Eduardo Galeano in 2012
|Born||Eduardo Germán María Hughes Galeano|
3 September 1940
|Died||13 April 2015 74) (aged|
Eduardo Hughes Galeano (Spanish pronunciation: [eˈðwaɾðo ɣaleˈano] ; 3 September 1940 – 13 April 2015) was an Uruguayan journalist, writer and novelist considered, among other things, "global soccer's pre-eminent man of letters" and "a literary giant of the Latin American left".
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometers (68,000 sq mi), Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname.
Galeano's best-known works are Las venas abiertas de América Latina ( Open Veins of Latin America , 1971) and Memoria del fuego (Memory of Fire Trilogy, 1982–6). "I'm a writer," the author once said of himself, "obsessed with remembering, with remembering the past of America and above all that of Latin America, intimate land condemned to amnesia."
Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent is a book written by Uruguayan journalist, writer and poet Eduardo Galeano, published in 1971. It has sold over a million copies and been translated into over a dozen languages, and has been included in university courses "ranging from history and anthropology to economics and geography."
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish and Portuguese, are predominantly spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao. The term was used also by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish, Portuguese and French are predominant are typically not included in definitions of Latin America.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage or disease. Amnesia can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs. The memory can be either wholly or partially lost due to the extent of damage that was caused. There are two main types of amnesia: retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an accident or operation. In some cases the memory loss can extend back decades, while in others the person may lose only a few months of memory. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store. People with this type of amnesia cannot remember things for long periods of time. These two types are not mutually exclusive; both can occur simultaneously.
Author Isabel Allende, who said her copy of Galeano's book was one of the few items with which she fled Chile in 1973 after the military coup of Augusto Pinochet, called Open Veins of Latin America, "a mixture of meticulous detail, political conviction, poetic flair, and good storytelling."
Isabel Allende is a Chilean writer. Allende, whose works sometimes contain aspects of the genre magical realism, is known for novels such as The House of the Spirits and City of the Beasts, which have been commercially successful. Allende has been called "the world's most widely read Spanish-language author." In 2004, Allende was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and in 2010, she received Chile's National Literature Prize. President Barack Obama awarded her the 2014 Presidential Medal of Freedom.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte was a Chilean general, politician and dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
Eduardo Germán María Hughes Galeano was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, onSept. 3, 1940. His two family names were inherited from Welsh and Italian (from Genoa) great-grandfathers; the other two were from Germany and Spain. Galeano wrote under his maternal family name; as young man, he briefly wrote for an Uruguayan socialist publication, El Sol, signing articles as "Gius," "a pseudonym approximating the pronunciation in Spanish of his paternal surname Hughes." Galeano's family belonged to the fallen Uruguayan aristocracy; Galeano himself went to work at fourteen, having completed just two years of secondary school.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 in an area of 201 square kilometres (78 sq mi). The southernmost capital city in the Americas, Montevideo is situated on the southern coast of the country, on the northeastern bank of the Río de la Plata.
He started his career as a journalist in the early 1960s as editor of Marcha , an influential weekly journal which had such contributors as Mario Vargas Llosa, Mario Benedetti, Manuel Maldonado Denis and Roberto Fernández Retamar. For two years he edited the daily Época and worked as editor-in-chief of the University Press. In 1959 he married his first wife, Silvia Brando, and in 1962, having divorced, he remarried to Graciela Berro.
Marcha was an influential Uruguayan weekly newspaper.
Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquess of Vargas Llosa, more commonly known as Mario Vargas Llosa, is a Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, essayist and college professor. Vargas Llosa is one of Latin America's most significant novelists and essayists, and one of the leading writers of his generation. Some critics consider him to have had a larger international impact and worldwide audience than any other writer of the Latin American Boom. In 2010 he won the Nobel Prize in Literature, "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat."
Mario Orlando Hardy Hamlet Brenno Benedetti Farrugia , known as Mario Benedetti, was a Uruguayan journalist, novelist, and poet as well as being an integral member of the Generación del 45. Despite publishing more than 80 books and being published in twenty languages he was not well known in the English-speaking world, but in the Spanish-speaking world he was considered one of Latin America's most important writers of the latter half of the 20th century.
In 1973, a military coup took power in Uruguay; Galeano was imprisoned and later was forced to flee, going into exile in Argentina where he founded the magazine Crisis. [ citation needed ] where he wrote his famous trilogy, Memoria del fuego (Memory of Fire), described as "the most powerful literary indictment of colonialism in the Americas."His book Open Veins of Latin America was banned by the right-wing military government, not only in Uruguay, but also in Chile and Argentina. In 1976 he married for the third time to Helena Villagra; however, in the same year, the Videla regime took power in Argentina in a bloody military coup and his name was added to the list of those condemned by the death squads. He fled again, this time to Spain,
The 1973 Uruguayan coup d'état took place in Uruguay on 27 June 1973 and marked the beginning of the civic-military dictatorship which lasted until 1985.
