Eduard Mörike

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Eduard Mörike
Eduard Morike.jpg
Born(1804-09-08)8 September 1804
Ludwigsburg, Electorate of Württemberg
Died4 June 1875(1875-06-04) (aged 70)
Stuttgart, Kingdom of Württemberg
OccupationPoet, writer
NationalityGerman

Signature Moerike Signature.gif

Eduard Friedrich Mörike (8 September 1804 4 June 1875) [1] was a German Lutheran pastor who was also a Romantic poet and writer of novellas and novels. Many of his poems were set to music and became established folk songs, while others were used by composers Hugo Wolf and Ignaz Lachner in their symphonic works.

Lutheranism form of Protestantism commonly associated with the teachings of Martin Luther

Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation. The reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity.

Romanticism period of artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that started in 18th century Europe

Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.

Hugo Wolf Austrian composer of Slovene origin

Hugo Philipp Jacob Wolf was an Austrian composer of Slovene origin, particularly noted for his art songs, or Lieder. He brought to this form a concentrated expressive intensity which was unique in late Romantic music, somewhat related to that of the Second Viennese School in concision but diverging greatly in technique.

Contents

Biography

Mörike was born in Ludwigsburg. His father was Karl Friedrich Mörike (died 1817), a district medical councilor; his mother was Charlotte Bayer. After the death of his father, in 1817, he went to live with his uncle Eberhard Friedrich Georgii in Stuttgart, who intended his nephew to become a clergyman. Therefore, after one year at the Stuttgart Gymnasium illustre , Mörike joined the Evangelical Seminary Urach, a humanist grammar school, in 1818 and from 1822 to 1826 attended the Tübinger Stift. [2] There, he scored low grades and failed the admission test to Urach Seminary, yet was accepted anyhow. At the Seminary he went on to study the classics, something that was to become a major influence on his writing, and he made the acquaintance of Wilhelm Hartlaub and Wilhelm Waiblinger. Afterwards he studied theology at the Seminary of Tübingen where he met Ludwig Bauer, David Friedrich Strauss and Friedrich Theodor Vischer. [1] Many of these friendships were long-lasting. In Tübingen, with Bauer, he invented the fairyland Orplid – see the poem Song Weylas (You are Orplid) [3] dating from 1831.

Ludwigsburg Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Ludwigsburg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of Stuttgart city centre, near the river Neckar. It is the largest and primary city of the Ludwigsburg district with about 88,000 inhabitants. It is situated within the Stuttgart Region, and the district is part of the administrative region (Regierungsbezirk) of Stuttgart.

Eberhard-Ludwigs-Gymnasium is a gymnasium in Stuttgart established in 1686.

Bad Urach Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Bad Urach is a town in the district of Reutlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 14 km east of Reutlingen, at the foot of the Swabian Alb, and is known for its spa and therapeutic bath.

Mörike became a Lutheran pastor and, in 1834, he was appointed vicar of Cleversulzbach near Weinsberg. In the Autumn of 1843 he stayed for over half a year with his friend Pastor Wilhelm Hartlaub (1804–1885) in the village of Wermutshausen  [ de ], situated in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. During this time he produced a drawing of the Wermutshausen Petruskirche, dating from the early 1800s. This drawing is speculated, due to the perspective, to be from a top-floor room of a local brewery, distillery, and guesthouse at the edge of town, which remains in operation today as Gasthaus und Manufaktur Krone Wermutshausen. In town there is also a Museum commemorating this visit, in which guests can see the room in which Mörike lived. For reasons of health, Mörike retired quite early, and in 1851 became professor of German literature at the Katharinenstift in Stuttgart. This office he held until he retired in 1866. [4] He continued to live in Stuttgart until his death.

Weinsberg Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Weinsberg is a town in the north of the German state Baden-Württemberg. It was founded ca. 1200 and is situated in the Heilbronn district. The town has about 11,800 inhabitants. It is noted for its wine.

German literature literature written in the German language

German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language. This includes literature written in Germany, Austria, the German parts of Switzerland and Belgium, Liechtenstein, South Tyrol in Italy and to a lesser extent works of the German diaspora. German literature of the modern period is mostly in Standard German, but there are some currents of literature influenced to a greater or lesser degree by dialects.

Stuttgart Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Stuttgart is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart is located on the Neckar river in a fertile valley known locally as the "Stuttgart Cauldron". It lies an hour from the Swabian Jura and the Black Forest. Its urban area has a population of 609,219, making it the sixth largest city in Germany. 2.7 million people live in the city's administrative region and 5.3 million people in its metropolitan area, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Germany. The city and metropolitan area are consistently ranked among the top 20 European metropolitan areas by GDP; Mercer listed Stuttgart as 21st on its 2015 list of cities by quality of living, innovation agency 2thinknow ranked the city 24th globally out of 442 cities and the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked the city as a Beta-status world city in their 2014 survey.

