|President of South Ossetia|
18 December 2001 –10 December 2011
|Prime Minister|| Gerasim Khugayev |
Zurab Kokoyev (Acting)
Boris Chochiev (Acting)
|Preceded by||Lyudvig Chibirov|
|Succeeded by||Vadim Brovtsev (Acting)|
|Born||31 October 1964|
Tskhinvali, Georgian SSR, Soviet Union
(now de jure Georgia, de facto South Ossetia)
|Political party||Unity Party|
Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoyty (Ossetian : Кокойты Джабейы фырт Эдуард, Kokoyte Jabêye fert Êdward; born 31 October 1964) is the former President of the partially recognized state South Ossetia. His term in office lasted just under ten years, beginning December 2001 and ending December 2011.
Eduard Kokoyty (Ossetian : Кокойты Джабейы фырт Эдуард, Kokoyte Jabêye fert Êdward; Russian : Эдуа́рд Джабе́евич Коко́йты, Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoyty; Georgian :ედუარდ ჯაბეს ძე კოკოითი, Eduard Jabes dze K'ok'oiti; surname also rendered as Kokoity or Kokoyti or in a Russified version as Russian : Коко́ев, Kokoyev) was born in Tskhinvali, in the Georgian SSR, a part of the Soviet Union at the time. He was a member, and champion, of the Soviet Union's national wrestling team. Prior to 1989, he was the First Secretary of the Tskhinvali branch of the Komsomol, the Young Communist League. He moved to Moscow in 1992, where he became a businessman, after learning about capitalism. In 2001, he moved back to South Ossetia.
Kokoyty was elected president, at the age of 38, with a majority in the presidential elections of November–December 2001. In the first round of the elections on 18 November 2001, he collected 45% of the vote, with Stanislav Kochiev collecting 24%, and incumbent Lyudvig Chibirov collecting 21%. In the Second and final round, he won 53% of the vote to Stanislav Kochiev's 40% on 6 December. Kokoyty assumed office on 18 December 2001.
Kokoyty's victory was unexpected and owed much to the support of the Tedeyev clan, one of South Ossetia's most powerful families. He had gained key support from Albert "Dik" Tedeyev and his brother Dzhambolat, also a champion wrestler, who organized and financed Kokoyty's election campaign. [ citation needed ] After Kokoyty was elected president, members of the Tedeyev clan took over responsibility for the republic's customs service and for freight traffic along the Transcaucasian highway. Revenues from the highway provide much of the South Ossetian government's revenue.The clan had previously supported Lyudvig Chibirov, but broke off support for him after he attempted to move against them.
In July 2003, Kokoyty moved against the Tedeyevs. Sacking Albert Tedeyev, the Secretary of the Security Council, and ordering their private militias to be disarmed. According to Kokoyty, the Security Council Secretary, along with the Defense and Security Chiefs had links with criminals. The affair prompted an outbreak of gunfire in Tskhinvali, but no casualties were reported.[ citation needed ]
Kokoyty has taken a strong position against reunification with Georgia, although he has expressed a willingness to negotiate a peace settlement on the basis of South Ossetia being treated as an independent state (a precondition rejected by the Tbilisi government). Following a tense stand-off with the central Georgian government in July 2004, he claimed "Georgia wants war. But we are ready for self-defense." Prior to the 2006 presidential elections, he stated that the Georgian-Ossetian conflict was not an inter-ethnic, but clearly a political one caused by Georgia's desire to impose on Ossetians the norms of Western democracy which could not be superior to the Caucasian traditional laws.He has also criticized the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe mission in the region on several occasions, accusing the organization of bias and likening its activities to "[those] of Georgia's secret services".
He was reelected on 12 November 2006 following the 2006 presidential election. On the same day, Georgian-backed forces organized an alternative election in the territories controlled by Georgia or only loosely controlled by the South Ossetian government. Dmitry Sanakoyev, a former prime minister of South Ossetia, who was sacked by Kokoyty in 2001, was elected as a rival president.
