Edmund Mortimer (rebel)

Last updated

Edmund Mortimer IV
Born10 December 1376 [1]
Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, England
DiedJanuary 1409 (aged 32) [2]
Harlech Castle, Wales
Family Mortimer
Spouse Catrin ferch Owain Glyndŵr (1402)
Father Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March
Mother Philippa, 5th Countess of Ulster

Sir Edmund Mortimer IV (10 December 1376 – January 1409) was an English nobleman and landowner who played a part in the rebellions of the Welsh leader Owain Glyndŵr and of the Percy family against King Henry IV, at the beginning of the 15th century. [3] He perished at the siege of Harlech as part of these conflicts. He was related to many members of the English royal family through his mother, Philippa, Countess of Ulster, who was a granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Contents

Family

Ludlow Castle, birthplace of Edmund Mortimer Ludlow Castle from Whitcliffe, 2011.jpg
Ludlow Castle, birthplace of Edmund Mortimer

Edmund IV was born on 10 December 1376 at Ludlow Castle in Shropshire [4] as the second son of Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, by his wife Philippa Plantagenet. He was a grandson of Lionel of Antwerp, thus a great-grandson of King Edward III. He had an elder brother, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, and two sisters, Elizabeth, who married Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, and Philippa, who married firstly John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, secondly Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel, and thirdly, Sir Thomas Poynings. [5]

Edmund was financially well provided for, both by his father, who died when Edmund was 5 years old, and by his elder brother Roger. [3]

Edmund was a supporter of his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, [3] later King Henry IV, in spite of the fact that his older brother Roger had a stronger genealogical claim to the throne by reason of the fact that he and his brother were grandsons of Lionel of Antwerp, King Edward III's second surviving son, whereas Bolingbroke's father, John of Gaunt, was King Edward III's third surviving son.

When his elder brother Roger was slain in a skirmish at Kells in Ireland on 20 July 1398, [4] Edmund became responsible for protecting the interests of Roger's young son, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, who also had a claim to the throne as heir to his father. [3]

Capture by Owain Glyndŵr

Both Edmund Mortimer and his brother-in-law Henry 'Hotspur' Percy fought for Henry IV against the Welsh rebel leader Owain Glyndŵr. However, at the Battle of Bryn Glas on 22 June 1402, Mortimer was defeated, allegedly because some of his Welsh forces defected, and he was taken prisoner. [3]

King Henry's suspicions were fuelled by rumours that Mortimer had fallen into captivity by his own design. He forbade the Percys to seek their kinsman's ransom, and by October 1402 began seizing Mortimer's estates, plate and jewels. Mortimer thereupon transferred his allegiance to Glyndŵr. On 30 November 1402 he married Glyndŵr's daughter Catrin, and on 13 December 1402 proclaimed in writing that he had joined Glyndŵr in his efforts to restore King Richard II to the throne, if alive, and if dead, to make his nephew Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, King of England. [3]

In the summer of 1403, the Percys rebelled and took up arms against the king. According to J. M. W. Bean, it is clear that the Percys were in collusion with Glyndŵr. Mortimer's brother-in-law Henry 'Hotspur' Percy and Hotspur's uncle, Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester, moved south with their army. However, Hotspur's father, Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, was, for reasons never fully explained, slow to move south with his army. Hotspur and Worcester met Henry IV's forces at the Battle of Shrewsbury on 21 July 1403 without Northumberland's assistance. They were defeated; Hotspur was slain, and Worcester was executed two days later. [6]

The alliance of Glyndŵr and Edmund Mortimer with the Percys survived the setback at Shrewsbury. In February 1405, Glyndŵr, Mortimer, and Northumberland entered into the Tripartite Indenture, which proposed a threefold division of the kingdom. Mortimer was to have most of the south of England. This agreement was apparently connected to the attempted abduction of Mortimer's nephew Edmund in the same month and Northumberland's second rising in May 1405. [3]

However, after Shrewsbury, Glyndŵr's attacks on the king's forces were largely unsuccessful, and according to T. F. Tout, 'Mortimer himself was reduced to great distress'. He died in 1409, either during or shortly after the eight-month siege of Glyndŵr's stronghold of Harlech Castle by Henry IV's son, Henry, Prince of Wales. [3]

Edmund Mortimer and his wife Catrin had one son, Lionel, and three daughters. After Mortimer's death the king had Catrin and her daughters brought to London, where they were held in custody. In 1413 she and two of her daughters were buried at St Swithin, London Stone. [4]

Shakespeare and Sir Edmund Mortimer

Events in the life of Sir Edmund Mortimer were dramatised by Shakespeare in Henry IV, Part 1. In the play, Shakespeare accurately identifies him as Hotspur's brother-in-law, but simultaneously conflates him with his nephew by referring to him as "Earl of March".

Ancestry

Family connections

Notes

  1. Cokayne and Tout give his date of birth as 9 November 1376.
  2. Richardson III 2011, p. 195.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Tout & Davies 2004.
  4. 1 2 3 Richardson III 2011 , p. 195.
  5. Cokayne 1932 , p. 448; Richardson II 2011 , pp. 190–1; Richardson III 2011 , pp. 193–5, 307, 335, 341; Holmes 2004; Tout & Davies 2004.
  6. Bean 2004.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Mortimer 2003, p. 319.
  8. 1 2 3 Holmes 2004.
  9. Mortimer 2003, p. 113.
  10. 1 2 Davies 2004.
  11. 1 2 Weir 2008, p. 92.
  12. 1 2 Weir 2008, pp. 95–6.
  13. 1 2 3 4 Weir 2008, p. 96.
  14. 1 2 Weir 2008, p. 93.
  15. 1 2 Weir 2008, pp. 75–9.