Works

Morike's home in Lorch, Wurttemberg Home of Morike.jpg
Mörike's home in Lorch, Württemberg

Mörike was a member of the so-called Swabian school of writers around Ludwig Uhland. His poems (Gedichte, 1838), are mostly lyrical, yet often humorous and written in simple and seemingly everyday German. [4] His ballad "Schön Rotraut" – opening with the line "Wie heisst König Ringangs Töchterlein?" – became a popular favorite. [1]

Ludwig Uhland German poet

Johann Ludwig Uhland was a German poet, philologist and literary historian.

His first published work was the novel Maler Nolten ("The painter Nolten", 1832), a tale about the life of a painter, and which revealed his imaginative power; it became fairly popular. The novella Mozart auf der Reise nach Prag ("Mozart on the way to Prague", 1856) was a humorous examination of the problems of artists in a world uncongenial to art. It is frequently cited as his finest achievement. [1] [5] He also wrote a somewhat fantastic Idylle vom Bodensee, oder Fischer Martin und die Glockendiebe (1846), the fairy tale Das Stuttgarter Hutzelmännlein (1855), and published a collection of hymns, odes, elegies, and idylls of the Greeks and Romans, entitled Klassische Blumenlese (1840). [4] He also translated Anacreon and Theocritus into German. [6]

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Austrian composer of the Classical period

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

Prague Capital city of the Czech Republic

Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the northwest of the Czech Republic on the Vltava river, Prague is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters.

Anacreon Greek lyric poet, notable for his drinking songs and hymns

Anacreon was a Greek lyric poet, notable for his drinking songs and hymns. Later Greeks included him in the canonical list of nine lyric poets. Anacreon wrote all of his poetry in the ancient Ionic dialect. Like all early lyric poetry, it was composed to be sung or recited to the accompaniment of music, usually the lyre. Anacreon's poetry touched on universal themes of love, infatuation, disappointment, revelry, parties, festivals and the observations of everyday people and life.

Mörike's Gesammelte Schriften ("Collected Writings") were first published posthumously in 1878 (4 vols.). Later editions are those edited by R. Krauss (6 vols., 1905), and the Volksausgabe ("Popular edition"), published by Göschen (4 vols., 1905). Selections from his literary estate were published by R. Krauss in Eduard Mörike als Gelegenheitsdichter (1895), and his correspondence with Hermann Kurz, Moritz von Schwind, and Theodor Storm, by J. Bachtold (1885–1891); an edition of Mörike's Ausgewählte Briefe ("Selected letters"), in 2 vols., appeared 1903–1904. [4]

Hermann Kurz German writer

Hermann Kurz was a German poet and novelist.

Moritz von Schwind austrian painter

Moritz von Schwind was an Austrian painter, born in Vienna. Schwind's genius was lyrical—he drew inspiration from chivalry, folklore, and the songs of the people. Schwind died in Pöcking in Bavaria, and was buried in the Alter Südfriedhof in Munich.

Theodor Storm German writer

Hans Theodor Woldsen Storm, commonly known as Theodor Storm, was a German writer. He is considered to be one of the most important figures of German realism.

Morike (aged 20) as a student in Tubingen, 1824 Moerike.jpg
Mörike (aged 20) as a student in Tübingen, 1824

His work was greatly praised by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein who recommended him to Bertrand Russell as

really a great poet and his poems are among the best things we have...the beauty of Mörike's work is very closely related to Goethe's. [7]

Musical settings

Many of his lyrics were set to music by Hugo Wolf, [8] Ludwig Hetsch and Fritz Kauffmann. Ignaz Lachner set to music his opera Die Regenbrüder. [6] Many of his poems became established folksongs. [5] Wilhelm Killmayer set several of his poems in his song cycle Mörike-Lieder in 2003. [9]

As an artist

Mörike was also known to produce drawings in his time, though it is not the subject of much discussion. While staying in the town of Wermutshausen in the Autumn of 1843, Mörike produced a drawing of the Persuskirche, a small church built in the early 1800s.[ citation needed ]

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg Hartmann, Jacob Wittmer (1920). "Mörike, Eduard"  . In Rines, George Edwin (ed.). Encyclopedia Americana .
  2. Reiner Strunk: Eduard Mörike, S. 17 ff.
  3. Birgit Mayer: Eduard Mörike, p. 58
  4. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mörike, Eduard Friedrich". Encyclopædia Britannica . 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 837.
  5. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg  Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Mörike, Eduard"  . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  6. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). "Mörike, Eduard"  . The American Cyclopædia .
  7. Wittgenstein, Ludwig (2003). Amélie, Rorty (ed.). Letter to Bertrand Russell. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 417.
  8. Youens, Susan (2000). Hugo Wolf, and Robert Schumann and his Mörike songs. Cambridge University Press. p. 7.
  9. "Mörike-Lieder". Schott . Retrieved 24 August 2017.

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