On 10 December 2011, he resigned as President of South Ossetia. Prime Minister Vadim Brovtsev was acting president until the presidential election rerun on 25 March 2012. Eduard Kokoyty was constitutionally barred from serving a third term in office. Although attempts were made to call a referendum to change the constitution, this was blocked by the Supreme Court. Kokoyty himself stated he had no intention in seeking a third term,and called on everybody to refrain from initiatives to allow him to serve a third term. After multiple elections and several rounds of voting, Leonid Tibilov was elected president 8 April 2012.
On 11 September 2008 Kokoyty stated that independent South Ossetia would eventually become part of the Russian Federation, a claim that was quickly denied by Russian officials and shortly thereafter retracted by Kokoyty.Kokoyty is a Eurasianist and argues that South Ossetia never left the Russian Empire.
Since December 2008, Kokoyty's former allies have subjected him to heavy criticism in a series of interviews with the Russian media. Kokoyty's erstwhile insider and the Russia-based businessman Albert Dzhussoyev accused the Kokoyty administration of hijacking Russian funds meant for South Ossetia and claimed the region was on the brink of a "social catastrophe". Similar charges have been brought by South Ossetia's former defense minister Anatoly Barankevich and prime minister Yury Morozov. Barankevich further claimed that Kokoyty had fled Tskhinvali during the 2008 South Ossetia War and accused him of personally torturing a captured Georgian soldier. South Ossetia's former interior minister and chair of the supreme court, Alan Parastayev, told the Georgian Imedi TV that Kokoyty had organized a series of terrorist attacks and ordered murders for which he blamed Georgia.Representatives of the Kokoyty administration dismissed the allegations, claiming these allegations were part of a plot against Kokoyty.
On 3 March 2009, the Russian newspaper Kommersant reported that Kokoyty's administration and the Kremlin were at odds over the control of aid funds allocated from Russia's federal budget to South Ossetia and Tskhinvali was at the verge of "social explosion".In May 2009, Albert Dzhussoyev and Dzhabulat Tadeyev announced they would seek to organize early presidential elections in order to remove Kokoyty whom they accused of authoritarianism, corruption and being "unreliable" for Russia. The first attempt at organizing an Ossetian opposition rally in Moscow was dispersed by the Russian OMON.
In spring 2010, Kokoyty again received much criticism, mostly regarding the use of Russian aid.An opinion poll held by the International Center of Political Analysis (MTsPA) showed an approval rating for Kokoyty of 12.4%, with 66.3% of respondents having a negative opinion. Kosta Dzugaev, an advisor to Kokoyty, immediately blasted the poll as "lies", claiming the MTsPA had never actually done any research in South Ossetia. The MTsPA has been linked to Prime Minister Vadim Brovtsev, who is himself under attack for mismanaging Russian funds.
South Ossetia, officially the Republic of South Ossetia – the State of Alania, or the Tskhinvali Region, is a de facto state in the South Caucasus recognised by most countries as part of Georgia. It has an officially stated population of just over 53,000 people, who live in an area of 3,900 km2, south of the Russian Caucasus, with 30,000 living in Tskhinvali. The separatist polity, Republic of South Ossetia, is recognized as a state by Russia, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Nauru, and Syria. While Georgia lacks control over South Ossetia, the Georgian government and most members of the United Nations consider the territory part of Georgia, whose constitution designates the area as "the former autonomous district of South Ossetia", in reference to the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast disbanded in 1990.
The Georgian–Ossetian conflict is an ethno-political conflict over Georgia's former autonomous region of South Ossetia, which evolved in 1989 and developed into a war. Despite a declared ceasefire and numerous peace efforts, the conflict remained unresolved. In August 2008, military tensions and clashes between Georgia and South Ossetian separatists erupted into the Russo-Georgian War.
Lyudvig Alekseyevich Chibirov was the Chairman of the Parliament and later, following inaugural elections the first President of South Ossetia. Born in 1932, Chibirov is a former member of the South Ossetian Parliament. Prior to the elections in 1996, he had been South Ossetia's head of state since 1993. When the post of Chairman of the Parliament was abolished in favor of the presidency, Chibirov became the first occupant of the new office.
South Ossetia, a mostly unrecognized republic in the South Caucasus, formerly the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic with its capital in Tskhinvali, held a referendum on independence on November 12, 2006.
