Eduardo Galeano

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Eduardo Galeano
Eduardo Galeano ltk (cropped).jpg
Eduardo Galeano in 2012
BornEduardo Germán María Hughes Galeano
(1940-09-03)3 September 1940
Montevideo, Uruguay
Died13 April 2015(2015-04-13) (aged 74)
Montevideo, Uruguay
OccupationWriter, journalist
Nationality Uruguayan
Period20th century
SpouseHelena Villagra

Eduardo Hughes Galeano (Spanish pronunciation:  [eˈðwaɾðo ɣaleˈano] ; 3 September 1940 – 13 April 2015) was an Uruguayan journalist, writer and novelist considered, among other things, "global soccer's pre-eminent man of letters" and "a literary giant of the Latin American left". [1]

Uruguay republic in South America

Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometers (68,000 sq mi), Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname.

Contents

Galeano's best-known works are Las venas abiertas de América Latina ( Open Veins of Latin America , 1971) and Memoria del fuego (Memory of Fire Trilogy, 19826). "I'm a writer," the author once said of himself, "obsessed with remembering, with remembering the past of America and above all that of Latin America, intimate land condemned to amnesia." [2]

<i>Open Veins of Latin America</i> book

Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent is a book written by Uruguayan journalist, writer and poet Eduardo Galeano, published in 1971. It has sold over a million copies and been translated into over a dozen languages, and has been included in university courses "ranging from history and anthropology to economics and geography."

Latin America Region of the Americas where Romance languages are primarily spoken

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish and Portuguese, are predominantly spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao. The term was used also by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish, Portuguese and French are predominant are typically not included in definitions of Latin America.

Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage or disease. Amnesia can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs. The memory can be either wholly or partially lost due to the extent of damage that was caused. There are two main types of amnesia: retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an accident or operation. In some cases the memory loss can extend back decades, while in others the person may lose only a few months of memory. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store. People with this type of amnesia cannot remember things for long periods of time. These two types are not mutually exclusive; both can occur simultaneously.

Author Isabel Allende, who said her copy of Galeano's book was one of the few items with which she fled Chile in 1973 after the military coup of Augusto Pinochet, called Open Veins of Latin America, "a mixture of meticulous detail, political conviction, poetic flair, and good storytelling." [3]

Isabel Allende Chilean writer

Isabel Allende is a Chilean writer. Allende, whose works sometimes contain aspects of the genre magical realism, is known for novels such as The House of the Spirits and City of the Beasts, which have been commercially successful. Allende has been called "the world's most widely read Spanish-language author." In 2004, Allende was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and in 2010, she received Chile's National Literature Prize. President Barack Obama awarded her the 2014 Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Augusto Pinochet Former dictator of the republic of Chile

Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte was a Chilean general, politician and dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.

Life

Eduardo Germán María Hughes Galeano was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, on [3] Sept. 3, 1940. [4] His two family names were inherited from Welsh and Italian (from Genoa) great-grandfathers; the other two were from Germany and Spain. [5] Galeano wrote under his maternal family name; as young man, he briefly wrote for an Uruguayan socialist publication, El Sol, signing articles as "Gius," "a pseudonym approximating the pronunciation in Spanish of his paternal surname Hughes." [6] Galeano's family belonged to the fallen Uruguayan aristocracy; Galeano himself went to work at fourteen, having completed just two years of secondary school. [5]

Montevideo Capital city in Uruguay

Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 in an area of 201 square kilometres (78 sq mi). The southernmost capital city in the Americas, Montevideo is situated on the southern coast of the country, on the northeastern bank of the Río de la Plata.

He started his career as a journalist in the early 1960s as editor of Marcha , an influential weekly journal which had such contributors as Mario Vargas Llosa, Mario Benedetti, Manuel Maldonado Denis and Roberto Fernández Retamar. For two years he edited the daily Época and worked as editor-in-chief of the University Press. In 1959 he married his first wife, Silvia Brando, and in 1962, having divorced, he remarried to Graciela Berro. [7]

Marcha was an influential Uruguayan weekly newspaper.

Mario Vargas Llosa Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, and essayist

Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquess of Vargas Llosa, more commonly known as Mario Vargas Llosa, is a Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, essayist and college professor. Vargas Llosa is one of Latin America's most significant novelists and essayists, and one of the leading writers of his generation. Some critics consider him to have had a larger international impact and worldwide audience than any other writer of the Latin American Boom. In 2010 he won the Nobel Prize in Literature, "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat."

Mario Benedetti Uruguayan journalist, novelist, and poet

Mario Orlando Hardy Hamlet Brenno Benedetti Farrugia , known as Mario Benedetti, was a Uruguayan journalist, novelist, and poet as well as being an integral member of the Generación del 45. Despite publishing more than 80 books and being published in twenty languages he was not well known in the English-speaking world, but in the Spanish-speaking world he was considered one of Latin America's most important writers of the latter half of the 20th century.

