Edsel Ford, 1921
|President of the Ford Motor Company|
|Preceded by||Henry Ford|
|Succeeded by||Henry Ford II|
Edsel Bryant Ford
November 6, 1893
|Died||May 26, 1943 49) (aged|
Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan
|Spouse(s)||Eleanor Lowthian Clay (1916–43; his death)|
|Relations|| Edsel Ford II (grandson) |
William Clay Ford Jr. (grandson)
|Children|| Henry Ford II |
William Clay Ford Sr.
|Parents|| Henry Ford |
Clara Jane Ford
|Occupation||President and CEO of the Ford Motor Company|
Edsel Bryant Ford (November 6, 1893 – May 26, 1943) was the son of Clara Jane Bryant Ford and the only child of Henry Ford. He was the president of Ford Motor Company from 1919 to his death in 1943. His eldest son was Henry Ford II.
Henry Ford was an American captain of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.
Ford Motor Company is a multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors. It also has joint-ventures in China, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, and Russia. The company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family; they have minority ownership but the majority of the voting power.
Henry Ford II, sometimes known as "HF2" or "Hank the Deuce", was the eldest son of Edsel Ford and eldest grandson of Henry Ford. He was president of the Ford Motor Company from 1945 to 1960, chief executive officer (CEO) from 1960 to 1979, and chairman of the board of directors from 1960 to 1980. Notably, under the leadership of Henry Ford II, Ford Motor Company became a publicly traded corporation in 1956. From 1943 to 1950, he also served as president of the Ford Foundation.
He worked closely with his father, as sole heir to the business, but was keen to develop cars more exciting than the Model T ("Tin Lizzie"), in line with his personal tastes. Even as president, he had trouble persuading his father to allow any departure from this formula. Only a change in market conditions enabled him to develop the more fashionable Model A in 1927. Edsel also founded the Mercury division and was responsible for the Lincoln Zephyr and Lincoln Continental. He introduced important features, such as hydraulic brakes, and greatly strengthened the company’s overseas production.
The Ford Model T is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927. It is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car that opened travel to the common middle-class American; some of this was because of Ford's efficient fabrication, including assembly line production instead of individual hand crafting.
The Ford Model A, was the second successful vehicle model for the Ford Motor Company, after its predecessor, the Model T. First produced on October 20, 1927, but not introduced until December 2, it replaced the venerable Model T, which had been produced for 18 years. This new Model A was designated a 1928 model and was available in four standard colors.
Mercury is a defunct division of the American automobile manufacturer Ford Motor Company. Marketed as an entry-level premium brand for nearly its entire existence, Mercury was created in 1938 by Edsel Ford to bridge the price gap between the Ford and Lincoln vehicle lines. In a similar context, Buick and Oldsmobile served the same role within General Motors while Mercury competed against the namesake brand of Chrysler.
Ford was a major art benefactor in Detroit and also financed Admiral Richard Byrd’s polar explorations. He died of stomach cancer aged 49, with his father resuming the presidency of the company, before handing it over to Henry Ford II. The range of cars launched by Ford in 1957 under the name Edsel is remembered as one of the classic marketing failures.
Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd Jr. was an American naval officer and explorer. He was a recipient of the Medal of Honor, the highest honor for valor given by the United States, and was a pioneering American aviator, polar explorer, and organizer of polar logistics. Aircraft flights in which he served as a navigator and expedition leader crossed the Atlantic Ocean, a segment of the Arctic Ocean, and a segment of the Antarctic Plateau. Byrd claimed that his expeditions had been the first to reach both the North Pole and the South Pole by air. However, his claim to have reached the North Pole is disputed.
Edsel is an automobile marque that was planned, developed, and manufactured by the Ford Motor Company for model years 1958 through 1960. With the Edsel brand, Ford had expected to make significant inroads into the market share of both General Motors and Chrysler and close the gap between itself and GM in the domestic American automotive market. Ford invested heavily in a yearlong teaser campaign leading consumers to believe that Edsels were the cars of the future – an expectation they failed to meet. After being unveiled to the public, they were considered to be unattractive, overpriced, and overhyped. Edsels never gained popularity with contemporary American car buyers and sold poorly. The Ford Motor Company lost $250 million on Edsel development, manufacturing, and marketing.
Edsel Ford was born in Detroit, Michigan, US, as the only child of Clara and Henry Ford, being named for Edsel Ruddiman, one of Henry Ford's closest childhood friends.
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States. The metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art, architecture and design.