Jorge Rafael Videla was a senior commander in the Argentine Army and dictator of Argentina from 1976 to 1981.
The 1976 Argentine coup d'état was a right-wing coup that overthrew Isabel Perón as President of Argentina on 24 March 1976. A military junta was installed to replace her; this was headed by Lieutenant General Jorge Rafael Videla, Admiral Emilio Eduardo Massera and Brigadier-General Orlando Ramón Agosti. The political process initiated on 24 March 1976, took the official name of "National Reorganization Process", and the junta, although not with its original members, remained in power until the return to the democratic process on December 10, 1983.
At the beginning of 1985 Galeano returned to Montevideo when democratization occurred. Following the victory of Tabaré Vázquez and the Broad Front alliance in the 2004 Uruguayan elections marking the first left-wing government in Uruguayan history Galeano wrote a piece for The Progressive titled "Where the People Voted Against Fear" in which Galeano showed support for the new government and concluded that the Uruguayan populace used "common sense" and were "tired of being cheated" by the traditional Colorado and Blanco parties.Following the creation of TeleSUR, a pan-Latin American television station based in Caracas, Venezuela, in 2005 Galeano along with other left-wing intellectuals such as Tariq Ali and Adolfo Pérez Esquivel joined the network's 36 member advisory committee.
On 10 February 2007, Galeano underwent a successful operation to treat lung cancer.During an interview with journalist Amy Goodman following Barack Obama's election as President of the United States in November 2008, Galeano said, "The White House will be Barack Obama's house in the time coming, but this White House was built by black slaves. And I’d like, I hope, that he never, never forgets this". At the 17 April 2009 opening session of the 5th Summit of the Americas held in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez gave a Spanish-language copy of Galeano's Open Veins of Latin America to U.S. President Barack Obama, who was making his first diplomatic visit to the region.
In a May 2009 interview he spoke about his past and recent works, some of which deal with the relationships between freedom and slavery, and democracies and dictatorships: "not only the United States, also some European countries, have spread military dictatorships all over the world. And they feel as if they are able to teach democracy". He also talked about how and why he has changed his writing style, and his recent rise in popularity.
In April 2014 Galeano gave an interview at the II Bienal Brasil do Livro e da Leitura in which he regretted some aspects of writing Las Venas Abiertas de América Latina, saying
"Time has passed, I've begun to try other things, to bring myself closer to human reality in general and to political economy specifically. 'The Open Veins' tried to be a political economy book, but I simply didn't have the necessary education. I do not regret writing it, but it is a stage that I have since passed."
This interview was picked up by many critics of Galeano's work in which they used the statement to reinforce their own criticisms. However, in an interview with Jorge Majfud he said,
"The book, written ages ago, is still alive and kicking. I am simply honest enough to admit that at this point in my life the old writing style seems rather stodgy, and that it's hard for me to recognize myself in it since I now prefer to be increasingly brief and untrammeled. [The] voices that have been raised against me and against The Open Veins of Latin America are seriously ill with bad faith."
Fleas dream of buying themselves a dog, and nobodies dream of escaping poverty: that, one magical day, good luck will suddenly rain down on them – will rain down in buckets. But good luck doesn’t rain down, yesterday, today, tomorrow or ever. Good luck doesn’t even fall in a fine drizzle, no matter how hard the nobodies summon it, even if their left hand is tickling, or if they begin the new day on their right foot, or start the new year with a change of brooms. The nobodies: nobody’s children, owners of nothing. The nobodies: the no-ones, the nobodied, running like rabbits, dying through life, screwed every which way. Who are not, but could be. Who don’t speak languages, but dialects. Who don’t have religions, but superstitions. Who don’t create art, but handicrafts. Who don’t have culture, but folklore. Who are not human beings, but human resources. Who do not have faces, but arms. Who do not have names, but numbers. Who do not appear in the history of the world, but in the crime reports of the local paper. The nobodies, who are not worth the bullet that kills them.