In 1973, a military coup took power in Uruguay; Galeano was imprisoned and later was forced to flee, going into exile in Argentina where he founded the magazine Crisis. [8] His book Open Veins of Latin America was banned by the right-wing military government, not only in Uruguay, but also in Chile and Argentina. [9] In 1976 he married for the third time to Helena Villagra; however, in the same year, the Videla regime took power in Argentina in a bloody military coup and his name was added to the list of those condemned by the death squads. He fled again, this time to Spain,[ citation needed ] where he wrote his famous trilogy, Memoria del fuego (Memory of Fire), described as "the most powerful literary indictment of colonialism in the Americas." [10]

The 1973 Uruguayan coup d'état took place in Uruguay on 27 June 1973 and marked the beginning of the civic-military dictatorship which lasted until 1985.

Jorge Rafael Videla 20th and 21st-century Argentinian army officer and dictator

Jorge Rafael Videla was a senior commander in the Argentine Army and dictator of Argentina from 1976 to 1981.

1976 Argentine coup détat March 1976 military coup détat in Argentina

The 1976 Argentine coup d'état was a right-wing coup that overthrew Isabel Perón as President of Argentina on 24 March 1976. A military junta was installed to replace her; this was headed by Lieutenant General Jorge Rafael Videla, Admiral Emilio Eduardo Massera and Brigadier-General Orlando Ramón Agosti. The political process initiated on 24 March 1976, took the official name of "National Reorganization Process", and the junta, although not with its original members, remained in power until the return to the democratic process on December 10, 1983.

Galeano in 1984 Eduardo Galeano en 1984.jpg
Galeano in 1984

At the beginning of 1985 Galeano returned to Montevideo when democratization occurred. Following the victory of Tabaré Vázquez and the Broad Front alliance in the 2004 Uruguayan elections marking the first left-wing government in Uruguayan history Galeano wrote a piece for The Progressive titled "Where the People Voted Against Fear" in which Galeano showed support for the new government and concluded that the Uruguayan populace used "common sense" and were "tired of being cheated" by the traditional Colorado and Blanco parties. [11] Following the creation of TeleSUR, a pan-Latin American television station based in Caracas, Venezuela, in 2005 Galeano along with other left-wing intellectuals such as Tariq Ali and Adolfo Pérez Esquivel joined the network's 36 member advisory committee. [12]

On 10 February 2007, Galeano underwent a successful operation to treat lung cancer. [13] During an interview with journalist Amy Goodman following Barack Obama's election as President of the United States in November 2008, Galeano said, "The White House will be Barack Obama's house in the time coming, but this White House was built by black slaves. And I’d like, I hope, that he never, never forgets this". [14] At the 17 April 2009 opening session of the 5th Summit of the Americas held in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez gave a Spanish-language copy of Galeano's Open Veins of Latin America to U.S. President Barack Obama, who was making his first diplomatic visit to the region. [15]

In a May 2009 interview he spoke about his past and recent works, some of which deal with the relationships between freedom and slavery, and democracies and dictatorships: "not only the United States, also some European countries, have spread military dictatorships all over the world. And they feel as if they are able to teach democracy". He also talked about how and why he has changed his writing style, and his recent rise in popularity. [16]

In April 2014 Galeano gave an interview at the II Bienal Brasil do Livro e da Leitura in which he regretted some aspects of writing Las Venas Abiertas de América Latina, saying

"Time has passed, I've begun to try other things, to bring myself closer to human reality in general and to political economy specifically. 'The Open Veins' tried to be a political economy book, but I simply didn't have the necessary education. I do not regret writing it, but it is a stage that I have since passed." [17]

This interview was picked up by many critics of Galeano's work in which they used the statement to reinforce their own criticisms. However, in an interview with Jorge Majfud he said,

"The book, written ages ago, is still alive and kicking. I am simply honest enough to admit that at this point in my life the old writing style seems rather stodgy, and that it's hard for me to recognize myself in it since I now prefer to be increasingly brief and untrammeled. [The] voices that have been raised against me and against The Open Veins of Latin America are seriously ill with bad faith." [18]

Works

Fleas dream of buying themselves a dog, and nobodies dream of escaping poverty: that, one magical day, good luck will suddenly rain down on them – will rain down in buckets. But good luck doesn’t rain down, yesterday, today, tomorrow or ever. Good luck doesn’t even fall in a fine drizzle, no matter how hard the nobodies summon it, even if their left hand is tickling, or if they begin the new day on their right foot, or start the new year with a change of brooms. The nobodies: nobody’s children, owners of nothing. The nobodies: the no-ones, the nobodied, running like rabbits, dying through life, screwed every which way. Who are not, but could be. Who don’t speak languages, but dialects. Who don’t have religions, but superstitions. Who don’t create art, but handicrafts. Who don’t have culture, but folklore. Who are not human beings, but human resources. Who do not have faces, but arms. Who do not have names, but numbers. Who do not appear in the history of the world, but in the crime reports of the local paper. The nobodies, who are not worth the bullet that kills them.