He was groomed to take over the family automobile business, and grew up tinkering on cars with his father. He became secretary of Ford in 1915, and married Eleanor Lowthian Clay (1896–1976), the niece of department store owner J. L. Hudson, on November 1, 1916.Together, they had four children: Henry Ford II (1917–1987), Benson Ford (1919–1978), Josephine Clay Ford (1923–2005), and William Clay Ford (1925–2014). They made their home at 2171 Iroquois Street, in the Indian Village neighborhood of Detroit.
Joseph Lowthian Hudson, a.k.a. J. L. Hudson, was the merchant who founded the Hudson's department store in Detroit, Michigan. Hudson also supplied the seed capital for the establishment, in 1909, of Roy D. Chapin's automotive venture, which Chapin named the Hudson Motor Car Company in honor of J.L. Hudson.
Josephine Clay "Dody" Ford was an American philanthropist and the only granddaughter of Henry Ford.
Indian Village is a historic, affluent neighborhood located on Detroit's east side, bound to the north and south by Mack Avenue and East Jefferson Avenue, respectively, along the streets of Burns, Iroquois, and Seminole. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.
Ford went to The Hotchkiss School, in Lakeville, Connecticut, and the Detroit University School. His family donated to both institutions. The school library at Hotchkiss is named the Edsel Ford Memorial Library.[ citation needed ]
The Hotchkiss School is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational, college preparatory boarding school in Lakeville, Connecticut, founded in 1891. The school offers a classical education with grades 9–12 and a postgraduate (PG) option, attracting students across the United States and 34 foreign countries.
Lakeville is a village in Litchfield County, Connecticut, bordering Dutchess County, New York. It is part of the Town of Salisbury but it has its own zip code (06039). It is southwest of Salisbury Village on U.S. Route 44. The Hotchkiss and Indian Mountain Schools are located in Lakeville.
The younger Ford showed more interest than his father in flashier styling for automobiles. He indulged this proclivity in part with the purchase of the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922. His affinity for sports cars was demonstrated in his personal vehicles: Edsel bought the first MG motorcar imported to the US. In 1932, he had an aluminum, boat-tailed speedster automobile custom designed by Ford's first designer, E. T. (Bob) Gregorie and featuring Ford's brand-new V8, the first low-cost, eight-cylinder engine. This car was sold at an auction during the Amelia Island Concours d'Elegance in 1976.
After becoming the president of Ford, he long advocated the introduction of a more modern automobile to replace the Model T, but was repeatedly overruled by his father. Dwindling market share finally made introduction of a new model inevitable: the Model A.
During the design of the Model A in 1927, Henry Ford assured mechanical quality and reliability, allowing his son to develop the body, with the help of designer József Galamb. Edsel also prevailed upon his father to allow the inclusion of four-wheel mechanical brakes and a sliding-gear transmission on this model. The resulting Model A was a commercial success, selling over four million during four years of production.
As president, Edsel Ford often disagreed with his father on major decisions and was occasionally humiliated in public by the older man.The relationship between the father and son was always close, but always fraught with unhealthy aspects. Edsel managed to introduce many lasting changes. He founded and named the Mercury division. He was responsible for the Lincoln Zephyr and Continental. He significantly strengthened Ford Motors' overseas production, and modernized the company's cars, such as by introducing hydraulic brakes.
The Ford Motor Company played a key role in the arming of the US "Arsenal of Democracy". With Edsel leading the company, he set the goal of producing one bomber per hour at Ford's expansive Willow Run manufacturing complex, where the B-24 was produced.It was said that the stress of this job caused Edsel to become mortally ill.
Edsel Ford developed metastatic stomach cancer and undulant fever.Surgery for the cancer was unsuccessful due to the metastasis. Ford died in 1943 at Gaukler Point, in his lakeside home in Grosse Pointe Shores, at the age of 49. His father resumed the presidency of the company. All of Edsel Ford's nonvoting stock was donated through a codicil in his will to the Ford Foundation, which he had founded with his father seven years earlier. He is buried at Woodlawn Cemetery in Detroit, Michigan.
Each of Edsel Ford's children inherited sizable shares in the Ford Motor Company, and the three sons all worked in the family business. Henry Ford II succeeded his grandfather as president of Ford on September 21, 1945.
Edsel Ford was one of the most significant art benefactors in Detroit history. As president of the Detroit Arts Commission, he commissioned the famous Diego Rivera Detroit Industry Murals in the Detroit Institute of Arts (DIA).He was an early collector of African art and his contributions became part of the core of the original DIA African art collection. After his death, his family continued to make significant contributions.
