2006. The goal is to exchange pupils and students to improve their cultural skills and understanding.

Edirne is well known for local dishes. "Ciğer tava" (breaded and deep-fried liver) is often served with a side of cacık, a cool dish of diluted strained yogurt with chopped cucumber. Also, locally-made marzipan, which has a different recipe from standard marzipan, is one of traditional desserts of Edirne.

Handmade brooms with a mirror in them are one of the cultural images of the city and a central marriage tradition. Miniature versions are still sold in gift shops.

Economy

Ali Pasa Carsisi (Ali Pasha Bazaar). AliPasaCarsisiEdirne (2).JPG
Ali Paşa Çarşısı (Ali Pasha Bazaar).

Edirne's economy largely depends on agriculture. 73% of the working population work in agriculture, fishing, forests and hunting. The lowlands are productive. Corn, sugarbeets and sunflowers are the leading crops. Melons, watermelons, rice, tomatoes, eggplants and viniculture are important.

The through highway that connects Europe to Istanbul, Anatolia and the Middle East passes through Edirne.

Historic buildings and events have elevated tourism's role in the economy.

Industry is developing. Agriculture-based industries (agro-industries) are especially important for the city's economy.

Education

Main building of Trakya University TrakyaUNI6.JPG
Main building of Trakya University
Faculty of Fine Arts building of Trakya University, originally built as Karaagac railway station. KaraagacRailwayStation (6).JPG
Faculty of Fine Arts building of Trakya University, originally built as Karaağaç railway station.

Universities

High schools

Quarters

Twin cities

Notable people

Sultans
Historical
Contemporary

See also

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Yoros Castle

Yoros Castle is a Byzantine ruined castle at the confluence of the Bosphorus and the Black Sea, to the north of Joshua's Hill, in Istanbul, Turkey. It is also commonly referred to as the Genoese Castle, due to Genoa’s possession of it in the mid-15th century.

Çandarlızade Ali Pasha Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire

Çandarlızade Ali Pasha was the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1387 until 1406, under sultan Bayezid I and, during the Ottoman Interregnum, Süleyman Çelebi.

The Ottoman Empire (1299–1922) is a historical Muslim empire, also known by its contemporaries as the Turkish Empire or Turkey after the principal ethnic group. At its zenith in the second half of the 16th century it controlled Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia and North Africa. Below are the links to articles about the Ottoman Empire.

Rumelia Eyalet Ottoman province

The Eyalet of Rumeli or Rumelia, also known as the Beylerbeylik of Rumeli, was a first-level province of the Ottoman Empire encompassing most of the Balkans ("Rumelia"). For most of its history it was also the largest and most important province of the Empire, containing key cities such as Edirne, Yanina (Ioannina), Sofia, Manastır/Monastir (Bitola), Üsküp (Skopje), and the major seaport of Selanik/Salonica (Thessaloniki).

Edirnekapı, Fatih

Edirnekapı is a quarter of Istanbul, Turkey. It is part of the district of Fatih and belongs to the walled city.

Rabia Sultan was a consort of Sultan Ahmed II of the Ottoman Empire.

Bulgarian Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Thrace

The Bulgarian Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Tracia was the second missionary, pre-diocesan jurisdiction of the Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church sui iuris.

Evliya Kasim Pasha Mosque

Evliya Kasim Pasha Mosque is a 15th-century Ottoman mosque in Edirne, northwestern Turkey. It is named after Kasim Pasha.

References

https://www.academia.edu/23674853/Edirne_Ta%C5%9F_K%C3%B6pr%C3%BCleri_Edirne_Stone_Bridges

  1. "HGK" (PDF). General Command of Mapping.
  2. 1 2 "Edirne". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  3. "In 1363 the Ottoman capital moved from Bursa to Edirne, although Bursa retained its spiritual and economic importance." Ottoman Capital Bursa. Official website of Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey. Retrieved 19 December 2014. Contradicted by refs cited in Conquest of Adrianople
  4. Keegan, John (1993). A History of Warfare . Random House. pp. 70–71. ISBN   0-7126-9850-7.
  5. Mommsen, Theodor. The History of Rome, Volume 4, page 53: "... defeated the Bessi in their mountains, took their capital Uscudama (Adrianople), and compelled them to submit to the Roman supremacy
  6. Hupchick, Dennis (2017). The Bulgarian-Byzantine Wars for Early Medieval Balkan Hegemony: silver-lined skulls and blinded armies. US: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 107. ISBN   9783319562056.
  7. Saint-Guillain, G. (1216) Identities and Allegiances in the Eastern Mediterranean after 1204, Routledge, p. 66
  8. "It served as the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1413 until 1458 and flourished as an administrative, commercial, and cultural centre." "Edirne" Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved 19 December 2014
  9. John Kingsley Birge, The Bektashi Order of Dervishes, 1982 (p 60 - 62)
  10. "Adrianopel" in Nordisk familjebok (2nd edition, 1904)
  11. "Bahá'í Reference Library - The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Page 196". Reference.bahai.org. 31 December 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  12. Remains of 1500-year old Byzantine church found in Turkey's northwest
  13. "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Genel İstatistik Verileri" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  14. "Klimatafel von Edirne / Türkei" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  15. 1 2 Edirne: Eski Cami - Ulu Cami
  16. "Üç Şerefeli Cami" (in Turkish). Edirne Vergi Dairesi Başkanlığı. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  17. "Saraylar" (in Turkish). Edirne Vergi Dairesi Başkanlığı. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  18. 1 2 "Anıtlar" (in Turkish). Edirne Vergi Dairesi Başkanlığı. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  19. "Edirne Sinagogu 46 yıl sonra yeniden ibadete açıldı". Sabah (in Turkish). 26 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  20. "Büyük Sinagog'da 46 yıl sonra ilk ibadet". CNN Türk (in Turkish). 26 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  21. Özmen, Engin (25 March 2015). "Edirne'de Büyük Sinagog açılışa hazır". Hürriyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  22. "Edirne Anıtları-Lozan Anıtı" (in Turkish). Edirne Vergi Dairesi Başkanlığı. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  23. Hong, Fan (2017). Sport in the Middle East: Power, Politics, Ideology and Religion. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN   1351547968.
  24. "Kakava'da ateş yakıldı". www.hurriyet.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2019-03-09.

Further reading

Edirne Stone Bridges - "History of Edirne"

Coordinates: 41°40′N26°34′E / 41.667°N 26.567°E / 41.667; 26.567