Eduardo Galeano, "The Nobodies" [19]
YearSpanish titleSpanish ISBNSpanish PublisherEnglish translation
1963Los días siguientesAlfaThe following days
1964China
1967Guatemala, país ocupadoGuatemala: Occupied country (1969)
1967Reportajes
1967Los fantasmas del día del león y otros relatos
1968Su majestad el fútbol
1971 Las venas abiertas de América Latina ISBN   950-895-094-3 Siglo XXI Open Veins of Latin America (1973) ISBN   0-85345-279-2 [20]
1971Siete imágenes de Bolivia
1971Violencia y enajenación
1972Crónicas latinoamericanas
1973Vagamundo ISBN   84-7222-307-8
1980La canción de nosotros ISBN   84-350-0124-5
1977Conversaciones con Raimón ISBN   84-7432-034-8
1978Días y noches de amor y de guerra ISBN   84-7222-891-6 Del Chanchito Days and Nights of Love and War ISBN   0-85345-620-8
1980La piedra arde
1981Voces de nuestro tiempo ISBN   84-8360-237-7
1982–1986 Memoria del fuego ISBN   9974620058 Del ChanchitoVolume I: Eduardo Galeano (29 April 2014). Genesis. Open Road Media. ISBN   978-1-4804-8138-1.

Volume II: Faces and Masks. ISBN   978-0393318067.

Volume III: Century of the Wind. ISBN   0393318079.

1984Aventuras de los jóvenes dioses ISBN   9682320941 Siglo XXI
1985Ventana sobre Sandino
1985Contraseña
1986La encrucijada de la biodiversidad colombiana
1986El descubrimiento de América que todavía no fue y otros escritos ISBN   8476681054 Editorial Laia
1988–2002El tigre azul y otros artículos ISBN   9590602118 Ciencias Sociales (Cuba)
1962–1987Entrevistas y artículosEdiciones Del Chanchito
1989El libro de los abrazos ISBN   9788432306907 Siglo XXIThe Book of Embraces ISBN   0-393-02960-3
1989Nosotros decimos no ISBN   84-323-0675-4 Siglo XXI
1990América Latina para entenderte mejor
1990Palabras: antología personal
1992Ser como ellos y otros artículos ISBN   9788432307614 Siglo XXI
1993Amares ISBN   84-206-3419-0 Alianza, España
1993Las palabras andantes ISBN   9974620082 Del Chanchito
1994Úselo y tírelo ISBN   9507428518 Editorial Planeta
1995El fútbol a sol y sombra ISBN   9788432311345 Siglo XXI Football (soccer) in Sun and Shadow ISBN   1-85984-848-6
1998Patas arriba: Escuela del mundo al revés ISBN   9974620147 MacchiUpside Down: A Primer for the Looking-Glass World 2000, ISBN   0-8050-6375-7
1999Carta al ciudadano 6.000 millones [21] ISBN   84-406-9472-5 Ediciones B
2001Tejidos. Antología ISBN   84-8063-500-2 Ediciones Octaedro
2004Bocas del tiempo ISBN   978-950-895-160-1 Catálogos Editora Voices of time: a life in stories ISBN   978-0-8050-7767-4
2006El viaje ISBN   84-96592-55-3
2007Carta al señor futuro
2008Patas arriba/ la escuela del mundo al revés ISBN   950-895-050-1 Catálogos Editora
2008 Espejos ISBN   978-987-1492-00-8 Siglo XXI Mirrors: Stories of Almost Everyone 2009, ISBN   1-56858-423-7
2008La resurrección del Papagayo ISBN   978-84-92412-22-8 Libros del Zorro Rojo
2011 Los hijos de los días ISBN   978-987-629-200-9 Siglo XXI Children of the Days: A Calendar of Human History ISBN   978-1568587479
2015 Mujeres - antología ISBN   978-84-323-1768-2 Siglo XXI [22]
2016El cazador de historias ISBN   978-987-629-628-1 Siglo XXI Hunter of Stories 2017, ISBN   978-1568589909
2017Cerrado por fútbolSiglo XXI

Las venas abiertas de América Latina (Open Veins of Latin America), a history of the region from the time of Columbus from the perspective of the subjugated people, is considered one of Galeano's best-known works. An English-language translation by Cedric Belfrage gained some popularity in the English-speaking world after Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez gave it as a gift to U.S. President Barack Obama in 2009. [23] [24]