|Year||Spanish title||Spanish ISBN||Spanish Publisher||English translation|
|1963||Los días siguientes||Alfa||The following days|
|1967||Guatemala, país ocupado||Guatemala: Occupied country (1969)|
|1967||Los fantasmas del día del león y otros relatos|
|1968||Su majestad el fútbol|
|1971||Las venas abiertas de América Latina||ISBN 950-895-094-3||Siglo XXI||Open Veins of Latin America (1973) ISBN 0-85345-279-2|
|1971||Siete imágenes de Bolivia|
|1971||Violencia y enajenación|
|1980||La canción de nosotros||ISBN 84-350-0124-5|
|1977||Conversaciones con Raimón||ISBN 84-7432-034-8|
|1978||Días y noches de amor y de guerra||ISBN 84-7222-891-6||Del Chanchito||Days and Nights of Love and War ISBN 0-85345-620-8|
|1980||La piedra arde|
|1981||Voces de nuestro tiempo||ISBN 84-8360-237-7|
|1982–1986||Memoria del fuego||ISBN 9974620058||Del Chanchito||Volume I: Eduardo Galeano (29 April 2014). Genesis. Open Road Media. ISBN 978-1-4804-8138-1.|
|1984||Aventuras de los jóvenes dioses||ISBN 9682320941||Siglo XXI|
|1985||Ventana sobre Sandino|
|1986||La encrucijada de la biodiversidad colombiana|
|1986||El descubrimiento de América que todavía no fue y otros escritos||ISBN 8476681054||Editorial Laia|
|1988–2002||El tigre azul y otros artículos||ISBN 9590602118||Ciencias Sociales (Cuba)|
|1962–1987||Entrevistas y artículos||Ediciones Del Chanchito|
|1989||El libro de los abrazos||ISBN 9788432306907||Siglo XXI||The Book of Embraces ISBN 0-393-02960-3|
|1989||Nosotros decimos no||ISBN 84-323-0675-4||Siglo XXI|
|1990||América Latina para entenderte mejor|
|1990||Palabras: antología personal|
|1992||Ser como ellos y otros artículos||ISBN 9788432307614||Siglo XXI|
|1993||Amares||ISBN 84-206-3419-0||Alianza, España|
|1993||Las palabras andantes||ISBN 9974620082||Del Chanchito|
|1994||Úselo y tírelo||ISBN 9507428518||Editorial Planeta|
|1995||El fútbol a sol y sombra||ISBN 9788432311345||Siglo XXI||Football (soccer) in Sun and Shadow ISBN 1-85984-848-6|
|1998||Patas arriba: Escuela del mundo al revés||ISBN 9974620147||Macchi||Upside Down: A Primer for the Looking-Glass World 2000, ISBN 0-8050-6375-7|
|1999||Carta al ciudadano 6.000 millones||ISBN 84-406-9472-5||Ediciones B|
|2001||Tejidos. Antología||ISBN 84-8063-500-2||Ediciones Octaedro|
|2004||Bocas del tiempo||ISBN 978-950-895-160-1||Catálogos Editora||Voices of time: a life in stories ISBN 978-0-8050-7767-4|
|2006||El viaje||ISBN 84-96592-55-3|
|2007||Carta al señor futuro|
|2008||Patas arriba/ la escuela del mundo al revés||ISBN 950-895-050-1||Catálogos Editora|
|2008||Espejos||ISBN 978-987-1492-00-8||Siglo XXI||Mirrors: Stories of Almost Everyone 2009, ISBN 1-56858-423-7|
|2008||La resurrección del Papagayo||ISBN 978-84-92412-22-8||Libros del Zorro Rojo|
|2011||Los hijos de los días||ISBN 978-987-629-200-9||Siglo XXI||Children of the Days: A Calendar of Human History ISBN 978-1568587479|
|2015||Mujeres - antología||ISBN 978-84-323-1768-2||Siglo XXI|
|2016||El cazador de historias||ISBN 978-987-629-628-1||Siglo XXI||Hunter of Stories 2017, ISBN 978-1568589909|
|2017||Cerrado por fútbol||Siglo XXI|
Las venas abiertas de América Latina (Open Veins of Latin America), a history of the region from the time of Columbus from the perspective of the subjugated people, is considered one of Galeano's best-known works. An English-language translation by Cedric Belfrage gained some popularity in the English-speaking world after Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez gave it as a gift to U.S. President Barack Obama in 2009.
Galeano was also an avid fan of football, writing most notably about it in Football in Sun and Shadow (El fútbol a sol y sombra).In a retrospective for SB Nation after Galeano's death, football writer Andi Thomas described the work—a history of the sport, as well as an outlet for the author's own experiences with the sport and his political polemics—as "one of the greatest books about football ever written".
Galeano died on 13 April 2015 in Montevideofrom lung cancer at the age of 74, survived by third wife Helena Villagra and three children.
Carlos Gardel was a French Argentine singer, songwriter, composer and actor, and the most prominent figure in the history of tango. Gardel's baritone voice and the dramatic phrasing of his lyrics made miniature masterpieces of his hundreds of three-minute tango recordings. Together with lyricist and long-time collaborator Alfredo Le Pera, Gardel wrote several classic tangos.
Telesur is a Latin American terrestrial and satellite television network headquartered in Caracas, Venezuela and sponsored primarily by the government of Venezuela, with additional funding from the governments of Cuba, Nicaragua, Uruguay, and Bolivia. It was launched in 2005, under the government of Hugo Chavez, with the aim of being "a Latin socialist answer to CNN".