He helped finance exploratory expeditions, including the historic flight of Admiral Richard Byrd over the North Pole in 1926. Byrd, in his Antarctic expeditions, also financed by Edsel, named the Edsel Ford Range of mountains after him. Other Antarctic homages include Ford Massif, Ford Nunataks, and Ford Peak.
Two of the three high schools in Dearborn are named after Edsel Ford: Edsel Ford High School and Fordson High School; Fordson was the brand name of a line of tractors and was originally started as a separate company, Henry Ford & Son, later absorbed into the Ford Motor Company. Interstate 94 in the Detroit Metropolitan Area is named the Edsel Ford Freeway.
In September 1957, Ford Motor Company unveiled a new division of cars called Edsel. The Edsel division included the Citation, Corsair, Pacer, Ranger, Bermuda, Villager, and Roundup models. The Edsel division is remembered as a significant commercial failure. The cars sold moderately well in their first year, but the Edsel division was discontinued soon after the 1960 models were introduced.
In 1929, the Ford family moved into Gaukler Point, their new home designed by Albert Kahn in 1929, on the shores of Lake St. Clair in Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan. The estate's gardens were designed by landscape architect Jens Jensen with his traditional long view, giving visitors a glimpse of the residence down the long meadow before revealing the entire house at drive's end.
He also designed the gardens for Edsel and Eleanor's summer estate Skylands in Seal Harbor on Mount Desert Island in Maine.Jensen designed work for their two other Michigan residences, one being Haven Hill, between 1922 and 1935. Haven Hill, now within the Highland Recreation Area near White Lake Township in southeastern Michigan, is designated as both a Michigan State Historical Landmark and State Natural Preserve. Jensen's landscape elements, with the diversity of tree, plant, and animal life, combine aesthetics, history, and nature.
Edsel Ford died at Gaukler Point in 1943. His wife Eleanor continued living there until her death in 1976. It was her wish that the property be used for "the benefit of the public." The Edsel and Eleanor Ford House is now open to the public. 87 acres (35.2 ha), the house has an excellent collection of the Fords' original antiques and art, and the historical landscape grounds on the lakefront. The museum currently hosts tours, classes, lectures, and special events. The property is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.Located on
| Chief Executive Officer of the Ford Motor Company |
Grosse Pointe is a waterfront city adjacent to Detroit in Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The municipality covers just over one square mile and had a population of 5,421 at the 2010 census. It is bordered on the west by Grosse Pointe Park, on the north by Detroit, on the east by Grosse Pointe Farms, and on the south by Lake Saint Clair. Grosse Pointe is about eight miles (13 km) east of downtown Detroit, accessible by Jefferson Avenue or several other cross streets. Grosse Pointe is one of five similarly named municipalities in northeastern Wayne County, and is often called "The City" or Grosse Pointe City.
Grosse Pointe Shores is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The city, which is entirely residential, is the location of the Grosse Pointe Yacht Club on Lake Saint Clair. The city's population was 3,008 at the 2010 census. It has the 70th highest income for a municipality with over 1,000 citizens in the country and the second highest income in the state of Michigan.
Albert Kahn was the foremost American industrial architect of his day. He is sometimes called the "architect of Detroit". In 1943, the Franklin Institute awarded him the Frank P. Brown Medal posthumously.
Grosse Pointe refers to an affluent coastal area adjacent to Detroit, Michigan, United States, that comprises five adjacent individual cities. From southwest to northeast, they are:
William Clay Ford Sr. was an American businessman. He served on the boards of Ford Motor Company and the Edison Institute. Ford owned the Detroit Lions National Football League (NFL) franchise. He was the youngest child of Edsel Ford and was the last surviving grandchild of Henry Ford.
Roy Dikeman Chapin, Sr. was an American industrialist and cofounder of Hudson Motor Company, the predecessor of American Motors. He also served as the United States Secretary of Commerce from August 8, 1932, to March 3, 1933, in the last months of the administration of President Herbert Hoover.
Horace Elgin Dodge Sr. was an American automobile manufacturing pioneer and co-founder of Dodge Brothers Company.
Edsel Bryant Ford II is the great-grandson of Henry Ford and the son of Henry Ford II. He is currently a member of the board of directors of Ford Motor Company and serves on the finance committee and sustainability and innovation committee. He is a cousin of its Executive Chairman, William Clay Ford, Jr..