Related Research Articles

Henry Percy (Hotspur) 14th-century English noble

Sir Henry Percy, nicknamed Hotspur, was an English knight who fought in several campaigns against the Scots in the northern border and against the French during the Hundred Years' War. The nickname "Hotspur" was given to him by the Scots as a tribute to his speed in advance and readiness to attack. The heir to a leading noble family in northern England, Hotspur was one of the earliest and prime movers behind the deposition of King Richard II in favour of Henry Bolingbroke in 1399. He later fell out with the new regime and rebelled, being slain at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403 at the height of his fame.

Edward, 2nd Duke of York 14th-century English noble

Edward, 2nd Duke of York, was an English nobleman and magnate, the eldest son of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, and a grandson of King Edward III of England. He held significant appointments during the reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, and Henry V, and is also known for his translation of the hunting treatise The Master of Game. He was killed at the Battle of Agincourt, one of the principal military engagements of the Hundred Years' War against France, in 1415.

Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge 14th/15th-century English noble

Richard of Conisbrough, 3rd Earl of Cambridge was the second son of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, and Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York. He was beheaded for his part in the Southampton Plot, a conspiracy against King Henry V. He was the father of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and the grandfather of King Edward IV and King Richard III.

Anne de Mortimer Medieval English noble

Anne Mortimer, also known as Anne de Mortimer, was a medieval English noblewoman who became an ancestress to the royal House of York, one of the parties in the fifteenth-century dynastic Wars of the Roses. It was her line of descent which gave the Yorkist dynasty its claim to the throne. Anne was the mother of Richard, Duke of York, and thus grandmother of kings Edward IV and Richard III.

Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March 14th/15th-century English noble

Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, 7th Earl of Ulster, 8th Baron Mortimer, was an English nobleman and a potential claimant to the throne of England. A great-great-grandson of King Edward III of England, he was heir presumptive to King Richard II of England, his paternal first cousin twice removed and maternal half great-uncle, when Richard II was deposed in favour of Henry IV. Edmund Mortimer's claim to the throne was the basis of rebellions and plots against Henry IV and his son Henry V, and was later taken up by the House of York in the Wars of the Roses, though Mortimer himself was an important and loyal vassal of Henry V and Henry VI. Edmund was the last Earl of March of the Mortimer family.

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland 14th/15th-century English nobleman

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of WestmorlandEarl Marshal, was an English nobleman of the House of Neville.

Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 14th-century English noble

Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy, titular King of Mann, KG, Lord Marshal was the son of Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy, and a descendant of Henry III of England. His mother was Mary of Lancaster, daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, son of Edmund, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, who was the son of Henry III.

Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland English nobleman and military commander

Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland was an English nobleman and military commander in the lead up to the Wars of the Roses. He was the son of Henry "Hotspur" Percy, and the grandson of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. His father and grandfather were killed in different rebellions against Henry IV in 1403 and 1408 respectively, and the young Henry spent his minority in exile in Scotland. Only after the death of Henry IV in 1413 was he reconciled with the Crown, and in 1414 he was created Earl of Northumberland.

Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March

Edmund de Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March and jure uxoris Earl of Ulster was son of Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, by his wife Philippa, daughter of William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison.

Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March

Roger de Mortimer, 4th Earl of March was an English nobleman. He was considered the heir presumptive to King Richard II, his mother's first cousin.

Constance of York, Countess of Gloucester was the only daughter of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, and his wife Isabella of Castile, daughter of King Peter of Castile and his favourite mistress, María de Padilla.

Reynold Grey, 3rd Baron Grey of Ruthin

Reynold Grey, 3rd Baron Grey of Ruthin, a powerful Welsh marcher lord, succeeded to the title on his father's death in July 1388.

The Battle of Bryn Glas, was fought on 22 June 1402, near the towns of Knighton and Presteigne in Powys. It was a great victory for the Welsh under Owain Glyndŵr, and it resulted in the prolongation of the Welsh war of independence and the destabilisation of English politics for several years afterward.

Battle of Bramham Moor Final battle in the Percy Rebellion of 1402 – 1408, which pitted Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, head of the rich and influential Percy family, against the usurper King of England

The Battle of Bramham Moor on 19 February 1408 was the final battle in the Percy Rebellion of 1402 – 1408, which pitted Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, head of the rich and influential Percy family, against the usurper King of England, Henry IV. The Percys had previously supported Henry in his coup d'etat against his cousin King Richard II in 1399.

Events from the 1400s in England.

Glyndŵr Rising

The Glyndŵr Rising, Welsh Revolt or Last War of Independence was an uprising of the Welsh between 1400 and 1415, led by Owain Glyndŵr, against the Kingdom of England. It was the last major manifestation of a Welsh independence movement before the incorporation of Wales into England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542.

Richard le Scrope was an English cleric who served as Bishop of Lichfield and Archbishop of York and was executed in 1405 for his participation in the Northern Rising against King Henry IV.

Elizabeth Mortimer 14th-century English noble

Elizabeth Mortimer, Lady Percy and Baroness Camoys, was a medieval English noblewoman, the granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, and great-granddaughter of King Edward III. Her first husband was Sir Henry Percy, known to history as 'Hotspur'. She married secondly Thomas Camoys, 1st Baron Camoys. She is represented as 'Kate, Lady Percy,' in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1, and briefly again as 'Widow Percy' in Henry IV, Part 2.

William Willoughby, 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby

William Willoughby, 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby KG was an English baron.

Sir Hugh Waterton, was a trusted servant of the House of Lancaster.

References

Further reading