Jorge Majfud is a Uruguayan American writer.
Luis Eduardo Barreto Ferreyra was an Uruguayan artist who worked in the comic book and comic strip industries including several years of prominent work for DC Comics.
Juan Luis Segundo was a Jesuit priest and Uruguayan theologian who was an important figure in the movement known as liberation theology. He wrote numerous books on theology, ideology, faith, hermeneutics, and social justice, and was an outspoken critic of what he perceived as Church callousness toward oppression and suffering. He was a physician by training.
Uruguayan literature has a long and eventful history.
Political censorship exists when a government attempts to conceal, fake, distort, or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news that the public might receive through news outlets. In the absence of neutral and objective information, people will be unable to dissent with the government or political party in charge. The term also extends to the systematic suppression of views that are contrary to those of the government in power. The government often possesses the power of the army and the secret police, to enforce the compliance of journalists with the will of the authorities to spread the story that the ruling authorities want people to believe. At times this involves bribery, defamation, imprisonment, and even assassination.
Days and Nights of Love and War is a 1978 book by Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano. It was published in English translation in 1982 by Monthly Review Press. Structured as a series of fragments, the book varies in tone from straight journalism to expressionism and poetic lyricism and in genre from short story to aphorism to biography. It established the formal and thematic qualities of Galeano's prose, and won the Casa de las Américas Prize in 1978.
The Fifth Summit of the Americas (VSOA) was held at Port of Spain in Trinidad and Tobago, on April 17–19, 2009.
Isabelino Gradín was a Uruguayan footballer and athlete. He was one of the greatest footballers in the early era of Uruguayan football and is regarded as one of the greatest Uruguayan players before the Uruguayan win at the 1930 FIFA World Cup. He played in the first South American Championship held in Argentina, where Uruguay became the first champions of the tournament, and finished as top scorer. On 2 July of that tournament against Chile, where Uruguay would go on to win 4-0, Gradin and team mate Juan Delgado became the first black players in history to be fielded in an international tournament. Gradin was also part of the Uruguayan winning team of the 1917 South American Championship. He was also a four-time South American athletics champion in the 400 and 200 metres sprint.
Abdón Porte was an Uruguayan footballer. He played as defensive midfielder. Nicknamed El Indio he won many titles with his club Nacional, and also a Copa América with the Uruguay national team. He committed suicide on March 5, 1918, by shooting himself in the center of the field at Estadio Gran Parque Central, an incident still remembered by the sport community of Uruguay.
Rey Azúcar is the tenth album by Argentine band Los Fabulosos Cadillacs. It was produced by Tina Weymouth and Chris Frantz of Talking Heads, and contained guest appearances from punk icons Mick Jones of The Clash and Blondie's Debbie Harry, as well as reggae star Big Youth on several tracks. The album title comes from a line on the song "Las Venas Abiertas de América Latina". The song is based on Eduardo Galeano's book of the same title, which also contains a chapter called Rey Azúcar.
Upside Down: A Primer for the Looking-Glass World, originally published in Spanish in 1998, was written by Eduardo Galeano, a Uruguayan author who was greatly impacted by the political turmoil during the 20th century military regimes in Latin America. Events such as the Uruguayan military coup forced Galeano into exile in Spain and Argentina; these exiles, in particular, may have been formative in Galeano's life and writing. The ruminations of this book were formed as a result of Galeano's desire to remember the past traumas and as well as to learn from them. Within this piece of nonfiction, he explores themes such as modern education systems, racism, sexism, poverty, economics, work, and societal fear. The pretense of the prose tends to be preoccupied with learning to rethink the contradictions of society; in a moment when outrageous circumstances are normalized, it is time to reconsider the understandings many people hold, which, in turn, informs the way such people view things. Though focusing on Latin America, Galeano uses what he has learned from the political and social environment within Latin America to understand injustices and social dynamics throughout the rest of the world.
James Cantero Coitiño is a Uruguayan former football striker and player's agent.
Gabriel Antonio Pombo is a Uruguayan writer and lawyer, who is known for his books, essays and interviews relating to serial murderers, and particularly about the famous case of Jack the Ripper, the mysterious and never discovered murderer of London. Gabriel Pombo even wrote a humorous short story fiction, which tells how, during a foggy night a very confused Jack the Ripper mistakenly entered the offices of Scotland Yard believing that was a tavern.
Eduardo Cuitiño Bosio is a Uruguayan writer/author and mathematician known for his investigations and essays on two historic figures: Carlos Gardel and Jack the Ripper.
Daniel Fernando Sturla Berhouet, SDB is a Uruguayan Roman Catholic prelate and the archbishop of Montevideo.
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