Alfred Brush Ford, also known as Ambarish Das, is an American heir to the Ford fortune. He is a great-grandson of legendary businessman Henry Ford - the founder of the Ford Motor Company.
Woodlawn Cemetery is a cemetery located at 19975 Woodward Avenue, opposite the Michigan State Fairgrounds, between 7 Mile Road and 8 Mile Road, in Detroit, Michigan.
The Edsel and Eleanor Ford House is a mansion located at 1100 Lake Shore Drive in Grosse Pointe Shores, northeast of Detroit, Michigan; it stands on the site known as "Gaukler Point", on the shore of Lake St. Clair. The house became the new residence of the Edsel and Eleanor Ford family in 1929. Edsel Ford was the son of Henry Ford and an executive at Ford Motor Company. The estate's buildings were designed by architect Albert Kahn, its site plan and gardens by renowned landscape designer Jens Jensen. The property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979, and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2016.
Leonard B. Willeke was an architect.
Eugene Turenne Gregorie was an American yacht designer and automobile designer. Gregorie and Edsel Ford worked closely together to design many automobiles of the 1930s and 1940s. Although he was a high school dropout he became the head of Ford's automobile design department. He returned to yacht design after retirement.
Roy Brown Jr. was a Canadian-American car designer and engineer, best known for creating the first Ford Edsel automobile model in 1958 and the exterior for the Ford Zephyr.
Hugh Tallman Keyes was a noted early to mid 20th-century American architect.
Harry George Garland was founder and president of Garland Manufacturing Company in Detroit, Michigan, a company that he founded in 1935. As a result of his contributions to the production of equipment for the armed forces during World War II, he was recognized as one of the leaders of wartime Michigan. He sold Garland Manufacturing in 1947 and turned to a career of rescuing financially distressed companies, often as a court-appointed bankruptcy receiver. His receiverships included the Anker-Holth Manufacturing Co., Richmond & Backus Co., D. J. Healy Shops, Rocky River Paper Mill, and the F.L. Jacobs Company. Mr. Garland also served on the Macomb County, Michigan Board of Supervisors for almost 20 years. The Garland Lodge and Resort in Lewiston, Michigan is named after him.
Martha Parke Firestone Ford is an American businesswoman. She is the principal owner and chairwoman of the Detroit Lions of the National Football League (NFL). Ford is also on the board of the Henry Ford Health System.
The years between the world wars were a period of hectic expansion. In 1917, Ford Motor Company began producing trucks and tractors. In 1919, a conflict with stockholders over the millions to be spent building the giant Rouge manufacturing complex in Dearborn, Michigan, led to the company becoming wholly owned by Henry Ford and his son, Edsel, who then succeeded his father as president. After Edsel Ford died in 1943, a saddened Henry Ford resumed the presidency. Henry Ford resigned for the second time at the end of World War II. His eldest grandson, Henry Ford II, became president on Sept. 21, 1945. Even as Henry Ford II drove the industry's first postwar car off the assembly line, he was making plans to reorganize and decentralize the company to resume its prewar position as a major force in a fiercely competitive auto industry. Henry Ford II provided strong leadership for Ford Motor Company from the postwar era into the 1980s. He was president from 1945 until 1960 and chief executive officer from 1945 until 1979. He was chairman of the board of directors from 1960 until 1980, and remained as chairman of the finance committee from 1980 until his death in 1987.
Josephine Clay Ford, a philanthropist who was the sole granddaughter of the automotive pioneer Henry Ford, died on Wednesday. She was 81 and lived in suburban Grosse Pointe Farms. Her death was announced in an e-mail message to Ford Motor Company employees by the company chairman, Bill Ford Jr., a nephew. The message did not give a place or cause of death. Mrs. Ford, known as Dody, established a foundation with her husband that donated millions of dollars. Mrs. Ford was born in 1923, the third of Edsel and Eleanor Ford's four children. Edsel was Henry Ford's only son. Grosse Pointe Farms.
Martha Parke Ford, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William Clay Ford, made her debut tonight at a reception at the Ford home on Lake Shore Road in nearby Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan
Edsel Ford, 49-year-old president of the Ford Motor Company, died this morning at his home at Grosse Pointe Shores following an illness of six weeks.
Edsel was a first name before it was ever a car name. But it was never a very popular thing to call a child: according to the Social Security Administration—which has time for this sort of thing—the name Edsel has ranked only as high as 400th on the top 1,000 names for boys, and that was in 1927. More popular names that year included the soaring Kermit, Buford and Elvin.
| President of the Ford Motor Company |
Henry Ford II