Galeano was also an avid fan of football, writing most notably about it in Football in Sun and Shadow (El fútbol a sol y sombra). [4] In a retrospective for SB Nation after Galeano's death, football writer Andi Thomas described the work—a history of the sport, as well as an outlet for the author's own experiences with the sport and his political polemics—as "one of the greatest books about football ever written". [25]

Death

Galeano died on 13 April 2015 in Montevideo [26] [27] from lung cancer at the age of 74, survived by third wife Helena Villagra and three children. [28]

Awards and honors

See also

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References

Notes
  1. Parker, Graham (13 April 2015). "Eduardo Galeano: The beautiful game loses its man of letters". Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  2. "Writer Eduardo Galeano dies". buenosairesherald.com. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  3. 1 2 Bernstein, Adam (13 April 2015). "Eduardo Galeano, influential Uruguayan author, dies at 74". The Washington Post. ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  4. 1 2 "Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano dies at 74". Fox News Latino. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  5. 1 2 Martin 1992 , p. 148.
  6. Simon Romero, "Eduardo Galenao, Uruguayan Voice of Anti-Capitalism, Is Dead at 74," New York Times, 14 April 2015, A17.
  7. Wilson 1980 , p. 31.
  8. Romero, "Eduardo Galeano,"
  9. Fresh Off Worldwide Attention for Joining Obama’s Book Collection, Uruguayan Author Eduardo Galeano Returns with "Mirrors: Stories of Almost Everyone".
  10. Maybury-Lewis 1991 , p. 376.
  11. Eduardo Galeano, "Where the People Voted Against Fear" Archived 13 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine January 2005 The Progressive
  12. Alfonso Daniels, "'Chavez TV' beams into South America", The Guardian , 26 July 2005.
  13. Eduardo Galeano se recupera de operación El Universal, 11 February 2007 ‹See Tfd› (in Spanish)
  14. Interview with Amy Goodman on Democracy Now!, 5 November 2008 (video, audio, and print transcript)
  15. The Washington Times
  16. Audio and transcript of interview, May 2009
  17. Sounds and Colours
  18. The Open Veins of Eduardo Galeano, Monthly Review , 11.06.14
  19. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor, by Paul Farmer, University of California Press, ISBN   0-520-24326-9, p. 1.
  20. http://monthlyreview.org/press/books/pb9916/ Open Veins of Latin America
  21. De autores varios: Maryse Condé; Ariel Dorfman.
  22. "Search - List of Books by Eduardo Galeano". Paperback Swap. 13 April 2015.
  23. "Open Veins of Latin America". Monthly Review Press . Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  24. Clark, Andrew (19 April 2009). "Chávez creates overnight bestseller with book gift to Obama". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  25. Thomas, Andi (13 April 2015). "Looking back at Eduardo Galeano's masterpiece, 'Soccer in Sun and Shadow'". SB Nation. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  26. "Writer Eduardo Galeano dies". buenosairesherald.com. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  27. "Eduardo Galeano, Uruguayan Voice of Anti-Capitalism, is Dead at 74." New York Times, Tuesday, 14 April 2015, A17.
  28. Kraul, Chris (13 April 2015). "Eduardo Galeano, Latin American author and U.S. critic, dies at 74". latimes.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  29. "Past Honorees". Global Exchange. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  30. "Stig Dagermanpriset till Eduardo Galeano". sverigesradio.se (in Swedish). 12 September 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  31. "I år går Stig Dagermanpriset till författaren Eduardo Galeano". webfinanser.com (in Swedish). 18 August 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
Bibliography
Martin, Gerald (1992). "Hope Springs Eternal: Eduardo Galeano and the History of Latin America". History Workshop . 34: 148–158. JSTOR   4289188.
Maybury-Lewis, David (1991). "Book review: Shamanism, Colonialism, and the Wild Man: A Study in Terror and Healing by Michael Taussig". Contemporary Sociology . 20 (3): 375–377. JSTOR   2073683.
Wilson, S. R. (1980). "Eduardo Galeano: Exile and a Silenced Montevideo". Chasqui. 9 (2–3): 30–38. JSTOR   29739618.
External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg "'Voices of Time': Legendary Uruguayan Writer Eduardo Galeano on Immigration, Latin America, Iraq, Writing – and Soccer," Democracy Now! 19 May 2006.
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Uruguayan Author Eduardo Galeano Returns with Mirrors: Stories of Almost Everyone – video report by Democracy Now!
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Eduardo Galeano, Chronicler of Latin America’s "Open Veins," on His New Book "Children of the Days", Democracy Now, 8 May 2013.
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg "Reflections from Eduardo Galeano," The Leonard Lopate Show, 19 May 2006.