A presidential election in South Ossetia, an unrecognized republic within Georgia, was held on November 12, 2006, coinciding with the South Ossetian independence referendum. Incumbent Eduard Kokoity was seeking a second full five-year term. He was re-elected with more than 98.1%. According to the de facto authorities, the election was monitored by a team of 34 international observers from Germany, Austria, Poland, Sweden and other countries at 78 polling stations. The Ukrainian delegation was led by Nataliya Vitrenko of the Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine. The election process was criticised by local civic society and the results were likely to be inflated.
Dmitry Ivanovich Sanakoyev is a South Ossetian and Georgian politician, a former official in the secessionist government of South Ossetia and currently Head of the Provisional Administration of South Ossetia, a rival entity established in 2007 in the Georgian-controlled territories of this separatist region.
The People of South Ossetia for Peace movement was the opposition party and political movement in South Ossetia which was formed by the ethnic Ossetians who had been formerly members of the secessionist government in Tskhinvali and outspoken critics of de facto separatist regime in Tskhinvali, headed at that time by Eduard Kokoity.
The Provisional Administration of South Ossetia is an administrative body that Georgia regards as the legal government of South Ossetia. The administration was set up by the Georgian government as a transitional measure leading to the settlement of South Ossetia's status. As of 2007, Georgia is proposing the status of autonomous republic within the Georgian state. The area mainly lies within the Shida Kartli region.
The Russo-Georgian War broke out in August 2008 and involved Georgia, Russian Federation, South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
Russia—South Ossetia relations refers to the bilateral relationship between Russia and the Republic of South Ossetia, a disputed region in the South Caucasus, located on the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the former Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.
The Government of the Republic of South Ossetia is the political leadership of the only partially recognized, but de facto independent, Republic of South Ossetia.
Vadim Vladimirovich Brovtsev is a Russian businessman who was Prime Minister of the Republic of South Ossetia from 5 August 2009 to 26 April 2012, as well as Acting President from December 11, 2011 to April 19, 2012.
The Parliament of South Ossetia is the unicameral legislature of the partially recognized Republic of South Ossetia. Members are elected using a system of Party-list proportional representation. South Ossetia has a multi-party system, and currently 4 political parties are represented in parliament. The parliament is headed by a speaker, who is elected from among the members. The current speaker is Pyotr Gassiev, member of parliament for United Ossetia.
Gerasim "Rezo" Georgievich Khugayev is an Ossetian politician a former Prime Minister of the Republic of South Ossetia. He is the only South Ossetian Prime Minister to serve more than one time, at this date. He first served from October 1993 until May 1994 under Head of State Lyudvig Chibirov, and then again from December 2001 until August 2003, as the first Prime Minister appointed by President of South Ossetia Eduard Kokoity.
Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev was a South Ossetian politician, who was one of the leaders of the South Ossetian independence movement in the early 1990s, which culminated in the 1991–1992 South Ossetia War.
Stanislav Jakovlevich Kochiev is a South Ossetian politician, who is a former presidential candidate and former chairman (speaker) of the Parliament of South Ossetia.
Aleksandr Apollonovich Shavlokhov is a South Ossetian politician and former Prime Minister, from 1996 until August 1998.
Alla Aleksandrovna Dzhioyeva is a South Ossetian teacher turned politician, who is currently Deputy Prime Minister in the South Ossetian government. She previously served as the Education Minister in 2002–2008. She won the 2011 presidential election, but the Supreme Court annulled the results, alleging that electoral fraud had been committed.
Domenty Sardionovich Kulumbegov was the Prime Minister of South Ossetia from January 20, 2014 to May 20, 2017. He was acting in that capacity until 2 April 2014.
South Ossetia is an autonomous region in Georgia, approximately 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) above sea level on the slopes of the Greater Caucasus. Although it declared independence in 2008, only a few countries acknowledge it. The region is inhabited by Ossetians, an Iranian ethnic group. According to Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and the microstates of Tuvalu and Nauru, it is one of the world's newest independent states. All other states and international organisations consider South Ossetia an autonomous region of Georgia, functioning as a de facto state for twenty years after declaring independence and conducting a successful armed rebellion. Its Georgian inhabitants have been displaced. South Ossetia has been a source of tension for a number of years, with Georgia and Russia's political differences impeding peaceful independence and breeding a turbulent series of events which undermine the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
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